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Seismology Forum Meeting 2014:

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Presentation on theme: "Seismology Forum Meeting 2014:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Seismology Forum Meeting 2014:
Recent Advances and New Findings in Seismology An Electric Coupling Model for the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere System L. C. Lee Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica March 19, 2014

2 Ionosphere density variations
Lithosphere – atmosphere – ionosphere coupling Kuo, Huba, Joyce and Lee, JGR (2011, 2013) Ionosphere density variations Variations of fmF2 and TEC before Chi-Chi EQ EQ [Liu et al., 2001]


4 J ≃ 100 nA/m2

5 Current Dynamo from Stressed Rock

6 Model of DC electric field generation in the ionosphere by seismic related EMF (electro-motive force) in the lower atmosphere. 1. Earth surface, 2. Conductive layer of the ionosphere, 3. External electric current of EMF in the surface atmosphere, 4. Conductivity electric current in the atmosphere–ionosphere circuit, 5. DC electric field in the ionosphere, 6. Field-aligned electric current, and 7. Charged aerosols injected into the atmosphere by soil gases (Sorokin and Hayakawa, 2013).

7 Thunderstorm effect on the ionosphere
𝛟 ≃ 250kV Fair weather current J1 J2 JD 𝛟=𝟎

8 Conductivity profile [Tzur and Roble, 1985]

9 Lithosphere Dynamo

10 The E field, current density J and induced charge density 𝝆 𝒄 in the atmosphere
𝐉≡−𝛻Ψ= 𝛔 𝐄 𝐄=−𝛻ϕ 𝛻⋅𝐄= 𝝆 𝒄 / 𝝐 𝟎 𝛻⋅𝐉=𝛻⋅ 𝛔 ⋅𝐄 =−𝛻⋅ 𝛔 ⋅𝛻ϕ =𝟎 or 𝛻⋅𝐉=−𝛻2Ψ= 0 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

11 Current density and discharge rate

12 Induced charge density

13 For a scalar conductivity
J= σ 1 E 1 = σ 2 E 2 𝛻⋅𝐉=𝛻⋅ σ𝐄 =𝟎 𝛻σ⋅𝐄+σ𝛻⋅𝐄=𝟎 𝝆 𝒄 = 𝝐 𝟎 𝛻⋅𝐄=− 𝝐 𝟎 𝐄⋅ 𝛁𝝈 𝝈 σ 1 < σ 2 E2 E1 σ 2 σ 1 E 1 > E 2

14 Induced charge density

15 Electric coupling of lithosphere, atmosphere and ionosphere
Kuo, Huba, Joyce and Lee, (JGR, 2011)

16 Current density and flow in the atmosphere



19 NRL 3D ionosphere simulation code (SAMI3)
SAMI3 is a 3D low-latitude ionospheric model developed at the Naval Research Lab SAMI3 simulates the temporal and spatial evolution of seven ion species (H+,He+,N+,O+,N2+,NO2+,O2+) over the entire magnetic flux tube in both hemispheres The density and velocity equations are solved for all ion species. Ion temperature equation and electron temperature equations The altitude range is ±30° and the longitude range is 8° for our case The range of magnetic apex height is 85 to 2400 km

20 Modified potential equation in SAMI3
(1) (2) Use Dipolar Coordinates (dipole magnetic field lines)







27 Summary The magnitude of current density Jrock is the most important parameter to determine the TEC variations and nighttime bubble formation in the ionosphere. The current density Jrock = nA/m2 in the earthquake fault zone can cause TEC variations of up to 2 – 20 % in daytime ionosphere. A current density Jrock = nA/m2 can lead to nighttime TEC variations of % as well as the formation of nighttime plasma bubble (equatorial spread F) extending over the whole magnetic flux tube containing the earthquake epicenter. Daytime and nighttime TEC variations and nighttime plasma bubbles within the affected region can be used as precursors for earthquake prediction.

28 Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica
Thank You 中央研究院 地球科學所 Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica Taipei, Taiwan

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