Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Studies of the User-Scheduler Relationship Cynthia Bailey Lee Advisor: Allan E. Snavely Department of Computer Science and Engineering San Diego Supercomputer.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Studies of the User-Scheduler Relationship Cynthia Bailey Lee Advisor: Allan E. Snavely Department of Computer Science and Engineering San Diego Supercomputer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Studies of the User-Scheduler Relationship Cynthia Bailey Lee Advisor: Allan E. Snavely Department of Computer Science and Engineering San Diego Supercomputer Center University of California, San Diego May 19, 2008

2 Introduction  The job submission routine:  Edit job script, including resources needed and amount of time requested  Submit job—typically, many questions remain:  Did I request enough time?  How long will the job wait in the queue?  Eventually, job runs—more questions:  I submitted to a ‘high-priority’ queue—was my wait time actually shorter than if I hadn’t?  By how much?  Was it worth it?  Is this a satisfying relationship for either party? Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

3 Falsified “The Padding Hypothesis” as the sole explanation for users’ inaccurate runtime requests Quantified users’ valuation of turnaround by collecting actual users’ utility curves Proposed a model for synthetically generating utility functions that draws on patterns seen in the actual user curves A genetic algorithm-based scheduler that uses aggregate utility as an explicit objective function Contributions of This Work Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

4 “The Padding Hypothesis” The inaccuracy of users’ requested runtimes, relative to the actual runtime of jobs, is explained by users explicitly “padding” otherwise accurate runtime estimates in order to avoid the possibility of being killed by the scheduler. Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

5 Padding Hypothesis Lessons Learned: Users can’t provide information most schedulers ask for, but… Maybe they can (and would want to) provide useful information schedulers currently don’t ask for Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler SDSC users were asked to provide a “no-kill”/no-pressure estimate, with prizes for being accurate Users are able to self-identify as more or less accurate % Decrease 72 Padding Hypothesis

6 What is a Utility Function? 8 am 12–1pm 5 pm 8 am 9 am time u(t)‏ Other factors: coordinate with other grid sites or sensors, paper deadlines, weather and hurricane prediction, … Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

7 Real Users' Functions Randomly-selected users of SDSC systems provided these data points for jobs they were submitting Utility is in terms of the SDSC charge unit (“SU”)‏ Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

8 More Real Users' Functions Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

9 Existing Model [Used by e.g. Chun and Culler 2002, and Irwin, Grit, Chase 2004] Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

10 Proposed Model To use Aggregate Utility, utility functions needed for all jobs Propose to store function as series of (time, value) pairs appending each line of Standard Workload Format, allowing arbitrarily-shaped functions Absent real data collected from users for each job, we need a model for synthetic generation... Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

11 Modeling Three Distinct Decay Patterns Expected Linear Expected Exponential Step “Expected” refers to the fact that each point is chosen randomly (i.e. Most won't follow the pattern as cleanly as shown here)‏ Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

12 Start Values and Deadlines  User-provided priority (queue) from the log controls the starting (maximum) job value  Distribution of actual wait times from the log controls the deadline (when the value goes to zero)‏ Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

13 Metric: Aggregate Utility –Reflects administrator's priorities allocation of funds (“SUs”/Monopoly money) to users at the beginning of the fiscal [year/quarter/month/etc] –Reflects users' personal input how they choose to spend their funds –Enables more comprehensive evaluation and comparison of all job scheduling algorithms Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

14 Parallel Job Scheduling Explicitly by Utility Function Finding the best solution is NP-hard   “Tennis Court Scheduling” (human-powered)‏  Still practiced occasionally at most centers (officially and not) -- a phone call to sys admins gets a job a reservation or to the front of the queue  Custom Heuristics  Sort by current value, or a combination of start value and slope [Chun and Culler 2002; Irwin, Grit, Chase 2004] Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

15 Genetic Algorithm Scheduler Individuals: –permutations of the job queue ordering Mutation: –swap two randomly-selected jobs Reproduction: –zipper-like merging of parents (skip duplicates)‏ Fitness: global utility of resulting schedule (approx.)‏ J1J1 J2J2 J3J3 J4J4 J5J5 J1J1 J2J2 J3J3 J4J4 J5J5 J1J1 J2J2 J3J3 J4J4 J5J5 += J1J1 J1J1 J2J2 J2J2 J3J3 J1J1 J2J2 J3J3 J4J4 J5J5 Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

16 Results Schedulers compared: CONS = Conservative Backfilling EASY = Aggressive Backfilling PRIO = Priority FIFO (typical supercomputer priority scheduler)‏ GA = genetic algorithm Workload is SDSC-BLUE from the Parallel Workloads Archive (Dror Feitelson)‏ Load modified by scaling inter- arrival times Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

17 Accurate and Inaccurate Runtimes Normal Load‏ Heavy Load Many, many more results in the paper... Introduction Runtime Inaccuracy Utility Functions Utility Model Scheduler

18 Current & Future Work Eliciting the Utility Function –What would this look like in a production environment –Interview users to better see how they think about the utility function Quantifying the benefit –What is the additional benefit of providing additional utility function data points? –Who benefits? Everyone? Do users who provide more data points than their peers benefit individually? Current & Future Work

19 For more information… Inaccurate runtime requests survey: Lee, C., Y. Schwartzman, J. Hardy, A. Snavely. “Are user runtime estimates inherently inaccurate?” Workshop on Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing, with SIGMETRICS, June Survey collecting SDSC users' utility curves: Lee, C. and A. Snavely. "On the User-Scheduler Dialogue: Studies of User-Provided Runtime Estimates and Utility Functions." International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, vol. 20, Genetic algorithm scheduler and model for generating synthetic utility curves: Lee, C. and A. Snavely. “Precise and Realistic Utility Functions for User-Centric Performance Analysis of Schedulers.” HPDC-16, June Contact: Cynthia Lee,


Download ppt "Studies of the User-Scheduler Relationship Cynthia Bailey Lee Advisor: Allan E. Snavely Department of Computer Science and Engineering San Diego Supercomputer."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google