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**Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Instructions: Language of the Computer**

April 11, 2017 CprE 381 Computer Organization and Assembly Level Programming, Fall 2013 Chapter 2 Instructions: Language of the Computer Zhao Zhang Iowa State University Revised from original slides provided by MKP Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 Review of Week 4 MIPS procedure/function call convention Leaf and non-leaf examples Clearing array example String copy example Other issues: Load 32-bit immediate Assembler, loader, and compiler effects §2.8 Supporting Procedures in Computer Hardware Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 2 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**Announcements Exam 1 on Friday Oct. 4**

Course review on Wednesday Oct. 2 HW4 is due on Sep. 27 HW5 will be due on Oct. 11 Do HW5 as exercise before Exam 1 No HW and quizzes next week Lab 2 demo is due this week and Lab 3 demo due next week Lab 4 starts next week, due in one week Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 3

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**Exam 1 Open book, open notes, calculator are allowed**

E-book reader is allowed Must be put in airplane mode Coverage Chapter 1, Computer Abstraction and Technology Chapter 2, Instructions: Language of the Computer Some contents from Appendix B MIPS floating-point instructions Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 4

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**Exam Question Types Short conceptual questions**

Calculation: speedup, power saving, CPI, etc. MIPS assembly programming Translate C statements to MIPS (arithmetic, load/store, branch and jump, others) Translate C functions to MIPS (call convention) Among others Suggestions: Review slides and textbook Review homework and quizzes Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 5

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**Overview for Week 5 Overview for Week 5, Sep. 23 - 27**

Bubble sorting example It will be used in Mini-Projects Floating point instructions ARM and x86 instruction set overview Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 6

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**Classic Bubble Sorting**

Bubble sort: Swap two adjacent elements if they are out of order Pass the array n times, each time a largest element will float to the top Look at the first pass of five elements 1st try: => 2nd try: => 3rd try: => 4th try: => Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 7

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**Classic Bubble Sorting**

Pass i only has to check for (n-i) swaps In each pass, an element may float up until it meets a larger element The sorted sub-array increments by one 1st pass: => 2nd pass: => 3nd pass: => 4nd pass: => Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 8

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**Revised Bubble Sorting**

The textbook bubble-sort is optimized to reduce comparisons void sort (int v[], int n) { int i, j; for (i = 0; i < n; i++) { for (j = i – 1; j >= 0 && v[j] > v[j+1]; j--) swap(v, j); } Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 9

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**Revised Bubble Sorting**

The classic one let a largest element float to the top of the unsorted sub-array The revised one let an element float to its right place in the sorted sub-array 1st pass: => 2nd pass: => 3nd pass: => 4nd pass: => Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 10

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 The Swap Function The swap function is a leaf function void swap(int v[], int k) { int temp; temp = v[k]; v[k] = v[k+1]; v[k+1] = temp; } v in $a0, k in $a1, temp in $t0 §2.13 A C Sort Example to Put It All Together Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 11 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 The Swap Function swap: sll $t1, $a1, 2 # $t1 = k * 4 add $t1, $a0, $t1 # $t1 = v+(k*4) # (address of v[k]) lw $t0, 0($t1) # $t0 (temp) = v[k] lw $t2, 4($t1) # $t2 = v[k+1] sw $t2, 0($t1) # v[k] = $t2 (v[k+1]) sw $t0, 4($t1) # v[k+1] = $t0 (temp) jr $ra # return to calling routine Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 12 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The Sort Function Save $ra to stack, as it’s a non-leaf function**

for (i = 0; i < n; i++) { for (j = i – 1; j >= 0 && v[j] > v[j+1]; j--) swap(v, j); } Save $ra to stack, as it’s a non-leaf function Assign i and j to $s0 and $s1 They must be preserved when calling swap() Move v, n from $a0 and $a1 to $s2 and $s2 They must be preserved, too $a0 and $a1 are used when calling swap() We need a stack frame of 5 words or 20 bytes Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 13

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**Sort Prologue and Epilogue**

The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science 11 April 2017 Sort Prologue and Epilogue sort: addi $sp,$sp, – # make room on stack for 5 registers sw $ra, 16($sp) # save $ra on stack sw $s3,12($sp) # save $s3 on stack sw $s2, 8($sp) # save $s2 on stack sw $s1, 4($sp) # save $s1 on stack sw $s0, 0($sp) # save $s0 on stack … # procedure body … exit1: lw $s0, 0($sp) # restore $s0 from stack lw $s1, 4($sp) # restore $s1 from stack lw $s2, 8($sp) # restore $s2 from stack lw $s3,12($sp) # restore $s3 from stack lw $ra,16($sp) # restore $ra from stack addi $sp,$sp, # restore stack pointer jr $ra # return to calling routine Entry: Get a frame, save $ra and $s3-$s0 Exit: Restore $s0-$s3 and $ra, free the frame Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 14 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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Sort Function Body A new pseudo instruction move rd, rs is equivalent to add rd, rs, $zero Example move $s2, $a0 # $s2 = $zero move $s3, $a1 # $s3 = $a1 No use of pseudo assembly instructions in Exam 1 Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 15

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 Sort Function Body move $s2, $a # save $a0 into $s2 move $s3, $a # save $a1 into $s3 move $s0, $zero # i = 0 for1tst: slt $t0, $s0, $s # $t0 = 0 if $s0 ≥ $s3 (i ≥ n) beq $t0, $zero, exit1 # go to exit1 if $s0 ≥ $s3 (i ≥ n) addi $s1, $s0, – # j = i – 1 for2tst: slti $t0, $s1, # $t0 = 1 if $s1 < 0 (j < 0) bne $t0, $zero, exit2 # go to exit2 if $s1 < 0 (j < 0) sll $t1, $s1, # $t1 = j * 4 add $t2, $s2, $t # $t2 = v + (j * 4) lw $t3, 0($t2) # $t3 = v[j] lw $t4, 4($t2) # $t4 = v[j + 1] slt $t0, $t4, $t # $t0 = 0 if $t4 ≥ $t3 beq $t0, $zero, exit2 # go to exit2 if $t4 ≥ $t3 move $a0, $s # 1st param of swap is v (old $a0) move $a1, $s # 2nd param of swap is j jal swap # call swap procedure addi $s1, $s1, – # j –= 1 j for2tst # jump to test of inner loop exit2: addi $s0, $s0, # i += 1 j for1tst # jump to test of outer loop Move params Outer loop Inner loop Pass params & call Inner loop Outer loop Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 16 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**Sort Function Optimized**

Old version: void sort(int v[], int n) int i, j; for (i = 0; i < n; i++) { for (j = i – 1; j >= 0 && v[j] > v[j+1]; j--) swap(v, j); } New version: { int *pi, *pj; for (pi = v; pi < &v[n]; pi++) for (pj = pj - 1; pj >= v && swap(pj); pj--) {} Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 17

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New Swap Function A more efficient swap function that reduces memory loads // swap two adjacent elements if they are // out of order. Return 1 if swapped, 0 // otherwise int swap(int *p) { if (p[0] > p[1]) { int tmp = p[0]; p[0] = p[1]; p[1] = tmp; return 1; } else return 0; Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 18

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**New Swap Function A new swap function swap: lw $t0, 0($a0) # load p[0]**

slt $t2, $t1, $t0 # p[1] < p[0]? beq $t2, $zero, else sw $t1, 0($a0) # swap sw $t0, 4($a0) # swap addi $v0, $zero, 1 # $v0 = 1 jr $ra else: addi $v0, $zero, 0 # $v0 = 0 Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 19

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**New Sort Function The sort() function optimized Register usage**

$s0: v $s1: &v[n] $s2: pi $s3: pj Need a frame of 5 words to save $ra and $s0-$s2 Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 20

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**Sort Prologue and Epilogue**

sort: addi $sp, $sp, -20 # frame of 5 words sw $ra, 16($sp) sw $s3, 12($sp) sw $s2, 8($sp) sw $s1, 4($sp) sw $s0, 0($sp) lw $s0, 0($sp) lw $s1, 4($sp) lw $s2, 8($sp) lw $s3, 12($sp) lw $ra, 16($sp) addi $sp, $sp, 20 # release frame jr $ra MIPS code for sort function body Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 21

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New Sort: Outer Loop for (pi = v; pi < &v[n]; pi++) for (pj = pj - 1; pj >= v && swap(pj); pj--) {} add $s0, $a0, $zero # $s0 = v sll $a1, $a1, 2 # $a1 = 4*n add $s1, $s0, $a1 # $s1 = &v[n] add $s2, $s0, $zero # pi = v j for1_tst for1_loop: addi $s2, $s2, 4 # pi++ for1_tst: slt $t0, $s2, $s1 # pi < &v[n]? bne $t0, $zero, for1_loop # yes? repeat C code for the inner loop MIPS code for the inner loop Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 22

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**New Sort: Inner Loop addi $s3, $s2, -4 # pj = pi-1 j for2_tst**

for (pj = pi-1; pj >= v && swap(pj); pj--) {} addi $s3, $s2, # pj = pi-1 j for2_tst for2_loop: addi $s3, $s3, # pj-- for2_tst: slt $t0, $s3, $s # pj < v? bne $t0, $zero,for2_exit # yes? exit add $a0, $s3, $zero # $a0 = pj jal swap # swap(pj) bne $v0, $zero,for2_loop # ret 1? cont for2_exit: Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 23

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Lab Mini-Projects You will use the sorting code to test your CPU design in the lab mini-projects Use the new sorting code The new code is more optimized It will simplify the debugging Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 24

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**FP Instructions in MIPS**

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers 11 April, 2017 FP Instructions in MIPS Reading: Textbook Ch. 3.5 and B-71 – B80 FP hardware is coprocessor 1 Adjunct processor that extends the ISA Separate FP registers 32 single-precision: $f0, $f1, … $f31 Paired for double-precision: $f0/$f1, $f2/$f3, … Release 2 of MIPS ISA supports 32 × 64-bit FP reg’s Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers — 25 Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers

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**FP Instructions in MIPS**

FP instructions operate only on FP registers Programs generally don’t do integer ops on FP data, or vice versa More registers with minimal code-size impact Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 26

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**FP Instructions in MIPS**

FP load and store instructions lwc1, ldc1, swc1, sdc1 e.g., ldc1 $f8, 32($sp) lwc1, swc1: Load/store single-precision ldc1, swc1: Load/store double-precision Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 27

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**FP Instructions in MIPS**

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers 11 April, 2017 FP Instructions in MIPS Single-precision arithmetic add.s, sub.s, mul.s, div.s e.g., add.s $f0, $f1, $f6 Double-precision arithmetic add.d, sub.d, mul.d, div.d e.g., mul.d $f4, $f4, $f6 Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers — 28 Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers

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**FP Instructions in MIPS**

Single- and double-precision comparison c.xx.s, c.xx.d (xx is eq, lt, le, …) Sets or clears FP condition-code bit e.g. c.lt.s $f3, $f4 Branch on FP condition code true or false bc1t, bc1f e.g., bc1t TargetLabel Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 29

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**MIPS Call Convention: FP**

The first two FP parameters in registers 1st parameter in $f12 or $f12:$f13 A double-precision parameter takes two registers 2nd FP parameter in $f14 or $f14:$f15 Extra parameters in stack $f0 stores single-precision FP return value $f0:$f1 stores double-precision FP return value $f0-$f19 are FP temporary registers $f20-$f31 are FP saved temporary registers Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 30

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**Morgan Kaufmann Publishers**

11 April, 2017 FP Example: °F to °C C code: float f2c (float fahr) { return ((5.0/9.0) * (fahr )); } fahr in $f12, result in $f0 Assume literals in global memory space, e.g. const5 for 5.0 and const9 for 9.0 Can FP immediate be encoded in MIPS instructions? Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers — 31 Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers

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**FP Example: °F to °C Compiled MIPS code:**

f2c: lwc1 $f16, const5($gp) lwc1 $f18, const9($gp) div.s $f16, $f16, $f lwc1 $f18, const32($gp) sub.s $f18, $f12, $f mul.s $f0, $f16, $f jr $ra Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 32

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**FP Example: Function Call**

extern float fahr, cel; cel = f2c(fahr); Assume fahr is at 100($gp), cel is at 104($gp) lwc1 $f12, 100($gp) # load 1st para jal f2c swcl $f0, 104($gp); # save ret val Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 33

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FP Example: Max double max(double x, double y) { return (x > y) ? x : y; } max: c.lt.d $f14, $f12 # y < x? bc1f else # if false, do else mov.d $f0, $f12 # $f0:$f1 = x jr $ra else: mov.d $f0, $f14 # $f0:$f1 = y Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 34

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**FP Example: Max How to call max?**

Assume a, b, c at 100($gp), 108($gp), and 116($gp) extern double a, b, c; c = max(a, b); ldc1 $f12, 100($gp) # $f12:$f13 = a ldc1 $f14, 108($gp) # $f14:$f15 = b jal max sdc1 $f0, 116($gp) # c = $f0:$f1 Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 35

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**FP Example: Search Value**

int search(double X[], int size, double value) { for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) if (X[i] == value) return 1; return 0; } Note 1: There are integer and FP parameters, and the return value is integer Note 2: A real program may search a value in a range, e.g. [value - delta, value + delta] Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 36

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**FP Example: Search Value**

search: add $t0, $zero, $zero # i = 0 j for_cond for_loop: sll $t1, $t0, 3 # $t1 = 8*i add $t1, $a0, $t1 # $t1 = &X[i] lwc1 $f2, 0($t1) # $f2 = X[i] c.eq.d $f2, $f12 # X[i] == value? bc1f endif # if false, skip addi $v0, $zero, 1 # $v0 = 1 jr $ra # return endif: addi $t0, $t0, 1 # i++ for_cond: slt $t1, $t0, $a1 # i < size? bne $t1, $zero, for_loop # repeat if true add $v0, $zero, $zero # to return 0 jr $ra Chapter 1 — Computer Abstractions and Technology — 37

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**FP Example: Array Multiplication**

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers 11 April, 2017 FP Example: Array Multiplication X = X + Y × Z All 32 × 32 matrices, 64-bit double-precision elements C code: void mm (double x[][], double y[][], double z[][]) { int i, j, k; for (i = 0; i! = 32; i = i + 1) for (j = 0; j! = 32; j = j + 1) for (k = 0; k! = 32; k = k + 1) x[i][j] = x[i][j] y[i][k] * z[k][j]; } Addresses of x, y, z in $a0, $a1, $a2, and i, j, k in $s0, $s1, $s2 Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers — 38 Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers

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**FP Example: Array Multiplication**

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers 11 April, 2017 FP Example: Array Multiplication MIPS code: li $t1, # $t1 = 32 (row size/loop end) li $s0, # i = 0; initialize 1st for loop L1: li $s1, # j = 0; restart 2nd for loop L2: li $s2, # k = 0; restart 3rd for loop sll $t2, $s0, 5 # $t2 = i * 32 (size of row of x) addu $t2, $t2, $s1 # $t2 = i * size(row) + j sll $t2, $t2, 3 # $t2 = byte offset of [i][j] addu $t2, $a0, $t2 # $t2 = byte address of x[i][j] l.d $f4, 0($t2) # $f4 = 8 bytes of x[i][j] L3: sll $t0, $s2, 5 # $t0 = k * 32 (size of row of z) addu $t0, $t0, $s1 # $t0 = k * size(row) + j sll $t0, $t0, 3 # $t0 = byte offset of [k][j] addu $t0, $a2, $t0 # $t0 = byte address of z[k][j] l.d $f16, 0($t0) # $f16 = 8 bytes of z[k][j] … Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers — 39 Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers

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**FP Example: Array Multiplication**

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers 11 April, 2017 FP Example: Array Multiplication … sll $t0, $s0, # $t0 = i*32 (size of row of y) addu $t0, $t0, $s2 # $t0 = i*size(row) + k sll $t0, $t0, # $t0 = byte offset of [i][k] addu $t0, $a1, $t0 # $t0 = byte address of y[i][k] l.d $f18, 0($t0) # $f18 = 8 bytes of y[i][k] mul.d $f16, $f18, $f16 # $f16 = y[i][k] * z[k][j] add.d $f4, $f4, $f16 # f4=x[i][j] + y[i][k]*z[k][j] addiu $s2, $s2, # $k k bne $s2, $t1, L3 # if (k != 32) go to L3 s.d $f4, 0($t2) # x[i][j] = $f4 addiu $s1, $s1, # $j = j bne $s1, $t1, L2 # if (j != 32) go to L2 addiu $s0, $s0, # $i = i bne $s0, $t1, L1 # if (i != 32) go to L1 Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers — 40 Chapter 3 — Arithmetic for Computers

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**ARM & MIPS Similarities**

The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science 11 April 2017 ARM & MIPS Similarities ARM: the most popular embedded core Similar basic set of instructions to MIPS §2.16 Real Stuff: ARM Instructions ARM MIPS Date announced 1985 Instruction size 32 bits Address space 32-bit flat Data alignment Aligned Data addressing modes 9 3 Registers 15 × 32-bit 31 × 32-bit Input/output Memory mapped Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 41 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**Compare and Branch in ARM**

The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science 11 April 2017 Compare and Branch in ARM Uses condition codes for result of an arithmetic/logical instruction Negative, zero, carry, overflow Compare instructions to set condition codes without keeping the result Each instruction can be conditional Top 4 bits of instruction word: condition value Can avoid branches over single instructions Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 42 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 Instruction Encoding Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 43 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 The Intel x86 ISA Evolution with backward compatibility 8080 (1974): 8-bit microprocessor Accumulator, plus 3 index-register pairs 8086 (1978): 16-bit extension to 8080 Complex instruction set (CISC) 8087 (1980): floating-point coprocessor Adds FP instructions and register stack 80286 (1982): 24-bit addresses, MMU Segmented memory mapping and protection 80386 (1985): 32-bit extension (now IA-32) Additional addressing modes and operations Paged memory mapping as well as segments §2.17 Real Stuff: x86 Instructions Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 44 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 The Intel x86 ISA Further evolution… i486 (1989): pipelined, on-chip caches and FPU Compatible competitors: AMD, Cyrix, … Pentium (1993): superscalar, 64-bit datapath Later versions added MMX (Multi-Media eXtension) instructions The infamous FDIV bug Pentium Pro (1995), Pentium II (1997) New microarchitecture (see Colwell, The Pentium Chronicles) Pentium III (1999) Added SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) and associated registers Pentium 4 (2001) New microarchitecture Added SSE2 instructions Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 45 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 The Intel x86 ISA And further… AMD64 (2003): extended architecture to 64 bits EM64T – Extended Memory 64 Technology (2004) AMD64 adopted by Intel (with refinements) Added SSE3 instructions Intel Core (2006) Added SSE4 instructions, virtual machine support AMD64 (announced 2007): SSE5 instructions Intel declined to follow, instead… Advanced Vector Extension (announced 2008) Longer SSE registers, more instructions If Intel didn’t extend with compatibility, its competitors would! Technical elegance ≠ market success Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 46 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 Basic x86 Registers Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 47 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**Basic x86 Addressing Modes**

The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science 11 April 2017 Basic x86 Addressing Modes Two operands per instruction Source/dest operand Second source operand Register Immediate Memory Memory addressing modes Address in register Address = Rbase + displacement Address = Rbase + 2scale × Rindex (scale = 0, 1, 2, or 3) Address = Rbase + 2scale × Rindex + displacement Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 48 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**x86 Instruction Encoding**

The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science 11 April 2017 x86 Instruction Encoding Variable length encoding Postfix bytes specify addressing mode Prefix bytes modify operation Operand length, repetition, locking, … Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 49 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 Implementing IA-32 Complex instruction set makes implementation difficult Hardware translates instructions to simpler microoperations Simple instructions: 1–1 Complex instructions: 1–many Microengine similar to RISC Market share makes this economically viable Comparable performance to RISC Compilers avoid complex instructions Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 50 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 Fallacies Powerful instruction higher performance Fewer instructions required But complex instructions are hard to implement May slow down all instructions, including simple ones Compilers are good at making fast code from simple instructions Use assembly code for high performance But modern compilers are better at dealing with modern processors More lines of code more errors and less productivity §2.18 Fallacies and Pitfalls Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 51 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 Fallacies Backward compatibility instruction set doesn’t change But they do accrete more instructions x86 instruction set Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 52 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 Pitfalls Sequential words are not at sequential addresses Increment by 4, not by 1! Keeping a pointer to an automatic variable after procedure returns e.g., passing pointer back via an argument Pointer becomes invalid when stack popped Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 53 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 Concluding Remarks Design principles 1. Simplicity favors regularity 2. Smaller is faster 3. Make the common case fast 4. Good design demands good compromises Layers of software/hardware Compiler, assembler, hardware MIPS: typical of RISC ISAs c.f. x86 §2.19 Concluding Remarks Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 54 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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**The University of Adelaide, School of Computer Science**

11 April 2017 Concluding Remarks Measure MIPS instruction executions in benchmark programs Consider making the common case fast Consider compromises Instruction class MIPS examples SPEC2006 Int SPEC2006 FP Arithmetic add, sub, addi 16% 48% Data transfer lw, sw, lb, lbu, lh, lhu, sb, lui 35% 36% Logical and, or, nor, andi, ori, sll, srl 12% 4% Cond. Branch beq, bne, slt, slti, sltiu 34% 8% Jump j, jr, jal 2% 0% Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer — 55 Chapter 2 — Instructions: Language of the Computer

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1 1998 Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Machine Instructions: Language of the Machine Lowest level of programming, control directly the hardware Assembly instructions.

1 1998 Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Machine Instructions: Language of the Machine Lowest level of programming, control directly the hardware Assembly instructions.

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