Presentation on theme: "DreherFolie 1 Conflict resolution in sociomoral discussions in Kindergarden Janna Dreher (MA. Cand. Early childhood Studies) University of Education Weingarten."— Presentation transcript:
DreherFolie 1 Conflict resolution in sociomoral discussions in Kindergarden Janna Dreher (MA. Cand. Early childhood Studies) University of Education Weingarten Germany
DreherFolie 2 Research group „Sociomoral development in early education” Marcia Schillinger, Janna Dreher, Sandra Fritz, Natalie Geist,Sophia Wilhelm & Janine Bangert
DreherFolie 3 Moral children? DeVries & Zan (2012) We do not mean: Children who simply follow rules /blind obedience. We mean: Children who construct their own reasons to follow moral rules.
DreherFolie 4 Moral development research Moral development does not simply unfold as a result of maturational processes alone. Favorable learning environment (role-taking and guided reflection opportunities) foster moral competence. KMDD sociomoral (dilemma) discussions foster moral competence „ A person´s level of enacted interpersonal understanding depends more on experience than on age“ (DeVries & Zan, 2012. S.37). Constructivistic approach explores the benefits of sociomoral practices in early education Lind (2009); Schillinger (2013, 2006); Lupu (2007); Saedi (2009)
DreherFolie 5 Social and moral discussions in early childhood Moral competence development Promote children´s reflections about social/moral issues. Contribute to the development of perspective taking (Selman) and moral reasoning (Kohlberg, Lind). Help to recognize that there are conflicting points of view. Help children generate/ evaluate possible solutions to moral issues „What would be fair to everyone involved?“
DreherFolie 6 Sociomoral development in early childhood The role of conflict in moral competence development Decentering from a single perspective to take into account other perspectives. Confrontation with desires/ ideas of others Higher levels of interpersonal understanding. Perspective taking (Selman, 1980).
Question How do children deal with dilemma situations and which suggestions for conflict resolution do they present? DreherFolie 7
DeVries & Zan (2012) How to conduct sociomoral discussions? Principles of teaching: 1.Choose an issue about which you can reasonably expect to find a difference of opinion 2.Read, tell or act out dilemma stories many times 3.Help children to recognize all points of view 4.Ask open-ended questions 5.Help children clarify their reasoning 6.Accept all opinions and positions DreherFolie 8
DreherFolie 9 Study 2 Institutions (Kindergarten) in the Baden Württemberg area, Germany Participants: 15 children, 5- 6 years old (pre-schoolers). Discussions in groups from 5-9 children The discussion were videotaped and transliterated Two illustrated dilemma story books (Goolsby & DeVries, 1994; 2012). 1-2 Sessions per story. Method: Read + tell (children) + discussion.
Structure of the discussion Read Tell (children) Discussion How do the children in the story feel? How does Christopher feel? How would you feel if you were Christopher,… How would you feel if you were in this situation? What shall the children do? What do you think about this conflict resolution? DreherFolie 10
Structure of the discussion Have you ever been in such a situation? What can you do to avoid such a situation? DreherFolie 11
DreherFolie 12 „When a friend refuses to share“ „When a friend refuses to share“. Goolsby & DeVries, 1994; German Version: Lind & Knoop, 2012
„When a friend eats more than her share“ DreherFolie 13 When a friend eats more than her share“. Goolsby & DeVries, 1994; German Version: Lind & Knoop, 2012
Category system Qualitative content analysis of children`s contributions was performed according to Mayring (2010) A Category system, which based on the theory of development of moral competence and perspective-taking was constructed DreherFolie 15
Theory Piaget: cognitive – structural approach Heteronomous morality (morality of constraint) Autonomous morality (morality of cooperation) Kohlberg: cognitive moral development theory Stage 1: Orientation toward punishment and obedience Stage 2: Hedonistic, instrumental-relativistic orientation Stage 3: Good-boy-nice-girl orientation Stage 4: Law-and-order orientation Stage 5: Orientation toward legalistic social contracts Stage 6: Orientation toward universal ethical principles DreherFolie 16
Theory Selman: Perspective-taking Stage 0:no difference between the social perspectives of self and others Stage 1:another person’s subjective thoughts, feelings, and intentions are distinct from the self‘s Stage 2:awareness and reflection of different perspectives Stage 3:self and other can view self’s and other’s psychological points of view mutually and simultaneously Stage 4:a general integrated social viewpoint DreherFolie 17
Analysis of the sociomoral discussions with 5-6 year-old-children Results are presented in following categories: 1.Stages of moral development 2.Tit for tat 3.Stages of perspective-taking 4.The role of friendship 5.Understanding intention 6.More impressions DreherFolie 18
Results Most of the suggestions for conflict resolution were 2.stage level (Kohlberg) and 1. stage level (Selman) Most of them matched the deductiv categories But also new ones inductive categories DreherFolie 19
Stages of moral development Kind L1.: They can take a few from the fence //mhm// a few building blocks and take them for building the high rise and then you make a bit of space and the high rise comes in there Kind L1.: No. I would say it like this. I had given him almost all parts of the fence. The half of them I would have given him. DreherFolie 20
Tit for tat Kind E1.: But otherwise the children will attack him Person 1: The children will attack him, if he would steal the building blocks? Kind E1.: Yes, maybe Person 1: That could be Kind K.: He can, they could take away the building block from him Person 1: Or so Kind R.: Yes, but Christopher can hit them DreherFolie 21
Stages of perspective-taking Kind J2.: The children do not want to destroy the zoo, but Christopher wants to build a high rise Kind B.: Ähhm, they could, if the zoo, they could finish the zoo and could all play together with the zoo after they had finished the zoo Kind B.: So I would have taken a few building blocks from the fence and I would have a solution as the fence could still remain Kind J1.: the others, they could have come to the other children and then they could haven taken a look and the children could play for a while and then they disintegrate the zoo and could give the building blocks to Christopher DreherFolie 22
The role of friendship Kind J2.: the three are friends Person 1: Do you think that the other are friends? Kind J2.: Yes Person 1: and Christopher? Is he also a friend? Kind J2.: I don‘t know Kind S1: No Person 1: You don‘t think so Kind S1? Kind N.: I don‘t think so too Person 1: You don‘t think it too, Kind N. Do you think otherwise they would let him play? Several children: Yes Person 1: and would give him building blocks? mehrere Kinder: Yes DreherFolie 23
Understanding intention Person 1: Does he want to take her with him? Kind S1: No Kind J.: Because she has eaten the cookies DreherFolie 24
Avoiding conflicts/harmony Kind S1: Stop fighting! Kind H: They just play together Kind E2: No, if they say sorry DreherFolie 25
More impressions Kind J2.: No, saying please! Person 1: That Christopher say please? Kind S1: please can I have some building blocks Kind E2: steal cookies! Kind B.: I would just give him some building block and if he needs more I will give him all and I will looking for something new to play Kind S1: ähh he has to look around, to check that she can‘t eat the cookie Violence: „ Saying shit“ „Yes, but Christopher can hit them DreherFolie 26
DreherFolie 27 Outlook Further methodological development (specific for early education) Teachers interventions Case by case analysis/ individual case analysis to see the development of the child during the intervention Group dynamic research Development of a instruments to assess moral competence of kindergarden children Evaluation of interventions
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