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1 AP BIOLOGY REVIEW 2. 2 3 4 Which of the following is TRUE of synaptic signaling and hormonal signaling? a. Hormonal signaling occurs in animals only.

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Presentation on theme: "1 AP BIOLOGY REVIEW 2. 2 3 4 Which of the following is TRUE of synaptic signaling and hormonal signaling? a. Hormonal signaling occurs in animals only."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 AP BIOLOGY REVIEW 2

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4 4 Which of the following is TRUE of synaptic signaling and hormonal signaling? a. Hormonal signaling occurs in animals only. b. Hormonal signaling is important between cells that are at greater distances apart than in synaptic signaling. c. Both use neurotransmitters, but hormone signaling is for adjacent cells in animals only. d. Both are forms of paracrine signaling.

5 5 Which of the following is TRUE of synaptic signaling and hormonal signaling? a. Hormonal signaling occurs in animals only. b. Hormonal signaling is important between cells that are at greater distances apart than in synaptic signaling. c. Both use neurotransmitters, but hormone signaling is for adjacent cells in animals only. d. Both are forms of paracrine signaling.

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14 14 A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. Those cells would have____picograms at the end of the S phase and _____ picograms at the end of G2. a. 8,8 b. 8,16 c. 16,8 d. 16,16 e. 12,16

15 15 A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. Those cells would have____picograms at the end of the S phase and _____ picograms at the end of G2. a. 8,8 b. 8,16 c. 16,8 d. 16,16 e. 12,16

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29 29 Meiosis

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31 31 In meiosis I, _____ are separated; in meiosis II,______ are separated. a. homologous chromosomes; nonhomologous chromosomes. b. homologous chromosomes; sister chromatids c. nonhomologous chromosomes; homologous chromosomes d. sister chromatids; homologous chromosomes.

32 32 In meiosis I, _____ are separated; in meiosis II,______ are separated. a. homologous chromosomes; nonhomologous chromosomes. b. homologous chromosomes; sister chromatids c. nonhomologous chromosomes; homologous chromosomes d. sister chromatids; homologous chromosomes.

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37 37 A diploid cell has three pairs of homologous chromosomes designated J1/J2, K1/K2, and L1/L2. Which of the following represents a probable chromosome compliment in a haploid cell formed by meiosis? a. J1 and K1 b. J1 and J2 c. J2, K1, and L2 d. J1, J1, K2, and K2 e. J1, J2, K1, K2, L1, and L2

38 38 A diploid cell has three pairs of homologous chromosomes designated J1/J2, K1/K2, and L1/L2. Which of the following represents a probable chromosome compliment in a haploid cell formed by meiosis? a. J1 and K1 b. J1 and J2 c. J2, K1, and L2 d. J1, J1, K2, and K2 e. J1, J2, K1, K2, L1, and L2

39 39 Comparison Mitosis & Meiosis

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42 42 Independent Assortment

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46 46 Ecology

47 47 Terms Punctuated equilibrium – In the fossil record, long periods of apparent stasis (equilibrium), in which a species undergoes little or no morphological change, interrupted by relatively brief periods of sudden change. Punctuated equilibrium – In the fossil record, long periods of apparent stasis (equilibrium), in which a species undergoes little or no morphological change, interrupted by relatively brief periods of sudden change. Epiphytic plant – a plant that nourishes itself but grows on the surface of another plant for support (often on trunks of tropic plants) Epiphytic plant – a plant that nourishes itself but grows on the surface of another plant for support (often on trunks of tropic plants)

48 48 Terms Ecological niche – sum total of an organisms use of biotic and abiotic resources as it “ fits into ” an ecosystem Ecological niche – sum total of an organisms use of biotic and abiotic resources as it “ fits into ” an ecosystem Fundamental niche – resources a population is capable of using Fundamental niche – resources a population is capable of using

49 49 Terms cont’d Realized niche – resources a population actually does use Realized niche – resources a population actually does use Limiting factor - something needed for productivity (like water, O 2 or CO 2 for plants) Limiting factor - something needed for productivity (like water, O 2 or CO 2 for plants) Resource partitioning – different niches allow similar species to coexist in community Resource partitioning – different niches allow similar species to coexist in community

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51 51 Terms cont’d Dominant species - one in community that has the most biomass Dominant species - one in community that has the most biomass Biomass - sum weight of all individuals in population Biomass - sum weight of all individuals in population Keystone species - not abundant but has control by role not numbers i.e.. sea star pg Keystone species - not abundant but has control by role not numbers i.e.. sea star pg. 1184

52 52 Terms cont’d Carrying capacity – maximum amount that can live there without harming the species Carrying capacity – maximum amount that can live there without harming the species Logistic growth – population growth that levels off as population reaches carrying capacity Logistic growth – population growth that levels off as population reaches carrying capacity

53 53 Terms cont’d K – selected population - a population living at or near its carrying capacity K – selected population - a population living at or near its carrying capacity - Produces relatively few offspring that have a good chance for survival. - Produces relatively few offspring that have a good chance for survival. - Long life, low mortality rate (death rate) - Long life, low mortality rate (death rate)

54 54 Terms cont’d R- selected population - a population where densities fluctuate with little competition. R- selected population - a population where densities fluctuate with little competition. - short life span, high mortality rate ie. dandelions - short life span, high mortality rate ie. dandelions

55 55 Terms cont’d Altruism behavior – puts the needs of the population before itself Altruism behavior – puts the needs of the population before itself Kin selection – needs of family come first Kin selection – needs of family come first

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57 57 Exponential population growth Aka Geometric population growth Aka Geometric population growth Population increase under ideal conditions Population increase under ideal conditions

58 58 Fig Number of generations ,000 1,500 2, N = dN dt 0.5N = dN dt Population size (N)

59 59 Fig ,000 6,000 4,000 2, Year Elephant population 1900

60 60 Exponential growth graph J-shape is characteristic of populations that are introduced into a new environment or whose numbers have been drastically reduced by a catastrophic event and they are now rebounding. J-shape is characteristic of populations that are introduced into a new environment or whose numbers have been drastically reduced by a catastrophic event and they are now rebounding.

61 61 Fig ,000 1,500 1, Number of generations Population size (N) Exponential growth 1.0N = dN dt 1.0N = dN dt K = 1,500 Logistic growth 1,500 – N 1,500

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64 64 Which of the following could cause a realized niche to differ from a fundamental niche? a. suitable habitat b. food size and availability c. temperature limitations d. water availability e. competition from other species.

65 65 Which of the following could cause a realized niche to differ from a fundamental niche? a. suitable habitat b. food size and availability c. temperature limitations d. water availability e. competition from other species.

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69 69 Which of the following species interaction is INCORRECTLY paired to its effects on the density of the two interacting populations? a. predation – one increases, one decreases b. parasitism – one increases, one decreases c. commensalisms – both increase d. mutualism – both increase e. competition – both decrease

70 70 Which of the following species interaction is INCORRECTLY paired to its effects on the density of the two interacting populations? a. predation – one increases, one decreases b. parasitism – one increases, one decreases c. commensalisms – both increase d. mutualism – both increase e. competition – both decrease

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86 86 DNA

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98 98 Meselson-Stahl Experiment

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110 110 The genetic code contains the specific instructions for: a. replicating DNA strands for reproduction b. producing amino acids for proteins c. directing cell division d. determining the order of amino acids in protein

111 111 The genetic code contains the specific instructions for: a. replicating DNA strands for reproduction b. producing amino acids for proteins c. directing cell division d. determining the order of amino acids in protein

112 112 Transcription

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115 115 Once transcribed, eukaryotic mRNA typically undergoes substantial alteration that includes a. excision of introns. b. fusion into circular forms known as plasmids. c. linkage to histone molecules. d. union with ribosomes. e. fusion with other newly transcribed mRNA.

116 116 Once transcribed, eukaryotic mRNA typically undergoes substantial alteration that includes a. excision of introns. b. fusion into circular forms known as plasmids. c. linkage to histone molecules. d. union with ribosomes. e. fusion with other newly transcribed mRNA.

117 117 RNA Processing

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120 120 If the arrangement of bases on DNA is 5΄ACCGAT 3΄ then a corresponding strand of mRNA will be: a. 5΄ACCGAT3΄ b. 3΄TAGCCA5΄ c. 5΄UGGCUA3΄ d. 3΄UGGCUA5΄

121 121 If the arrangement of bases on DNA is 5΄ACCGAT 3΄ then a corresponding strand of mRNA will be: a. 5΄ACCGAT3΄ b. 3΄TAGCCA5΄ c. 5΄UGGCUA3΄ d. 3΄UGGCUA5΄

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135 135 Control of Protein Synthesis

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150 150 a. It uses inexpensive materials and produces perfect results. b. It can purify specific sections of a DNA molecule. c. It can produce large amounts of specific DNA sequences. d. It can duplicate the entire human genome. e. It can produce large amounts of mRNA. Which of the following best describes why the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a standard technique used in molecular biology research?

151 151 a. It uses inexpensive materials and produces perfect results. b. It can purify specific sections of a DNA molecule. c. It can produce large amounts of specific DNA sequences. d. It can duplicate the entire human genome. e. It can produce large amounts of mRNA. Which of the following best describes why the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a standard technique used in molecular biology research?


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