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Supporting top-k join queries in relational databases Ihab F. Ilyas, Walid G. Aref, Ahmed K. Elmagarmid Presented by Rebecca M. Atchley Thursday, April 19, 2007

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2 Examples to Consider single criterion ranking Example 1 – Video DB System storing video features multi-criteria ranking (or top-k join query) Example 2 – Same Video DB System - Get top 10 frames most similar to query image based on color AND texture combined. Example 3 - a user interested in finding top 5 locations where combined cost of buying a house (in Houses DB) and paying school tuition (in Schools DB) in that location is minimum.

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3 Motivation Sort-merge joins (MGJN) only preserves order of joined column data Nested-loop joins (NLJN) only orders on the outer relations are preserved through the join Hash join (HSJN) doesn’t preserve order if hash tables do not fit in memory

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4 Example Ranking Query Q1 SELECT A.1, B.2 FROM A, B, C WHERE A.1 = B.1 and B.2 = C.2 ORDER BY (0.3*A.1 + 0.7*B.2) STOP AFTER 5 Problems???

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5 What Is Needed 1)Perform basic join operation 2)Conform with current query operator interface So it can be integrated into query execution plans 3)Utilize the orderings of its inputs Avoid the unnecessary sorting of the join results 4)Produce 1 st ranked join results ASAP 5)Adapt to input fluctuations Major characteristic in applications that depend on ranking

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6 Paper’s Contributions Proposes a new Rank-Join algorithm satisfying this criteria along with its correctness proof Analyzes the I/O cost of the algorithm along with proof of its optimality Implements the proposed algorithm in pipelined rank-join operators (based on ripple join) Integrate into QEPs as ordinary join operations Retain orders of inputs – avoid sort of join results Produce top-k results incrementally Proposes an optimal join strategy score-guidedand adaptive Provides optimization mechanism to determine best order to perform the rank-join operations Evaluates performance and compares other approaches

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7 Related Work Fagin et al. introduced the 1 st set of algorithms to answer ranking queries The TA Algorithm The NRA Algorithm The J* Algorithm The NRA-RJ Algorithm Importance-based join processing

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8 Overview of the Ripple Join JOIN : L.A = R.A L and R are descending, ordered by B We get a tuple from L and a tuple from R (L1(1,1,5) R1(1,3,5)) No valid join result L R

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9 3. Ripple Join --contd JOIN: L.A = R.A We get a second tuple from L and a second tuple from R and join with prior tuples, creating all possible combinations (L2,R2) {(2,2,4),(2,1,4)} L R

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10 Ripple Join --contd JOIN: L.A = R.A (L2,R2) {(2,2,4),(2,1,4)} (L2,R1) {2,2,4), (1,3,5)} (L1,R2) {(1,1,5), (2,1,4)} is a valid join result! L R

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11 Variations of the Ripple Join Rectangle – obtain tuples from one source at a higher rate than from the other source Block – obtain data b tuples at a time, for classic ripple join b = 1 Hash –in memory, maintain hash tables of the samples obtained so far Faster IO Degrades to block ripple join when hash tables exceed memory size

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12 The Rank-Join Algorithm:

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13 A Rank-Join Algorithm Example Select * From L, R Where L.A = R.A Order By L.B + R.B Stop After 2 Initial Input (1). Get a valid join combination using some join strategy Ripple Select (L1, R1) => No Valid Join Result Next input (1). Get a valid join combination using some join strategy Ripple Select (L2, R2) (L2, R2), (L2, R1), (L1, R2) => (L1, R2) is a valid join result

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14 Select * From L, R Where L.A = R.A Order By L.B + R.B Stop After 2 (2). Compute the score (J) for the result J1(L1, R2) => L.B + R.B = 5 + 4 = 9 (3). Compute a threshold score T = Max ( Last L.B + First R.B, First L.B + Last R.B ) For Ripple Selection (L2, R2) => T = Max ( L2.B + R1.B, L1.B + R2.B ) = Max (4+5, 5+4) = 9 Example Continued (1)

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15 Example Continued (4) J1 = 9 T = 9 (4). J1 >= T, so report J1 in top-k results (i.e. add it to list L k ) Since we need top 2 (k=2), continue until k=2 and Min(J1, J2, …Jk) > T Select * From L, R Where L.A = R.A Order By L.B + R.B Stop After 2

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16 Example Continued (5) Next input 1). Get a valid join combination using some join strategy Ripple Select (L3, R3) (L3, R3), (L3, R1), (L3, R2), (L1, R3), (L2, R3) => (L3, R3), (L2, R3) are valid join results (2). Compute the scores (J) for the results J2(L2, R3) = 4 + 3 = 7J3(L3, R3) = 3 + 3= 6 Select * From L, R Where L.A = R.A Order By L.B + R.B Stop After 2

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17 Example Continued (6) (3). Calculate a NEW threshold T T = Max ( Last L.B + First R.B, First L.B + Last R.B ) = Max ( L3.B + R1.B, L1.B + R3.B ) = Max(3 + 5, 5 + 3) = 8 Select * From L, R Where L.A = R.A Order By L.B + R.B Stop After 2

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18 Example Continued (7) T = 8 J1(L1,R2) = 9 reported J2( L2, R3) = 7 J3(L3, R3) = 6 Note, J’s are in descending order (4). Min (J) = 6 < T so continue Comment: Calculate T before J is more efficient. Can stop after find first Jk >= T Select * From L, R Where L.A = R.A Order By L.B + R.B Stop After 2

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19 Example Continued (8) Next input (1). Get a valid join combination using some join strategy Ripple Select ( L4, R4) => (L4, R1), (L2, R4), (L3, R4) (2). Compute the scores (J) for the results J(L4, R4) = 7, J(L2, R4) = 6, J(L3, R4) = 5 (3). Calculate a NEW threshold T T = Max( L4.B+R1.B, L1.B + R4.B ) = Max( 7, 7 ) = 7 Select * From L, R Where L.A = R.A Order By L.B + R.B Stop After 2

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20 Example Continued (9) T= 7 J1(L1,R2) = 9, J2(L2, R3) = 7, J3(L4, R1) = 7, J3(L3, R3) = 6, J4(L2, R4) = 6, J5(L3, R4) = 5 (4). Min(J1, J2) = 7 >= T (k = 2), so report J2 and STOP Comment: When reach all records, T does not need to be calculated, unless, calculate T first, and compare each J(i) with T immediately Select * From L, R Where L.A = R.A Order By L.B + R.B Stop After 2

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21 Example With Different Strategy Select * From L, R Where L.A = R.A Order By L.B + R.B Stop After 2 Instead of Select Ripple, Select Rectangle Ripple… Obtain all tuples in L and only 1st tuple in R Initial Input (1). Get a valid join combination using some join strategy Rectangle Ripple (L1 to L4, R1) => (L4, R1) is a valid join result (2). Compute the score (J) for the result J1(L4, R1) = 2 + 5 = 7 (3). Calculate a NEW threshold T T = Max( L4.B+R1.B, L1.B + R1.B ) = Max( 7, 10 ) = 10

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22 Example With Different Strategy Continued (2) Select * From L, R Where L.A = R.A Order By L.B + R.B Stop After 2 (4). Min(J1, J2) = 7 < T = 10 (k = 2), so just continue Next Input (1). Get a valid join combination using some join strategy Rectangle Ripple (L1 to L4, R2) => (L1, R2) is a new valid join result (2). Compute the score (J) for the result J2(L1, R2) = 9 (3). Calculate a NEW threshold T T = Max( L1.B+R1.B, L1.B + R2.B ) = Max( 10, 9 ) = 10

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23 Example With Different Strategy Continued (3) Select * From L, R Where L.A = R.A Order By L.B + R.B Stop After 2 (4). Min(J1, J2) = 9 < T = 10 (k = 2), so continue J2 cannot be reported because of threshold = 10, but this was the top-ranked join result in prior strategy… This suggests using join strategies that reduce the threshold value as quickly as possible to be able to report top-ranked join results early on.

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24 New Physical rank-join Operators Hash rank join operator (HRJN) - Use Hash Ripple Join - Two hash table contain the two inputs - A queue holds ordered join results - L top, R top, L bottom, R bottom are used to calculate T

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25 Open operation of HRJN

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26 GetNext operation of HRJN

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27 HRJN Implementation Issues 1)Buffer problem 2)Local Ranking Problem L1 L2 OP2 OP1 L3

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28 Solving the Issues Use Block Ripple Join to Solve Local Ranking Problem –- Set p = 2

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29 HRJN* join strategy HRJN* is score-guided - How to select next (block) tuple T1 = L top + R bottom, T2 = L bottom + R top T = Max(T1, T2) If T1 > T2, need to reduce T1. How? HRJN* uses XJoin to determine input availability and use that as a guide

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30 HRJN* join strategy HRJN* is score-guided - How to select next (block) tuple T1 = L top + R bottom, T2 = L bottom + R top T = Max(T1, T2) If T1 > T2, need to reduce T1. How? Reduce R bottom and not reduce L bottom (descending ordered), thus more tuples should be retrieved from R to reduce T1 HRJN* uses XJoin to determine input availability and use that as a guide

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31 Effect of Join Order When more than two tables join, the join order matters. (A and C have high similarity)

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32 Determining Join Order Rank-Join order heuristic - Get a ranked sample of size S from L and R - Calculate the similarity using footrule distance Where L(i) and R(j) are the ranks of object i in L and object j in R and i,j is a valid join result

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33 The Rank-Join Order Algorithm

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34 Similarity-Based Join Ordering

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35 7. Generalizing the rank-join Using indexes 1)an index on only one of the two inputs 2)an index on each of the two inputs. Eliminate duplications Faster termination

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36 Performance Evaluation

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37 Selectivity = 0.2 and m= 4

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38 Selectivity = 0.2 and m= 4

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39 Selectivity = 0.2 and m= 4

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40 m = 4 and k = 50

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41 m = 4 and k = 50

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42 m = 4 and k = 50

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43 selectivity = 0.2% and k = 50

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44 selectivity = 0.2% and k = 50

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45 selectivity = 0.2% and k = 50

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46

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47 Conclusions New join-rank algorithm (independent of join strategy) is correct and optimal Physical query operator HRJN (Hash Rank Join) is based on ripple join implements algorithm Score-guided join strategy applied to HRJN is the HRJN* operator and integrates into QEPs Efficient rank-order join heuristic chooses near-optimal join order General rank-join algorithm uses indexes for faster termination of ranking Experimental evaluation shows significant performance enhancement

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48 References Ihab F. Ilyas, Walid G. Aref, Ahmed K. Elmagarmid: “Supporting top-k join queries in relational databases”. VLDB J. 13(3): 207-221 (2004) Jing Chen: CSE 6392 - Spring 2005, University of Texas at Arlington, PowerPoint slide presentation of “Supporting top-k join queries in relational databases”, http://ranger.uta.edu/~gdas/Courses/Spring2005/DBIR/slides/top- k_join.ppt. http://ranger.uta.edu/~gdas/Courses/Spring2005/DBIR/slides/top- k_join.ppt

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