Presentation on theme: "1 A Reflective Look at Apple’s “iPod” Russian Market Entry As Affected by Social Infrastructure, Political & Regulatory Systems, Business & Work Culture."— Presentation transcript:
1 A Reflective Look at Apple’s “iPod” Russian Market Entry As Affected by Social Infrastructure, Political & Regulatory Systems, Business & Work Culture and Product/Technology Standard Factors Tonja L. Ringgold AMBA 606D November 20, 2005
2 Table of Contents GlobaliTek Slide - 3 Apple Apple Computer, Inc. Slide - 5 iPod Slide - 7 Apple Apple Entering the Russian Market Slide - 9 A Brief Word About Russia Slide - 10 Apple’s Strategy To Enter Russian Market Slide - 18 Export Markets Slide - 21 International Markets Slide - 22 International Competitiveness Slide - 23 International Growth Slide - 24 Trade Blocks Slide - 25 Russian Factors Slide - 26 Social Infrastructure Factor Slide - 28 Political and Regulatory Systems Factor Slide - 35 Business and Work Culture Factor Slide - 42 Product and Technology Standards Factor Slide - 51 Weighing All The Factors! Slide - 56 References Slide - 62
4 GLOBALiTek ™ GLOBALiTek ™ GLOBALiTek™ Apple GLOBALiTek™ is a technology marketing consultant firm hired by Apple Computer Inc., to oversee their interest and possible entry into the Russian Technology Market. GLOBALiTek™ Apple’s The primary mission of GLOBALiTek™ is to develop a global marketing strategy that will increase Apple’s presence and profit margins. “market test” AppleiPod. The “market test” product for this project is the Apple iPod.
6 About Apple Apple Computer Inc., Apple Computer Inc., is a leader in technology marketing displaying computer innovation within the industry since the 1970's with the launching of the personal computer revolution with the Apple II computer system (Wikipedia, 2005). Apple Apple continues to lead the industry in computer innovation with award- winning desktop and notebook computers, OS X operating system, and iLife (software application much like Microsoft Office in that it contains tightly integrated applications offering versions of iPhoto, iMovie, iDVD, and iTunes) and professional software applications (Wikipedia, 2005). Apple iPod www.apple.com. Recently, Apple has spearheaded the digital music revolution with its iPod portable music players and iTunes online music store, www.apple.com. www.apple.com iPod's Due to the iPod's astounding success, the companies would like to capitalize on Apple's current market share and market the product in Nigeria and Russia. Source: Wikipedia, 2005
8 About iPod iPod is a brand of portable digital audio and video player designed and marketed by Apple Computer. iPod iPod iPodiPod Devices in the iPod family provide a simple user interface designed around a central scroll wheel. Most iPod models store media on a built-in hard drive, while the smaller iPod shuffle and iPod nano use flash memory. iPod Like most digital audio players, an iPod can serve as an external data storage device when connected to a computer. iPod The bundled software used for uploading music and photos to the iPod is called iTunes. iTunes is a music 'jukebox' application that stores a comprehensive library of the music on a computer, as well as playing and ripping it. iPod The most recent incarnations of iPod and iTunes have video playing and organization features. iPod Other forms of data can be added to iPod as if it were any other data storage device connected to a computer. AppleiPod Apple has decided to test market the iPod in the Russian market due to the product’s outstanding success over the years in digital music which helps when 80% of the MP3 industry is controlled by Apple. iPodApple Even with all the success of the iPod, Apple still has to look ahead as they have competitors which are catching up in the digital music industry fast (i.e., Microfoft, Sony etc.). For this reason, global investment and marketing is critical…Hence the interest in the Russian Market.
10 A Brief Word About Russia… Росси́йская Федера́ция Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija Росси́я,Rossiya or Rossija The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of Europe and Asia. With an area of 17,075,200 km² (6,595,600 mi²), it is the largest country in the world, covering almost twice the territory of the next-largest country, Canada. It ranks eighth in the world in population. It shares land borders with the following countries (counter-clockwise from NW to SE): Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland (only through Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It is also close to the United States and Japan across stretches of water: the Diomede Islands (one controlled by Russia, the other by the United States) are just 3 km apart, and Kunashir Island (controlled by Russia but claimed by Japan) is about 20 kilometers from Hokkaido.
11 Russian Federation Population: 149,909,089 (July 1995 est.) Land: 6.6 million square miles slightly more than 1.8 times the size of the US. The Soviet Union was larger than the USA and Canada combined. Time zones: 11. When it is 7p.m. in Moscow, it is 6a.m. the following day in a village on the Bering Strait. Russian Federation, 21 autonomous republics Nationalities: Russians and about 100 minorities Independence: 24 August 1991 Executive branch: President Legislative branch: Federal Assembly and State Duma Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, Supreme Court Source: Russia Country Analysis Brief, February 2005.
12 Source: Wikipedia, 2005 - A map of administrative units of the Russian Federation, made by Adam Carr. Russia is one of the few countries considered to be in two continents: Europe and Asia (and once, even North America). Russian Federation Administrative Units
13 Lenin 1917-1924 Stalin 1924-1953 Khrushchev 1953-1964Brezhnev 1964-1982Andropov 1983-1984 Chernenko 1984-1985 Gorbachev 1985-1991 Yeltsin 1991-1999 Putin 2000-present 19171991 1991-2003 Soviet Russian Leaders Each leader changed Russian business and trade…
14 Gorbachev’s Perestroika & Glasnost Yeltsin’s Democratic Revolution Putin and “New Russians” Post Soviet Russia 1985 to Present Source: Lyra Riabov, Associate Professor - Southern New Hampshire University
15 Russian Economy More than a decade after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia is now trying to establish a market economy and achieve more consistent economic growth. Russia saw its comparatively developed centrally-planned economy contract severely for five years, as the executive and legislature dithered over the implementation of reforms and Russia's industrial base faced a serious decline (Wikipedia, 2005). After the breakup of the USSR, Russia's first slight recovery, showing the signs of open-market influence, occurred in 1997. That year, however, Asian financial crisis culminated in the August depreciation of the ruble in 1998, a debt default by the government, and a sharp deterioration in living standards for most of the population. Consequently, the year 1998 was marked by recession and intense capital flight.
16 Russian Economy continued… The Russian economy started recovering in 1999 then entered a phase of rapid economic expansion. The GDP has grown by an average of 6.7% annually in 1999-2005 on the back of higher petroleum prices, weaker ruble, and increasing service production and industrial output (Wikipedia, 2005). The economic development of Russia has been extremely uneven: the capital region of Moscow contributes a third to the country's GDP having only a tenth of its population. Russia’s recent recovery, made possible due to high world oil prices, along with a renewed government effort in 2000 and 2001 to advance lagging structural reforms, has raised business and investor confidence over Russia's prospects in its second decade of transition (Wikipedia, 2005). Russia remains heavily dependent on exports of commodities, particularly oil, natural gas, metals, and timber, which account for about 80% of exports, leaving the country vulnerable to swings in world prices (Wikipedia, 2005).
17 Russian Economy continued… Russia’s GDP shot up to reach €1.2 trillion ($1.5 trillion) in 2004, making it the ninth largest economy in the world and the fifth largest in Europe. If the current growth rate is sustained, the country is expected to become the second largest European economy after Germany (€1.9 trillion or $2.3 trillion) and the sixth largest in the world within a few years. Apple Russia’s economic recovery also makes it very attractive to Apple Computer Inc.
18 Apple’s Strategy To Enter Russia Key strategic decisions relate to: Access to Russian Market Building exports The extent to which the business will be competitive in the Russian Market The effect on decision making of the existence of Russian Trade Blocs and Tariffs Consideration on the necessity and importance of acquisitions
19 Apple Entering the Russian Market FACTORSSTRATEGIES Global Factors Affecting Apple’s Entry Into Russian Market
20 Apple’s Strategy FACTORSSTRATEGIES Global Factors Affecting Apple’s Entry Into Russian Market Export Markets International Markets Trade Blocks International Competitiveness International Growth
21 Export Markets The Government has used licensing and quotas to restrict the export of certain key commodities, such as oil and oil products, to ease the effect of price differentials between controlled domestic prices and world market prices. Without such restrictions, Russian policy makers have argued, the domestic market would experience shortages of critical materials. The government finally eliminated quotas on oil exports in 1995 and export taxes on oil in 1996. In addition to customs restrictions, the government imposes other costs on exporters. It charges a 20 percent VAT on most cash-transaction exports and a 30 percent VAT on barter transactions. It applies additional tariffs on the exports of industrial raw materials. By the mid-1990s, much of Russia's foreign trade, even that with the former communist countries of Central Europe, was conducted on the basis of market-determined prices. Immediately after the dissolution of the Soviet-dominated Comecon in 1991, the Soviet Union sought to maintain commercial relations in Central Europe through bilateral agreements. But as market economies developed in those countries, their governments lost control over trade flows. Since 1993 Russian trade with former Comecon member countries has been at world prices and in hard currencies. The lack of diversity in Russian exports is a legacy of the Soviet period and something that Apple should pay special attention to. The focus was clearly on domestic consumption with little consideration for the export market. Given this priority, most of the Soviet Union's consumer goods were of low quality by world standards. Post-Soviet concentration of Russian exportables in a few categories restricts Russia's potential sources of foreign currency to a few markets. And the frequent price fluctuations typical of world raw materials markets also make Russia's export revenues vulnerable to unforeseen change.
22 International Markets Source: Collier’s International: Russian Real Estate Review, 2005.
23 International Competitiveness Russia, now, more than ever is very competitive in the digital media industry. However, early in 2005, Russian government authorities “pulled the plug” on sme MP3 music down load violations. Apple If Apple is to agree to a “joint venture” with Russia, they must ensure that all business practices are within international and local laws.
24 International Growth Apple Growth is not just through expansion of the size of Apple in Russia, but also through external growth in terms of acquisitions, mergers, and takeovers. Apple Apple, a multi-national corporation, needs to have a global presence. Global business strategy is not a 21 st Century phenomenon as this image of the entrance to La Paz Airport in Bolivia from 1955 highlights. Title: Gateway to La Paz, Copyright: Getty Images, available from Education Image Gallery (http://eig.edina.ac.uk)
25 Trade Blocks Russian Trade Blocks influence the ease of access to new technology markets and affect the relative costs of trading with iPod. EU NAFTA Locating within a trading bloc could help to reduce long term trading costs (e.g. Japanese companies building plants in the UK to help overcome exposure to the Common External Tariff).
26 Russian Market Entry Factors FACTORSSTRATEGIES Global Factors Affecting Apple’s Entry Into Russian Market Social Infrastructure Political and Regulatory Systems Products and Technology Standards Business and Work Culture
27 Factors factorsApple’s Key factors influencing Apple’s business strategy in Russia can be summarized under: Social Infrastructure Political and Regulatory Systems Business and Work Culture Product and Technology Standards
29 Social Infrastructure Factors Apple Apple must consider the following social infrastructure factors prior to entering any sort of business adventure with Russia: Tax Systems Investment Considerations and Allowances Sophistication of Financial Markets: ease with which capital can be moved and raised Commodity Prices: oil, energy, metals Monetary and Fiscal Policies: interest rates, tax regimes, government aid Internal Regulation and Bureaucracy can be stifling! Exchange Rates (Fluid or Fixed?)
30 Social Infrastructure Factors continued… Apple Apple must take into consideration: Religious customs to ensure appropriateness of some business ventures (e.g. selling condoms in staunchly Catholic countries). Impact on local communities of business development availability of jobs, training, environmental impact for these communities. Impact on the environment can impact on the businesses image Ethical considerations Cultural issues The impact on the local environment not only affects human communities but can also inflict widespread ecological damage. This imposes social costs on the environment but also can cost the business large sums in legal costs and compensation. Title: Exxon Valdez. Copyright: Getty Images, available from Education Image Gallery (http://eig.edina.ac.uk)
31 Graphical Presentations of Social Infrastructure
32 Graphical Presentations of Social Infrastructure
33 Graphical Presentations of Social Infrastructure
36 Political and Regulatory Systems Factors Political Change Political Change – regime change through coup, violence, etc. Change in government through democratic election can influence future business strategy. e.g. the opportunities that are now available in Russia and Eastern Europe following the collapse of communism Political Uncertainty Political Uncertainty – in countries like Zimbabwe, Sudan, Venezuela. Political uncertainty can lead to a fall in investment by businesses and influence decisions on expansion and business ventures War/Terrorism War/Terrorism – create uncertainty Political Doctrine Political Doctrine – can affect the ease with which business is conducted
37 The Regulatory Filing Life-Cycle Apple The Regulatory Filing Life-Cycle from the perspective of the data that is involved in a filing, the regulatory process consists of five stages. These are stages that Apple must adhere to. 1. Creation 1. Creation involves the processes related to preparing all the necessary information that is required for a regulatory submission. A variety of documents and forms are usually involved. 2. Submission 2. Submission involves assembling all the information into a package that can be transmitted to the regulatory body. This preparation usually involves a step where an authorized agent signs the data package to attest to its accuracy and completeness. 3. Reception 3. Reception is a task for the regulatory body and usually involves a screening of the submission to ensure completeness and compliance with the requirements. 4. Management 4. Management addresses issues related to storing and cataloguing the submission data in order to support the evaluation process and meet the legal and policy requirements of the regulator. 5. Access 5. Access allows the information to be viewed and used in a timely manner in support of a variety of tasks including evaluation, analysis, reporting and responding to requests for information from the public. Each of these stages has their own requirements for handling and processing the information that is at the core of the regulatory process. Political and Regulatory Factors continued…
38 Political and Regulatory Systems Factors continued… The Regulatory Filing Life-Cycle
39 Russian Federation Federal Law N 184-F3 "On Technical Regulations. Russian Federation Federal Law N 184-F3 "On Technical Regulations. The new Russian Federation Federal Law N 184-F3 "On Technical Regulations" was passed on December 27, 2002 and came into force on July 1, 2003 (Simcom.com, 2005). This law represents base legislation for manufacturers that underlines a seven year (2003-2010) transition period, during which Russia will develop clear technical requirements for the manufacturing processes, storage, transportation, realization, installation, and use of products (Simcom.com, 2005). The main goal of Federal Law N 184-F3 is to eliminate barriers to trade and encourage free movement of goods. It represents an important step for Russia in their preparation to become a member of the WTO, as well as the implementation of the rules necessary for further cooperation with the European Union (Simcom.com, 2005). This goal supports Apples efforts to enter the Russian market with the iPod. "Technical Regulations" cover all the aspects of unified technical policy, including standardization, conformity assessment, accreditation, testing and surveillance. The law closely follows the principles of technical regulations present in the EU and other WTO countries (Simcom.com, 2005). Political and Regulatory Systems Factors continued…
40 Russian Federation Federal Law N 184-F3 "On Technical Regulations. Russian Federation Federal Law N 184-F3 "On Technical Regulations. The new Russian Federation Federal Law N 184-F3 "On Technical Regulations" was passed on December 27, 2002 and came into force on July 1, 2003 (Simcom.com, 2005). This law represents base legislation for manufacturers that underlines a seven year (2003-2010) transition period, during which Russia will develop clear technical requirements for the manufacturing processes, storage, transportation, realization, installation, and use of products (Simcom.com, 2005). The main goal of Federal Law N 184-F3 is to eliminate barriers to trade and encourage free movement of goods. It represents an important step for Russia in their preparation to become a member of the WTO, as well as the implementation of the rules necessary for further cooperation with the European Union (Simcom.com, 2005). This goal supports Apples efforts to enter the Russian market with the iPod. "Technical Regulations" cover all the aspects of unified technical policy, including standardization, conformity assessment, accreditation, testing and surveillance. The law closely follows the principles of technical regulations present in the EU and other WTO countries (Simcom.com, 2005). Product & Technical Standards Factors continued…
41 Political and Regulatory Systems Factors continued… The goal of Russia's legislation is to create a clear "two-level" structure, where the upper level is represented by the mandatory technical regulations and the lower level includes voluntary standards, harmonized with the technical regulations (Simcom.com, 2005). The latter will be developed to assist manufacturers in understanding and achieving compliance with the technical requirements. Apple, If a manufacturer, like Apple, is not willing to follow a particular standard, they have the option of providing an alternate proof of compliance with the applicable technical regulations. Under the new system, there will be two kinds of standards, national and industry. National standards will be approved and accepted by Russia's National Standardization Body. Industry standards that now exist will be incorporated into the new system. In order to achieve that, they will have to be brought into compliance with the technical regulations and approved as national standards, or they will be "lowered" into the status of "Local Technical Normative Documents."
43 Russia has a rich cultural identity that has been shaped and molded by its distinguished history and vast geography. Apple In order for Apple to develop a successful penetration strategy for the iPod Russian business market or employees tasked with working in Russia, an understanding of Russian social and business culture is key to your success. Business & Workforce Culture Factors
44 Collectivism Throughout its notable history, Russia has assumed a strong communal spirit that is still reflected in Russian business practices today. Russia's severe climatic conditions have also meant that co-operation and collaboration, rather than competition, have been vital for survival. This sense of togetherness is one of the traits that distinguish Russians from many Westerners. Russian collectivism dates back to the peasant farmers, who lived in agricultural villages known as 'mirs' or 'obschina' and worked together in an organized and self-managed community. Egalitarianism An important concept related to the village milieu is 'egalitarianism', the social philosophy that supports the removal of inequity and promotes an equal distribution of benefits. In Russian business terms, this equates to important strategies of equality, reciprocity and mutual advantage. Russians are very status conscious and believe in co-equals. A "deal" is often thought of from the perspective of equally shared benefit. Business & Workforce Culture Factors continued…
45 Working practices in Russia The Russians attitude to time means that a few minutes delay on their part is of little importance. However, they will expect you to be punctual. Faxes and emails are the best way to communicate in Russia, as the post can often be unreliable. It is customary before making a trip to Russia to inform the prospective company of your intended business proposals and objectives. This means that any Apple employees would have to make contact with the Russian business that they intend to work with. Paperwork and putting pen to paper is an essential part of all working practices in Russia. In general, they have little faith in unsigned documents. Structure and hierarchy in Russian companies The hierarchical structure in Russian business practices means that the decision makers higher up have authority over their subordinates. However, the nature of the collective good often encourages a flexible and democratic work ethos. Showing respect for seniority and recognizing the hierarchical structure is vital for establishing and maintaining strong business relationships. Working relationships in Russia Personal and informal contact is a central part in doing business in Russia. Physical contact during business meetings, for example a simple hand on the arm or even embracing is a positive sign. There is no word for 'privacy' in Russia; therefore the notion of social space is much closer in Russia. In situations of conflict one should try to avoid taking an official stance and remember that Russians are 'people orientated' and will respond to a more personal approach. Business & Workforce Culture Factors continued…
46 Business & Workforce Culture Factors continued… Do'sDon'ts Russian business etiquette (Do's and Don'ts) DO’s DO DO shake hands firmly when greeting and leaving your Russian partners and make direct eye contact. DO DO partake in small talk, which normally involves talk of family and personal matters, before dealing with business. DO DO take a gift that symbolizes the stature of your company and the importance of the impending business deal, preferably an item characteristic of your local area or one that displays the company logo. DON'T DON'T be afraid to show some emotion, the Russians won't! DON'T DON'T be afraid to show some emotion, the Russians won't! DON'T DON'T as the Russian proverb states 'hurry to reply', but 'hurry to listen'. DON'T DON'T praise or reward anyone in public as it may be viewed with suspicion or cause envy and jealousy. Remember the collective rules over the individual.
47 Apple Other things Apple must consider besides business etiquette… Over the years, the Russian workforce has been plagued with challenges and unrest. Unpaid in many cases for months, large numbers of Russian workers were often threatening strike. In almost all these struggles, wage arrears have been a key element. But in a growing number of cases, the clashes have also involved issues that are familiar fare for labor activists in the West. Notorious for its erratic, populist leadership and corrupt administration, Russia has long suffered from problems with its energy sector. Despite it’s workforce history, Russian worker conditions are improving. Business & Workforce Culture Factors continued…
48 Worker Incentives and Benefits Worker Incentives and Benefits Recently, with the new regime, Russian legislation has established numerous protective devices at the enterprise level to provide a social safety net that is particularly attuned to the needs of women of childbearing age. Now, more than ever, family policy and employment policy are inextricably linked. In addition to basic allowances for all workers, special allowances exist for children of military personnel, children with unmarried, divorced, or widowed mothers, and children who are disabled. Women who have an employment contract are entitled to paid maternity leave from seventy days prior to giving birth until seventy days afterward. Maternity leave benefits are based on the minimum wage rather than on a woman's current wage, however. Business & Workforce Culture Factors continued…
49 Business & Workforce Culture Factors continued… Among other benefits provided by enterprises to their workers are access to special shops that sell subsidized milk for families with low incomes and small children and an allowance to children for the purchase of a school uniform when they start school and again at the age of thirteen. Other regulations focus more specifically on families with small children. These include protective legislation prohibiting the dismissal of pregnant women or women with children under the age of three, banning night work and overtime for mothers of small children, stipulating workload concessions to pregnant women and mothers of young children, and providing flextime, part-time work, home-based employment, nursing intervals, and additional paid and unpaid leave to mothers to care for sick children. A significant portion of Russian workers have entitlements to housing, child care, and paid vacations, regardless of their rank within an enterprise. Housing entitlements involve either outright provision of a low-rent apartment (most apartment rents are very low) or various forms of cash or in-kind assistance.
50 Business & Workforce Culture Factors continued… Occupants obtain an implicit ownership right extending beyond their term of employment. They may also have the legal title of the apartment transferred to their own names without paying any purchase price. Besides housing allowances, most large and medium-sized enterprises provide on-site medical facilities or they contract for outside health care facilities for their employees. The medical care provided through the auspices of enterprises is free and often is of much higher quality than the care available in government-run facilities. Finally, enterprises provide their employees with goods ranging from foodstuffs to consumer durables. The enterprises procure these items through direct purchase, barter, or from their own farms, and make them available at below-market prices.
52 Product & Technical Standards Factors continued… Apple’s Availability and developments in Russian technology can have a powerful influence on Apple’s market entry strategy. Some of things they will look for will be: compatibility of technologies in Business Management accounting systems language differences, etc.
53 Apple The opportunity for Apple computer systems to enter Russia market place may be difficult, or take a long period of time to meet the requirements outlined by the Russian government. Unfortunately despite positive changes in the last several years, the standards regime in Russia still lacks clarity and transparency. Russia still relies on product testing as a key element of the product approval process. Product & Technical Standards Factors continued…
54 Product & Technical Standards Factors continued… Other types of product safety assurance, such as plant auditing, quality systems, and post market vigilance, are underdeveloped. Russia adheres to redundant practices of further testing of internationally accepted certified products which delays entry of advanced technologies into the country.
55 Conformity Assessment and Product Certification Many products imported for sale into the Russian Federation are required to have a certificate of conformity issued by The Federal Agency for Technical Regulations. The Federal Agency for Technical Regulations and its authorized agents are chief sources for certification in Russia. Other agencies are involved in certification of certain products, including: The Ministry of Agriculture (food products) the Ministry of Health (medical devices and pharmaceuticals) The State Communications Committee (telecommunications equipment and services) The State Mining and Industrial Inspectorate GOSGORTECHNADZOR (equipment for mining, oil and gas industries) and others (www.buyusa.gov/russia/en). Product & Technical Standards Factors continued…
56 Weighing All The Factors! Should Apple Enter the Russian Market?
57 Should Apple Enter the Russian Market? Based on the many facts presented in this slideshow, the opportunity for Apple Computer Inc. to enter Russia’s market for has tremendous potential.
58 Competition Is Fierce Workforce Has Improved Market is Open Growth Opportunity Reasons Apple Should Enter the Russian Market?
59 Should Apple Enter the Russian Market? Although many advantages were noted for advancing itnto the Russian market, there were many disadvantages as well for Apple Computer Inc. to enter Russia’s market for
60 Undeveloped Bus. Plans Critical Infrastructure Is Lacking Mix-Match In Business Practices Unethical Business Practices Reasons Apple Should NOT Enter the Russian Market?
61 What Do You Think?… Should Apple Enter the Russian Market?
62 References Agbaje, A. & Jerome, A. (2004). Institutional framework and the process of trade policy making in African countries: The case of Nigeria. Final Report Submitted to the African Economic Research Consortium. Breen, Christopher (2005, Summer) Picking your ‘Pod. Macworld Summer 2005 Vol 22 Issue 14. Retrieved September 12, 2005 from Business Source Primer http://web24.epnet.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/citation.asp. http://web24.epnet.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/citation.asp Bruno, Antony (2005, August 27) How long can Apple stay on top? Billboard Vol. 117 Issue 35 p 30-31. Retrieved September 12, 2005 from Business Source Primer http://web24.epnet.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/citation.asp. http://web24.epnet.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/citation.asp Hill, C.W.L. (2005). International business with global resource CD, Power Web and world map (5th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. Colliers International. (2005) Russia Real Estate Review. Retrieved on November 20, 2005 from site http://www.colliers.com/Content/Repositories/Base/Markets/Moscow/English/Market_ Report/PDFs/Real_estate_review_Russia_2005_eng.pdf http://www.colliers.com/Content/Repositories/Base/Markets/Moscow/English/Market_ Report/PDFs/Real_estate_review_Russia_2005_eng.pdf Overholt, Aliso (2005 January) A new path to profit. Fast Company Issue 90, p.25. Retrieved September 12, http://ezproxy.umuc.edu.
63 References continued… Russia Country Analysis Brief. (2005). Retrieved on November 18, 2005 from site http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/russia.html#back http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/russia.html#back Simcom.com. (2004). The Russian Federation’s New Federal Law On Technical Regulations. Retrieved on November 11, 2005 from site http://www.esimcom.com/aak2_0_1_2/simcom_about/ab_russia_Law184F3.asp?L1=1 &L2=7ttp://www.esimcom.com/aak2_0_1_2/simcom_about/ab_russia_Law184F3.asp?L1=1 &L2=7 U.S. Commercial Services, 2005. Doing Business in Russia. ttp://www.buyusa.gov/Russia/en/doing_business.html ttp://www.buyusa.gov/Russia/en/doing_business.html Wikipedia, 2005. Retrieved on November 18, 2005 from site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Computer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Computer www.apple.com/iPod. Retrieved November 5, 2005. www.apple.com/iPod
65 National Anthem of the Russian Federation ( National Anthem of the Russian Federation (Lyrics by Sergei Mikhalkov; an unofficial translation) Russia, our holy great nation! Russia, the country so dearly loved! A powerful will, a tremendous glory, Are your inheritance for future and past. Russia, our holy great nation! Russia, the country so dearly loved! A powerful will, a tremendous glory, Are your inheritance for future and past. Refrain: Glory to land of freedom and unity, Nations as brothers united stand tall, Given by ancestors, wisdom our national, Glory, our land, we are proud of you! From the southern seas to the polar region Spread our forests and fields. You are unique in the world, inimitable, Native land protected by God! From the southern seas to the polar region Spread our forests and fields. You are unique in the world, inimitable, Native land protected by God! Refrain. Wide spaces for dreams and for living Are opened for us by the coming years. Faithfulness to our Fatherland gives us strength. Thus it was, so it is and always will be! Refrain: Glory to land of freedom and unity, Nations as brothers united stand tall, Given by ancestors, wisdom our national, Glory, our land, we are proud of you!