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1 Adaptive Data Analysis and Processing Technology (ADAPT)

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1 1 Adaptive Data Analysis and Processing Technology (ADAPT)

2 2 Reconfigurable Computers for Spacecraft Use Adapt to changing mission requirements after launch Reduce spacecraft resources for onboard storage and downlink from high data bandwidth instruments by reducing data rates from the instruments Hardware fabrication before algorithms are completed Update or correct algorithms after launch Reduce engineering set up times for science observatoriesReduced setup times FPGAs offer high performance and processing power Physical design remains the same; easily tailor control and data interfaces Minimizes instrument and system development time Mitigates hardware and software errors in flight Multiple configurations can be stored for rapid adaptations

3 3 AIM 1st Demonstration – Reconfigurable Computing in Space FedSat-1 – 50 kg microsatellite, LEO ~1000 km altitude Adaptive Instrument Module (AIM) - Precursor to ADAPT –Includes an 80C196 processor and a Xilinx XQR4062 FPGA that performs reconfigurable processing –890 grams, dissipates < 2 W –Launched December 14, 2002 on Australian FEDSAT –AIM partners - APL, Queensland University of Technology, Goddard Spaceflight Center, and Langley Research Center

4 4 Challenge Challenges for effective use in spacecraft:  Configuration Memory Upsets: SRAM-based FPGAs are susceptible to radiation-induced upsets in configuration memory. The frequency of these upsets must be investigated, and techniques developed to detect and correct them.  Management of Multiple Configurations: Spacecraft have limited onboard resources and limited communications to ground stations. Techniques for managing the configuration data for FPGAs onboard a spacecraft will be very different than ground applications. These techniques need to be investigated, developed and analysed.  Prototype Demonstration: A prototype AIM needs to be flown as a standalone experiment on a space mission to validate the initial design decisions made and evaluate improvements in satellite performance.

5 5 Requirements Implement a low cost, radiation hardened, reconfigurable processor for Fedsat-1 and other spacecraft Use Xilinx XQR4062 FPGA as the heart of the reconfigurable processor Store and manage multiple Xilinx FPGA configurations Able to upload additional configurations Detect, correct, and log single event upset induced configuration errors autonomously in the Xilinx FPGA Run standalone reconfigurable computing experiments Process instrument data with reconfigurable hardware Interface to spacecraft command and data handling system Generate voltages from spacecraft +28V bus

6 6 Design The AIM consists of the following components: –A 62,000 gate SRAM-based FPGA ( Xilinx XQR-4062XL) –A 16-bit microcontroller ( UTMC UT80C196KD) –512 kbytes of EEPROM to hold microcontroller boot and application code –8 Mbytes of non-volatile Flash to hold configurations for the Xilinx –1 Mbyte of SRAM for microcontroller program and data –0.5 Mbytes of SRAM for Xilinx data processing memory –An RS422 serial port for communication with the satellite command & data handling system –An uncommitted communications port connected directly to the Xilinx, to be configured on a mission-by-mission basis. –Power converter circuitry to provide 3.3V and 5V from 28V –Voltage and Temperature status lines

7 7 AIM Flight Module Area Study 175 mm (6.83 in) Flight Unit Characteristics Weight: estimated 1 kg Size: 16 cm x 17.5 cm x 3.0 cm Power: 2.5W (from +28V) Parts selected for radiation tolerance and availability: –Xilinx XQR4062XL - 62,000 gate SRAM-based FPGA –UTMC UT80C196KD 16-bit microcontroller –SEI 28C010TRPFB-15 512Kx8 EEPROM –SEI 29F0408RP 4Mx8 Flash –Austin/Motorola 5C512K8F 512Kx8 SRAM –Actel A1280A fuse link FPGA 145 mm (5.65 in)

8 8 AIM Flight Unit Test

9 9 ADAPT Objectives Develop a prototype reconfigurable processor utilizing state-of-the-art Field Programmable Gate Array technology Develop algorithms that meet the requirements for two Earth Science Enterprise mission scenarios –Microwave Radiometers –Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) Design, fabricate, and test a flight-grade reconfigurable processor Demonstrate algorithms using flight-grade reconfigurable processor

10 10 ADAPT Hardware Design - commercial standards Xilinx Virtex II FPGA (XC2V1000) –Equivalent of 1 million gates and 720k bits of RAM –40 Dedicated 18x18 Multipliers (300 MHz) –A wide range of IP cores are available: DSP functions Processors Math functions New designs can be implemented with a wide range of development tools

11 11 ADAPT - Hardware Definition ADAPT stores multiple FPGA configurations in flash memory. Instrument processing algorithms can be changed in real time. –F use-programmed Actel FPGA implements the system interface –Host processor chooses configurations for the Xilinx Virtex II FPGA. Operation: –Host selects configuration –Second Actel FPGA reads back and verifies configuration of Xilinx FPGA –Automatically corrects the configuration and notifies the host processor when it detects discrepancies. Xilinx FPGA connects to external SRAM memory to store intermediate results, coefficients, and variables Voltage regulators supply the low-voltage Backplane supplies standard +3.3 and +5V power Xilinx clock may derive from: –on-board oscillator –the PCI bus clock –or from the I/O connector Xilinx FPGA on-chip temperature sensor routes to I/O connector. Instrument data flow through: –PCI bus – I/O connector

12 12 ADAPT Board Block Diagram Front Panel I/O Connector (Instrument Data) Xilinx Virtex II FPGA (XC2V1000) SRAM Oscillator Voltage Regulators PCI Bus Power J2 I/O Connector on back-plane (Instrument Data) Actel Host interface Actel Supervisor (Configuration/ Readback) Flash Memory PCI Bus (Host Processor Communications)

13 13 Xilinx Virtex-II Million-gate FPGA Supervisor FPGA (Actel A54SX32) performs continuous Xilinx configuration checking Host FPGA (Actel A54SX32) implements 32-bit CompactPCI interface Instrument Interface, 192-pin connector 128Kx32 SRAM CompactPCI J1 Connector for Host interface CompactPCI J2 Connector provides additional I/O capability FLASH Memory Holds multiple Xilinx FPGA configurations ADAPT Breadboard

14 14 ADAPT Configuration Manager Implemented in Actel 54SX32 radiation hardened FPGA –Hardware Triple-Voted S-Modules Runs at 50MHz VHDL Design –modeled after C program which was initially used to verify the config/readback scheme

15 15 ADAPT Configuration Manager Flash Memory Interface Xilinx SelectMap Interface State Machine Data to PCI Actel Commands from PCI Actel

16 16 ADAPT Configuration Manager Modes START(IDLE) Xilinx configuration UPLOAD On Command Through PCI Host Actel Configuration occurs frame by frame As opposed to normal Xilinx Upload This allows data structure stored in Memory to be the same for readback / SEU correction. Xilinx Continuous Frame-wise readback During frame-by-frame readback, Contents of each frame are compared With contents of rad-hard Flash. (Mask and config bits are interleaved) If all goes well error

17 17 ADAPT Configuration Manager Modes Put Xilinx back into write mode Write Corrected Frame, Pad Pipeline Switch Xilinx back to read Mode Xilinx Active Partial Reconfiguration is used, new configuration frame is uploaded while the device is operating. Xilinx experiences no operation interruption Signal PCI Host Interface which makes IRQ Manager continues reading where it left off before encountering SEU Times : Programming : 100 ms Roundtrip Readback : 200 ms

18 18 ADAPT Host Interface FPGA Implemented in Actel 54SX32 Uses Actel IP : PCI Core v 5.2.1 –APL is targetting this core for other space missions –some corrections incorporated bug fixes workarounds for Actel timing hazards as they are discovered. 33 MHz, 32-bit PCI Target Only

19 19 ADAPT Host Interface FPGA Flash Control / Data Write - Fifo PCI Interface To 3V Compact PCI Backplane Config Manager Control / Status Read - Fifo To Xilinx From Xilinx under development To Config Manager Interrupt (currently Associated with SEU Detection)

20 20 ADAPT Usage Flow + Software Design Xilinx using ISE Foundation Toolset –Use Rad-tolerant techniques to protect RAM and flipflops Use ADAPT compiler and linker to generate files suitable for residing in flash memory Use ADAPT flash-software to program flash from flashfile. Send command through PCI interface to start (configure) Xilinx with a particular config from flash. –If option is enabled, SEU mitigation will proceed immediately upon successful configuration –Status of configuration / readback process can be read through software driver.

21 21 Upcoming Test / Refinements Testing of Host Interface FIFOs to allow Xilinx to send data via PCI if desired Make slight modification to Compiler / Linker to store multiple configurations in Flash Packaging Software into a more user-friendly installation package Simulation of SEU in Xilinx FPGA Environmental tests Radiation tests

22 22 Example of ADAPT Instrument ADAPT will implement real time data reduction, compression, and feature extraction algorithms. Minimizes spacecraft resources –onboard data storage –downlink bandwidth Generic design can be used for different instruments ADAPT Spacecraft C&DH Interface Instrument Sensor Spacecraft Power Instrument Processor Front End Electronics Spacecraft Interface 3U Compact PCI Backplane DC/DC Converters

23 23 Microwave Radiometer Digital I & Q Z-1Z-1 Z-1Z-1 Z-1Z-1 Z-1Z-1 Z-1Z-1 1/64 -5/64 20/64 -5/64 1/64 Σ Z-1Z-1 Z-1Z-1 Z-1Z-1 -32/64 1,-1,1,-1,… -1,1,-1,1,… Demultiplexer Digitized Radiometer Signal (6-bit data) QXQX IXIX 64 MHz data rate 32 MHz data rate

24 24 Microwave Radiometer Digital Correlator Ch 2, 6-bit data Digital I & Q MAC I 1 xI 1 I 1 xQ 2 Q 1 xQ 1 Q 1 xI 2 I 2 xI 2 I 2 xI 1 Q 2 xQ 2 Q 2 xQ 1 (0.1 sec Integration Period) MAC I 1 xI 1 I 1 xQ 2 Q 1 xQ 1 Q 1 xI 2 I 2 xI 2 I 2 xI 1 Q 2 xQ 2 Q 2 xQ 1 (0.1 sec Integration Period) Ch 1, 6-bit data I1I1 Q1Q1 I2I2 Q2Q2 Parallel-to- Serial Converter/ Multiplexer Serial Output ADAPT BOARD

25 25 LVDS Receiver Box Radiometer Interface Box ADAPT Hardware Microwave Radiometer Interface Hardware

26 26 FTS Motion Control Application VHDL-coded 16-bit Motion Controller for Fourier Transform Spectrometers

27 27 FTS System Motion Control GSE & Data Collection ADC 18-bits Laser Detector IR Detector Velocity  Spectral Resolution (~0.25 cm -1 )

28 28 Control Configuration CNT in PID (COMPENSATOR) HW Decode - +  Electronics VHDL CNT fbk Motion Control

29 29  & Compensator CLAMP TCtoMO (-) PID DAC CNT in CNT fbk TcTc 20 21204016 Latch

30 30 Electronics D2 1N4742 12

31 31 Resource Utilization for Xilinx Virtex-II Million Gate Device Number of Slices: 324 out of 5,120 – 6% Number of Flip Flops: 182 out of 10,240 – 1% Number of LUTs: 592 out of 10,240 – 5% RMS Velocity Error

32 32 Use of ADAPT Technology in IIP 3U CompactPCI Chassis Real-Time Display/ User Interface Computer Real-Time Display/ User Interface Computer 1.26 GHz PXI Embedded Controller Ethernet Interface Solid State Disk (OS, Program files, etc.) IDE Interface CompactPCI Bus 4-Axis Controller LRE Etalon Control Electronics LRE Etalon PZT Control Capacitive Sensor Feedback 4-Axis Controller HRE Etalon Control Electronics HRE Etalon PZT Control Capacitive Sensor Feedback Stepper Motor for Scene Selection Mirror Pixel Binning and Frame Averaging Electronics Pixel Binning and Frame Averaging Electronics Readout Integrated Circuit FPA Analog Inputs (Housekeeping Parameters) Analog Interface Electronics 16-Channel A/D 73 GB Rugged Removable Hard Drive SCSI Interface GPS Interface Yellow = Performed by ADAPT hardware Green = Could be performed with ADAPT hardware

33 33 Accomplishments Developed a simplified technique for partial-reconfiguration (SEU correction) Efficient format for storing configuration/readback data in flash memory developed (3 x reduction in memory over standard bitstream format) Convert Xilinx bitstream files to ADAPT formatFabricated ADAPT board Completed design/assembly/test of test-adapter board that allows software driven testing of Xilinx configuration interface Demonstrated configuration / active readback / partial active reconfiguration (correction) Host Actel designed and tested Developed Host Software: –Linux Device Driver –Bitfile Compiler / linker –Flash erase / program / verify –Configuration Loader Demonstrated upload,readback, partial reconfiguration under Actel control

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