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University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna Department Water - Atmosphere - Environment Institute of Waste Management Key performance indicators.

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Presentation on theme: "University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna Department Water - Atmosphere - Environment Institute of Waste Management Key performance indicators."— Presentation transcript:

1 University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna Department Water - Atmosphere - Environment Institute of Waste Management Key performance indicators of the informal waste sector ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop “Challenges to separate collection systems for different waste streams - barriers and opportunities” Roland Ramusch

2 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Contents 2 Informal waste sector: definitions and activities The need for data Key performance Indicators (KPIs) Modernisation of waste management systems: inclusive or competing systems?

3 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Definition „informal“ -“Without formal assignment, not official” © ABF-BOKU 60 % of global labour force work under precarious conditions Employees with working contracts: 1.2 billion Informally employed: 1.8 billion Source: OECD,

4 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Definition „informal waste sector“ 4 4 Doorstep (household) waste pickers Itinerant Waste Buyers Street waste picking On route / truck waste pickers Waste picking from dumps or landfills. “Individuals or enterprises who are involved in private sector recycling and waste management activities which are not sponsored, financed, recognised, supported, organised or acknowledged by the formal solid waste authorities, or which operate in violation of or in competition with formal authorities.” Scheinberg et al. (2010) Typical elements of a waste management system in low- or middle income countries (Zurbrügg, 2003) 4

5 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Activities in the informal waste sector Credit: BAN Credit: Kessler Credit: ABF-BOKU Credit: Reuters / China Photo Credit: ABF-BOKU 5

6 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Activities 6 Credit: ABF-BOKU

7 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Informal sector (IS) of scientific interest? 7

8 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 The need for data 8

9 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) IS activities are well known in low-income countries and transition countries (e.g. also known in Central and Eastern Europe); Where formal sector has neither resources nor capabilities of providing waste services in sufficient quality, the IS closes the gap; IS usually keeps no records on its activities, therefore it is difficult to estimate its potential contribution to waste collection, processing and recycling services; Research at BOKU aims at providing KPIs that are suitable for estimating IS contribution. 9

10 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) KPIs can be used within initial appraisals of waste management systems for… …estimation of informal sector size and contribution to providing waste services; KPIs may be used for planning new or monitoring of existing WM-systems. 10

11 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 IS - KPIs Data obtained from an extensive literature review (more than 100 journal papers, reports, studies, books and policy papers etc.) => KPIs were compiled. KPIs were derived related to:  Reported size of IS in different regions of the world;  Collected amounts per day;  Income related information;  Job creation potential. 11

12 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Size of informal waste sector 1 % = 10 per 1,000 inhabitants Source: Linzner & Lange,

13 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Size of informal waste sector 1 % = 10 per 1,000 inhabitants Source: Linzner & Lange,

14 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Size of informal waste sector Informal waste sector in urban areas worldwide: ranging from approx. 0.5 % to 2 % of the population; This equals 12.5 to 56 million people (equivalent to the populations of Cambodia and Italy, respectively); In the three largest countries where informal activities can be observed (China, India and Brazil) the total estimated number of informal workers extends to approx. 6 to 12 million people. Informal waste sector in urban areas worldwide: ranging from approx. 0.5 % to 2 % of the population; This equals 12.5 to 56 million people (equivalent to the populations of Cambodia and Italy, respectively); In the three largest countries where informal activities can be observed (China, India and Brazil) the total estimated number of informal workers extends to approx. 6 to 12 million people. Source: Linzner & Lange,

15 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Performance of informal waste sector 15 => Mainly depending on material characteristics, topography etc. 6 – 7 km / d 9 – 40 kg / d 6 – 10 km / d 200 kg / d 10 – 15 km / d 500 kg / d 20 – 25 km / d kg / d 2,000 – 3,000 kg / d Photo credits: Left/up: EMPA, Left/mid: e jpg. Left/down: Right/up: 15

16 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Performance of informal waste sector 16

17 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Recycling rates Agarwal et al. (2005); Hetz et al.(2011); Sembiring & Nitivattananon (2010); Sengh et al. (2011); Wilson et al (2009); Scheinberg (2011). Recycling rates in EU-countries, e.g.: - e.g. UK: approx. 30% (2005) - Austria: approx. 50% (2006) 17

18 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Livelihoods – job generation Source: Linzner & Lange, 2013: based on ILSR (1997) and UN-Habitat (2010) data; Davis (2013) Final disposal: 1 Sorting: 10 Recycling based manufacturers: Re-use: 470

19 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Livelihoods – income  1 to 15 USD / day: incomes are often calculated based on material prices and therefore are not reflecting net incomes but revenues.  Per kg prices of collected materials may increase by a factor of 3 up the recycling hierarchy. 19 Source: Linzner & Lange (2013)

20 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 KPIs - shortcomings 20 KPIs are based on extensive literature research and are only indicative values. Calculations based on KPIs are therefore rough estimates. Informal waste sector realities vary from region to region; therefore estimates based on KPIs have to be cross-checked. On-the-ground research is indispensable in order to obtain “real life” data and information. It is not possible to evaluate informal activities from the distance!

21 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Modernisation of waste management systems: inclusive or competing systems? 21 Most of the programmes to improve / modernise waste mgmt. and / or to enhance recycling suggest that service coverage levels and service levels need to be improved by large-scale investments. In low-income countries and partly in transition countries informal systems are providing considerable collection and recycling rates but… …the informal stakeholders have a “non-governmental” perspective about waste and different values attached to it. Waste is seen as opportunity, a valuable material which could be collected, separated, traded and recycled for an income.

22 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Modernisation of waste management systems: inclusive or competing systems? 22 This view may be similar to that held by large global waste companies about the waste in high-income countries. Informal activities are large-scale in terms of number of income opportunities they may create and the number of customers they reach. Informal stakeholders make their own investments and have their own systems of technology development and innovation. This situation may create parallel worlds in waste policies and practice.

23 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Modernisation of waste management systems: inclusive or competing systems? 23 Main question: Use the knowledge and experience of the existing systems where IS plays a key role or strive for modernisation, excluding this knowledge, and focus more on large-scale technologies? Inclusivity in planning and implementing means that both informal and official systems are equally important and could exist side by side, rather than one needing to be a sub-set of the other. Care needs to be taken on how to design the interfaces between these two systems, especially when they interact.

24 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Modernisation of waste management systems: inclusive or competing systems? 24 Conventional waste-related data and use of planning methods could push out the informal systems, as these data sets are designed for conventional planning of waste systems, with the ultimate conclusion of more investment. Inclusive planning activities should consider extended data sets on informal activities, such as reliability of systems, quantities captured over time, quality of materials collected, achievable prices etc. In some cases, maybe it will be necessary to shut down some existing informal systems to create space for modern systems and vice versa. Such closures have to be handled carefully, with safeguards put in place through rehabilitation and substitution of livelihood programmes.

25 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/2014 Modernisation of waste management systems: inclusive or competing systems? 25 When both systems operate side by side, a monitoring of both systems is required to ensure that both are contributing to the same goals, although possibly through different pathways and approaches.

26 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/ MSW collected and transported plus informal sector estimates for urban China Source: Linzner & Salhofer (2014)

27 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/ MSW collected and transported plus informal sector estimates for Beijing Source: Linzner & Salhofer (2014)

28 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/ MSW generation in selected EU countries and urban China Source: Linzner & Salhofer (2014)

29 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/ IS performance in urban China and Beijing The results show an interval of approx – 0.93 % of the urban population or 3.3 to 5.6 million people involved in informal waste collection and recycling activities in urban China. This is equivalent to estimated informal recycling rates of approx. 17 to 38 w/w % of the MSW generated.

30 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/ References 1.Informal sector – Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) Linzner R and Lange U (2013). Role and size of informal sector in waste management – a review. Proceedings of the ICE - Waste and Resource Management Volume 166: 15. Linzner R, Pertl A, Scherhaufer S, Schmied E, Obersteiner G (2013). Parallel worlds - Informal work in waste management. Österreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft, 65, ISSN X. Linzner R, Salhofer S, Ali M (2013). Informal sector activities in waste management - a parallel world or worth integrating? In: Cossu R, He P, Kjeldsen P, Matsufuji Y, Reinhart D, Stegmann, R (Eds.) Sardinia Fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium (30. September - 4. October 2013, S. Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy). Executive Summaries - symposium proceedings, CISA Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre. ISBN Linzner R, Obersteiner G, (2012). Die unsichtbare Hand – Informelle Arbeit in der Abfallwirtschaft. Zeitschrift „politische ökologie“ Nr. 129 – 2012, Rohstoffquelle Abfall - Wie aus Müll Produkte von morgen werden, pp Verlag oekom. (Invisible hands – informal work in waste management). Siehe auch: Politische Ökologie, 129, 71-78; ISSN

31 ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop 09/10/ Content 2.Estimation of IS performance in urban China and Beijing Linzner R and Salhofer S (2014). Municipal solid waste recycling and the significance of informal sector in urban China. Waste Management and Research September 2014 (32): , first published on August 8, Case study Haidian (Beijing) – “Invisible hands” Publication in preparation.

32 University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna Department Water - Atmosphere - Environment Institute of Waste Management Tel.: +43 (0) , Fax: +43 (0) Muthgasse 107/3 rd floor, A-1190 Vienna


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