11 GERM Standardized Teaching and Learning; Focus on Literacy and Numeracy; Teaching for Predetermined Results; Renting Market-oriented Reform Ideas; Test-Based Accountability; Control Sahlberg, 2011
12 The Third Way Page 11 Top-Down Government Support Bottom-Up Goals Performance Targets Resources Materials Training Lateral learning Peer pressure and support Public engagement Integrated services
13 National Vision Government Steering and Support Learning and Results Public Professional Engagement Involvement The Fourth Way
Third Way to Fourth Way Purposes From: Detailed Deliverology Bureaucracy, markets and professionalism Competitive standards Parent choice Community service delivery Customized learning Students as targets Public confidence To: Steering and development Professionalism and democracy Inspiring and inclusive vision Public engagement Community Development Mindful teaching and learning Student Voice Active trust
Third Way to Fourth Way Professionalism From: Performance-driven quality Bought-off unions Data-driven teams Presentism To: Mission and conditions-driven quality Unions as change partners Evidence-informed communities Mindfulness
Third Way to Fourth Way Systems From: Accountability first Testing census Imposed targets Individual leadership development Dispersed networks To: Responsibility first Testing by samples Shared targets Systemic and sustainable leadership Area-based collaboration
Timing: earlier or later, in shorter or longer periods Pacing: acceleration and catch-up Settings: within and beyond school Styles: from instruction to inquiry-led Support: people beyond the teaching staff Aims: capability-based Technology: computers, video, and virtual learning Charles Leadbeater, What’s Next? 21 Ideas for 21 st Century Learning (2008)
Exploring organizations in education, business, and sport that perform beyond expectations (PBE) Beyond Expectations An international research project conducted jointly by Boston College & Institute of Education, University of London
Clear societal vision Strong public investment High-quality, high-status teachers Steering by the state Local curriculum development Trust, cooperation, and responsibility Improvement through uplift Leaders who teach No initiative-itis
Innovation and improvement Strong public investment High-quality, high-status teachers Testing without System Targets Local curriculum innovation Collective system responsibility Leadership stability Culture of inquiry and risk
Innovation and improvement Strong public investment High-quality, high-status teachers Testing without System Targets Local curriculum innovation Collective system responsibility Leadership stability Culture of inquiry and risk Intensive communication Uniqueness of Culture
Towering Successes Vision, justice and urgency Shared and ambitious targets Higher quality teachers Strong local partnerships Knowing your people: presence in schools Schools work together Community development
Research Questions What makes organizations of different types successful and sustainable, far beyond expectations? How does sustainability in leadership and change manifest itself in education, compared to other sectors? What are the implications for school leaders?
PBE Criteria Better than you did Better than your peers Better than you’d expect
F1: The Fantastic Dream Organizations that perform beyond expectations aspire to and articulate an improbable, collectively held fantasy or dream that is bolder and more challenging than a plan or even a vision. Martin Luther King had a dream, not a strategic plan - still less a set of key performance indicators.
F1: The Fantastic Dream The shared vision is about having ambition and nurturing the aspirations of our young people. Although the levels of deprivation might be high, that ’ s no excuse for low attainment Elected Member of Tower Hamlets Ernest Bader ’ s vision was that we shouldn ’ t be damaging the world. We should be adding value to the world in everything we do, the products we make, the money we make. So the Commonwealth is there to manage social development and charitable giving. Managing Director, Scott Bader Commonwealth
F2: The Fear The experience of success is often heightened by the emotional memory of a previous failure, or the fear of one that lays in wait. Organizations that perform above expectations often confront failure, humiliation, ridicule and even extinction in a way that galvanizes their commitment to change. An improbable dream begets an apparently impossible challenge.
F2: The Fear I, like many others, did not like the concept of buying footwear over the Internet, but the more I learned about it and felt I had an idea on how we could make it very scalable by creating this virtual model where we teamed up directly with the manufacturers, the more I liked it. Scott Savitz, CEO, Shoebuy.com
F3: The Fight The impossible dream and improbable challenge of surmounting failure or avoiding extinction produce a response of fight to overcome or avert obstacles, instead of flight to avoid them.
F3: The Fight There was almost a literal fight for the company. The stories about Green grabbing Rose hit the headlines. Some called it a fight. No blows were exchanged but it was a real fight; a battle of wills. Senior manager, Marks and Spencer He just advised me to get back in and sort it out, which I did! Graeme Hollinshead, former Head, Grange Secondary School
F4: CounterFlow PBE leaders of organizations that perform expectations are prepared to run against the mainstream, and to move ahead not by going with the flow but against or around it. These leaders are courageous, creative and counterintuitive.
F5: Flair, Flow & Flexibility It is not just teams and teamwork that keep these organizations aloft; it is the vibrant nature of the teamwork itself. Organizations that perform beyond expectations have cultures of creativity and risk-taking. They allow and encourage workers to have freedom and flexibility to innovate and play.
F6: Fast and fair tracking Organizations that perform above expectations mark, monitor and manage their progress towards success. They use indicators and targets of progress and performance that are personally meaningful, publicly shared and demonstrably fair measures of what leaders and followers are trying to achieve.
F7: Feasible growth Beyond the swift actions necessary to counter any initial crisis, organizations that perform beyond expectations do not try to expand as quickly as possible and take off too fast. They are built on sustainable growth.
F8: Friendly rivalry Collaboration and competition are often seen as opposites. Leaders that perform beyond expectations go beyond these ideological oppositions and creatively combine collaboration with competition.
So Remember F1: The Fantastic Dream F2: The Fear F3: The Fight F4: CounterFlow F5: Flair, Flow & Flexibility F6: Fast & Fair Tracking F7: Feasible Growth F8: Friendly Rivalry
1: The Fallacy of Speed 2: The Fallacy of Replacement 3: The Fallacy of Numbers 4: The Fallacy of Prescription 5: The Fallacy of Competition Five Fallacies of Leadership & Change
1: The Fallacy of Speed In business, most efforts at fast turnaround fail. Turnarounds in sport typically take 3-7 years. PBE organizations largely enjoy high rates of staff retention - by choice rather than default. PBEs coherently connect quick wins that build confidence and enable survival to longer-term improvement goals.
2: The Fallacy of Replacement In sport, there are negative associations between turnaround and turnover rates in leadership. Turnaround strategies for schools that make wholesale replacements of leaders and key staff emulate strategies in business and sport that most commonly fail. Yet leadership regimes should not endure endlessly. Usually, the best formula is internally grown or returning prodigal leadership, combined with imported leadership from outside.
3: The Fallacy of Numbers Victories/defeats and profits/losses are the ultimate mark of success in sport and business. PBE organisations also collect data beyond the bottom line as a foundation for bottom line and high watermark success. Measures are meaningful and used within relationships of personal consideration, knowledge and even inspiration between leaders and led. Most measurement in public education diverges disconcertingly from that of PBE organisations
4: The Fallacy of Prescription PBE organisations are not standardised. They promote flexibility, creativity, innovation, risk and discretionary judgement - provided this fits the dream, doesn’t undermine the team and still gets results. People are not locked into scripted roles. They play in multiple roles and positions. Mediocre sporting, business and educational practice is defined by standardisation and prescription.
5: The Fallacy of Competition Even within competitive market systems, commitment to collaboration and mutual assistance produces better results. On-field competition combined with off-field collaboration produces friendly rivalry that increases performance and results. PBE organisations practice co-opetition out of moral commitment as well as strategic opportunity, which positively impacts performance and increases social value.
Facing the Fallacies These fallacies of leadership, turnaround, standardisation, competition and results have led to transplantations into education of principles and practices from business and sport that do not reflect how the higher performers in those sectors actually operate.
Fusion leadership Leading an organization beyond expectations necessitates a blend of leadership styles or approaches that are sometimes thought of as polar opposites: charismatic and diffuse; autocratic and shared; top down and distributed - defying the professed dichotomies that often define the field.
Fusion leadership 1.Of inner commitments and capabilities 2.Of team and cultural differences 3.Of leadership & improvement over time