Presentation on theme: "Lesson 10 2014. Lesson 10 2014 Our goal is, that after this lesson, students are able to recognize the most important material related cost, environmental."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 10 2014
Lesson 10 2014
Our goal is, that after this lesson, students are able to recognize the most important material related cost, environmental and sustainability aspects and are able to use specialized tools to objectively evaluate these aspects to support the systematic material selection process.
Material certificates Possible complaints Orders Green technology Clean technology Eco-technology Raw and bulk material Material properties of the product Lifetime Wear Service and maintenance Raw material Logistics Administrative cost related to material business Recycling, reuse and disposal costs Costs of quality control Material related costs during the usage period Material related manufacturing and production costs Material related design costs Administrative costs related to material delivery and logistics Design of cast products Design of ceramic products Design of products made of nanomaterials Costs of casting Costs of moulds and tools in powder metallurgy of ceramic materials Nanocoating Total material costs during the lifetime DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF OVERALL MATERIAL COSTS
Comparison of pure raw material costs,[€/kg] Comparison based on relative material costs Comparison of the costs of semi-products including the costs of heat treatments and other finishing processes Comparison which includes also the material related manufacturing costs Cost calculations based on the scaling factors inside the product family Utilization of calculated cost and performance ratios of the product Life cycle cost analysis DIFFERENT TOOLS TO ESTIMATE AND COMPARE MATERIAL COSTS
Three main rules Pure raw material costs can be used very seldom in objective material selection for a product. Relative materials costs are reasonable only if the optional materials really are suitable for the product and if the manufacturing related costs are included to the comparison. It is possible to use the price of the known reference material to evaluate the price of another constructional material if reliable data is available from a long time period.
UTILIZATION OF SIZE DEPENDENT ESTIMATION CURVES BASED ON THE PRICE OF A KNOWN SIZE Relative price Diameter [mm] Relative prices of steel rods related to their diameter
RELATIVE PRICE TIME PERIOD PRICE OF THE ALLOYING COMPONENTS PRICE OF THE RAW MATERIAL 3.25 2.50 1.75 1.00 1v2v 3v 4v 5v The significance of the price due to the alloying (Ni, Cr) materials increases during the observation time period. TYPICAL PRICE DEVELPOMENT OF STAINLESS STEELS UTILIZATION OF TIME DEPENDENT ESTIMATION CURVES BASED ON THE PRICE OF THE ALLOYING MATERIALS
BLUE CURVE: STAINLESS STEEL RED CURVE: NICKEL THE COMPARISON OF NICKEL’S AND STAINLESS STEEL’S PRICE CURVES TIME PERIOD RELATIVE PRICE NOTE! Usually it is reasonable and cost-effective to select the steels with minimum possible alloying!
4.2 3.0 2.2 1.6 1.1 83 104 130 196 160 2005 2007 200920132011 Year Price €/kg 65x Price €/kg 65x Forecast of price development for multi-wall nanotubes Forecast of price development for single-wall nanotubes 2005 2007 200920132011 Year UTILIZATION OF TIME DEPENDENT ESTIMATION CURVES (LINES)
Relative price Zinc coated plate Cold rolled plate Hot rolled plate Period 1Period 3 Time Period 2 Periods 1 and 2 Z≈CR HR ≈1.2…1.4 × CR Period 3 HR ≈ 1.2…1.3 × CR Z ≈ 1.2 × CR (Z ≈ 1.4…1.6 × HR) UTILIZATION OF TIME DEPENDENT ESTIMATION CURVES (COEFFICIENTS OT MULTIPLYERS)
CORRECTION FACTOR THE DIAMETER OF A STANDARDIZED ROD UTILIZATION OF TIME DEPENDENT ESTIMATION CURVES (COREECTION FACTORS)
Yeld strength is critical, not the price The price depends on the heat treatment Different properties against corrosion The first one is for electrical engineering, the second one for constructions and mechanical assemblies. PRICE COMPARISON CRITERIA FOR METALLIC RODS NOTE! THE RELATIVE PRICE COMPARISON DOES NOT WORK HERE!
PEEK /PA6.6 ≈ 9 PI / PA6,6 ≈ 25 Possible utilization in polymer gears. PRICE COMPARISON OF POLYMER RODS NOTE! THE RELATIVE PRICE COMPARISON WORKS ONLY FOR THOSE MATERIALS WHICH ARE SUITABLE FOR MANUFACTURING GEARS!
PRICE COMPARISON OF CAST STEEL AND CAST IRONS NOTE! THE RELATIVE PRICE COMPARISON WORKS ONLY IF THESE METALS CAN BE USED FOR THE SAME PRODUCT!
Some example of useful ratios: Cost/ increased strength unit, [€/MPa]) Cost/ increased rigidity or flexibility, [€/mm] E.g. is it more cost-effective to increase the rigidity of the metallic profile by chancing the material’s modulus of elasticity or by increasing the bending co-efficient? Cost/ lifetime, [€/h] or [€/ year]) E.g. is it more cost-effective to change the material to increase the wear resistance or should the contact area increased instead? Cost/ power transmission capacity, [€/kW] E.g. is it more cost-effective to decrease power losses by decreasing the density of the material of the rotating components or by changing the dimensions instead? UTILIZATION OF CALCULATED COST AND PERFORMANCE RATIOS OF THE PRODUCT
STEEL RAIL HOWEVER, IF THE SAME BENDING STIFFNESS IS REQUIRED, THE DIMENSIONS OF THE ALUMINIUM PROFILE SHOULD BE SO LARGE, THAT THE WEIGHT IS ONLY 50% SMALLER! ALUMINIUM RAIL DENSITY IS 27% OF STEEL’S DENSITY DIMENSIONS VS. STIFFNESS VS. WEIGHT
ADDITIONAL COSTS TO THE RAW MATERIALS MARKING TRANSPORT MATERIAL CERTIFICATES HEAT TREATMENTS SURFACE TREATMENTS/ PAINTING BUNCHING MEASUREMENTS HANDLING OF DIFFICULT BULK SIZES (SMALL OR LARGE ONES) CUTTING
8% 11% 19% Additional price portion (%) to the initial material price Stress relieving Full annealing Normalizing Quench and temper RELATIVE PRICE PORTIONS OF SOME HEAT TREATMENTS
THINK, WHAT MIGHT BE THE ADDITIONAL COSTS TO THE PRICE OF THE RAW MATERIAL OF TYPICAL QUADRATE STEELS PROFILES?
COATING METHODS Welded coatings and cladding Laser- welding SAW-submerged are welding Zine Hot dipping Vacuum coating Chemical deposition Electro-plating Thermal spraying Plasma arc spaying Soldering Gluing Other methods Nickel Electrolysis PVD, CVD Zinc
RECOGNITION OF THE CORRESBONDING MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE COATING BASED ON THE COLLECTED REQUIREMENTS PROFILE OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES PROFILE OF REQUIREMENTS
SOME EXAMPLES: WELDING PROCESSES ARE ORIGINALLY DEVELOPED FOR SOME SPECIAL MATERIALS DIFFERENT SINTERING PROCESSESS ARE DEVELOPED FOR DIFFERENT CERAMICS DIFFERENT CASTING PROCESSES ARE SUITABLE FOR DIFFERENT MATERIALS AND DIFFERENS SIZES OD MANUFACTURING SERIES MACHINABILITY DEPENDS A LOT ON THE MATERIAL SOME MANUFACTURING PROCESSES NEED EIHER PRE- OR POST- TREATMENTS DEPENDING ON THE MATERIAL (E.G. HEAT TREATMENTS) HOW TO SOLVE THESE ISSUES? MATERIAL SELECTION OF THE PRODUCT IS REASOANABLE TO CONSIDER TOGETHER WITH THE SELECTION OF THE MOST (COST-) EFFECTIVE MANUFACTURING PROCESS MATERIAL RELATED MANUFACTURING COSTS
If the geometrical changes of the product follow the simplified change based of the dimensional change according to the scaling factor, cost-oriented engineering design can be based on the polynomial function as follows : q H =(A f3 × q L 3 ) + (B f2 × q L 2 ) + (C f1 × q L ) +D where: q H = the value descriging the relative change of the total product costs q L = scaling factor of the new product in the product family A f3,B f2, C f1 = relative cost portions of the total product costs due to different changing reasons (note the different exponent values connected with each term) D = relative portion of the constant product costs COST CALCULATIONS BASED ON THE SCALING FACTORS INSIDE THE PRODUCT FAMILY
Example Cost portion (example) Term in the cost function Exponent in the cost function Machining C f1 1 Finishing B f2 2 Heat treatment A f3 3 Materials A f3 3 Constant cost portions D-
Let the scaling factor of the new product be q L =1.5. The equation gives :q H =(A f3 × q L 3 ) + (B f2 × q L 2 ) + (C f1 × q L ) +D q H =((0,25+0,30) × 1.5 3 ) + (0,20 × 1.5 2 ) + (0,15 × 1.5) +0.10 = 2.63 So if the scaling factor increases to 1.t the overall costs will be 2.63 times higher. Cost portion (example) Percentage portion of the costs during the production of a product [%] Relative portion of the costs during the production of a product Exponent in the cots function Machining 150,151 Finishing 200,202 Heat treatment 250,253 Materials 300,303 Constant cost portions 100,10-
Some practical issues… Think, how the total amount of products (to be manufactured) might affect the material costs and is there the option to utilize product-family principles! Notice the difference between the prices of the raw material and semi-products!
THE CORE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT HUMAN ECONOMY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN GENERAL € € € €
SUCCESS CRITERIA OF A PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS SAFETY ASPECTS OF THE PRODUCT COST- EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PRODUCT FUNCTIONALITY OF THE PRODUCT QUALITY OF THE PRODUCT SUCCESFUL PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS
UTILIZATION OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES IN MATERIAL SELECTION SAVE ENERGY IN DIFFERENT MATERIAL PROCESSING PHASES SAVE TERRAIN AND GROUND IN RAW- MATERIAL PROCESSES SELECT SUCH MATERIALS WHICH ENABLE THE MINIMIZED ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF THE PRODUCT SAVE WATER THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE LIFECYCLE OF MATERIAL PROCESSING REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF USED MATERIALS RECYCLE MATERIALS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MATERIAL SELECTION REUSE MATERIALS
MAINTENANCE, SERFICE AND COST- EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PRODUCT LIFETIME OPTIMIZATION OF THE PRODUCT MINIMIZATION OF THE USE OF HARMFULL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN THE PRODUCT RECYCLABILITY ECO-EFFICIENCY OF MATERIALS ENERGY-EFFICIENCY OF THE PRODUCT CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PRODUCT DESIGN AND MATERIAL SELECTION HOW TO COMBINE: “THE SUCCESFUL PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS” AND “THE PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN MATERIAL SELECTION” ?
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS NOISE DAMAGES OF THE ECOSYSTEMS WATER CONSUMPTION DAMAGES OF THE SCENERY AND LANDSCAPE ENERGY CONSUMPTION WATER POLUTION AIR POLUTION CARBON DIOXIDE (CO 2 -) EMISSIONS CHEMICAL EMISSIONS AND EFFLUENTS ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
ECO-EFFICIENCY OF THE MATERIAL Minimize the amount of material(s) used in the construction If possible, utilize waste material at least for energy production Try to repair the product for its initial use and purpose Utilize material(s) for producing new products R4R4 THE BASIC APPROACH
LCA LCC TWO MAIN PROCESSES Cumulative cost evaluation throughout the total lifetime of the product Environmental loading evaluation of the product including the amounts of waste material and emissions during the whole life cycle
Maintenance costs Operational costs Disposal costs Initial costs Service costs LCC These cost portions are related to the material selection! LIFE CYCLE COSTS
LCA Environmental loading including the amounts of waste material and emissions during the whole life cycle DISPOSAL RECYCLING USE, SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE PRODUCT TRANSPORT, DELIVERY, STORAGE AND PACKAGING OF THE PRODUCT PRODUCTION AND MANUFACTURING OF THE PRODUCT REUSE ORE PROCESSING RAW MATERIAL PROCESSES LIFE CYCLE ASSESMENT
QUANTIFIED ECO-EFFICIENCY CHARACTERISTICS BASED ON MIPS-CALCULATIONS FACTOR 4 EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LOADING MIT-INTENSITY MI-FACTOR FACTOR 10 LIFE CYCLE ASPECTS INTENSITY FACTORS LIFE CYCLE ASSESMENT SOME NUMERICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Factor 4 and Factor 10 Refers to ecological sustainability: Factor 4 –principle aims to improve the efficiency of using the resources from nature to be four times higher compared to the current situation. Factor 10 –aims to decrease the total use of resources from nature to the half on the current level until year 2040.
MIPS - coefficient Eco-efficiency can be measured and expressed with the MIPS-coefficient MIPS = Material Input Per Service Unit MIPS is calculated by dividing the total consumption of nature resources (MI- factor) with the achieved output function unit of the product (S) (e.g. the driven distance with a car) MIPS = MI / S.
Material intensity (MIT) Material intensity (MIT) is the ratio, which utilizes MI-factor by describing how much nature resources are needed to produce e.g. one weight unit of material. MIT-intensity is among the best values to support systematic material selection process if green values and sustainability are in key-role.
Examples of calculated MIT-values Produced metal Consumption of fossil fuels and minerals [tn/tn] Consumption of water [tn/tn] Consumption of air [tn/tn] Cold formed aluminium 35100010 Cold formed steel 9750.5 Stainless steel 1 (18%Cr, 9% Ni) 142052.8 Stainless steel 2 (17%Cr, 12% Ni) 182403.4
ECOLABEL The EU ECOLABEL helps to identify products and services which have a reduced environmental impact throughout their life cycle.
ECO-MANAGEMENT AND AUDIT SCHEME EMAS is a management instrument developed by the European Commission for companies and organizations to evaluate, report and improve their environmental performance.
NUMBER OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS USED IN IT-PRODUCTS Some practical examples
SINC STEEL LEAD COPPER ALUMINIUM PERCENTAGE OF RECYCLED MATERIALS IN NEW METALS’ PRODUCTION
SINC STEEL LEAD COPPER ALUMINIUM ENERGY SAVING IN PRODUCTION DUE TO RECYCLING
VW Golf made from over 40% recycled materials
Recycling of polymers 1 PET (polyethylene terephthalate) Most recycled polymer. 2 HDPE (high-density polyethylene) Easy to recycle. 3 PVC (polyvinyl chloride) Difficult to recycle. 4 LDPE (low-density polyethylene) Very difficult to recycle. 5 PP (polypropylene) Difficult to recycle. 6 PS (polystyrene or polystyrene foam) Difficult to recycle. 7 Other Plastics Difficult to recycle or technology for reclying is missing
Lifecycle costs Eco-efficiency Sustainability GT-guidelines Energy efficiency Recycling Reuse Recovery Disposal LCA TRM EMAS WEEE RoHS ELV Ecodesign ISO 14000 LCC Metals Ceramics POLYMERS Composites Nanomaterials ADAPTIVE MATERIALS Improve the recycling ratio Wear resistance Biopolymers PET ja HDPE Bio- composites Decrease the weight of constructions Phase-change materials Cleaning of pollutants Systematic material selection process GREEN TECHNOLOGY