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Early identification and prevention of difficulties in the acquisition of basic scholastic skills – reading and math Heikki Lyytinen Agora Centre & Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Early identification and prevention of difficulties in the acquisition of basic scholastic skills – reading and math Heikki Lyytinen Agora Centre & Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early identification and prevention of difficulties in the acquisition of basic scholastic skills – reading and math Heikki Lyytinen Agora Centre & Department of Psychology University of Jyväskylä Niilo Mäki Institute Finland Stockholm, 25. October, 2012

2 Overview of the content of this presentation Learning to read highly transparent orthography The developmental association between spoken and written language skills – highlights from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (JLD) Introduction to the JLD: goals and design Overview of the predictive relations and their modelling Early identification of children in need of support Supporting reading acquisition.. Learning the connections between spoken and written language using a learning game - Graphogame

3 The concept of reading skill Basic reading skill – ability to pronounce written words accurately Literacy – readiness to comprehend fluently written language; requires –sufficient mastery of the spoken language meant to be learned to read –accurate and fluent basic decoding skill –a lot of reading to acquire functional reading skill –appropriate vocabulary knowledge, motivation and strategy to comprehend the written language

4 Development of nonword reading accuracy during 1st Grade in different orthographies (Scottish data up to 2nd grade) Results from COST A8, Seymour, et al. 2003 Before school and then in equal time steps to the end of the 2.grade

5 Reading acquisition and the consistency of the connections between spoken and written language If the reading instruction is organized as it should… the time child needs for the acquisition of the basic reading skill is the shorter –the smaller the number of connections one has to learn (Finnish, Swedish.. < 30 letter-sounds) –the more consistent are the connections, ie. the fewer complexities/alternatives need to be learned and –the more optimally built phonics instruction is available for successfully engaging the child in training the skill

6 Jyväskylä Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (JLD; 1993-) The JLD research group Mikko Aro, Timo Ahonen, Kenneth Eklund, Tomi Guttorm, Jarmo Hämäläinen, Ritva Ketonen, Marja-Leena Laakso, Seija Leinonen, Matti Leiwo, Paavo Leppänen, Paula Lyytinen, Kurt Muller, Anna-Maija Poikkeus, Anne Puolakanaho, Ulla Richardson, Paula Salmi, Asko Tolvanen, Minna Torppa, Helena Viholainen..when biological factors compromise reading acquisition..

7 The goals of the JLD to identify (from children at familial risk for dyslexia) precursors of dyslexia predictors of compromised acquisition developmental paths leading to dyslexia The last step: the development of preventive measures

8 DEFINING FAMILIAL RISK IN THE JYVÄSKYLÄ LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF DYSLEXIA (JLD) SELECTION CRITERIA FOR THE AT-RISK FAMILIES: parents At least one parent with diagnosed dyslexia from multiple criteria Reported dyslexia among at least one of the first degree relatives IQ at least 85 (Raven matrices) No reported language problems in childhood or later No neurological or psychiatric symptoms No hearing problems For detals, see Leinonen et al. Reading and Writing, 2001

9 N = 108 N = 107 N = 107 N = 107 N = 107 N = 107 N = 95 N = 96 N = 94 N = 95 N = 93 N = 93 18 month 2 years 2½ years 3½ years 4½ years 5 years 5½ years N = 107 N = 93 Collection of the data continues N = 108 N = 107 N = 112 Neo- nata l 6 month 14 month N = 96 N = 94 N = 94 6½ years N = 107 N = 93 I grade II grade N = 108 N = 92 III grade N = 107 N = 92 I Screening II ScreeningIII Screening Short questionnaire administered at the maternity clinics N=8427 parents Compre- hensive questionnaire N=3146 parents Assessment of parents’ reading and spelling skills N=410 parents AT -RISK GROUP N=117 infants CONTROL GROUP N=105 infants Born at the hospitals of Central Finland during 01.04.93- 31.07.96 N= 9368 infants Number of children who have attended the last originally agreed assessment phase at the 3 rd grade AT -RISK GROUP N=108 children CONTROL GROUP N=92 children N = 151 5 N = 108 N = 92 CLASSMATES N = 2859 VII grade N = 85 N = 66 VIII grade N = 101 N = 81 N = 1537 IX grade N = 76 N = 73 N = 1508

10 Criteria of dyslexia among children Reading speed Reading 3 and 4 syllabic words and non words – mean response time Reading text – read words / minute Reading non word text – read words / minute Reading word list, standardized test – correctly read words in two minutes Reading and writing accuracy Reading 3 and 4 syllabic words and non words – correct / 40 Reading text – percentage of correctly read words Reading non word text – percentage of correctly read words Spelling words and non words – correct / 18 Measures taken at the end of the 2th grade at the averate age of 8 y. 9 months Criteria A child was diagnosed as dyslexic, if he / she scored below or at the 10 percentile of the contol group in at least 1.Three out of four speed measures OR 2.Three out of four accuracy measures OR 3.Two speed AND two accuracy measures

11 The reading status of children born at familial risk for dyslexia at school age Expectation of the genetic influences –> 1/2 would be affected (due to 1 parent’s dyslexia) The observed result: 42 /107 –compromised initial reading acquisition 48 / 107 –severe, persistent reading disorder 42 / 107

12 N=108 N = 38 1st gr 2nd gr At risk group Children with reading disability 3rd gr8th gr N=92 1st gr 2nd gr Control group 3rd gr8th gr N = 38 N = 36 N = 42 N = 10 N = 9 N = 10 N = 12

13 Age Variable 7 - yrs Reading accuracy & speed D 5 - yrs Naming speedP & D 4 - 6 yrs Phonological manipulationP & D 5 - 6 yrs Letter knowledgeP & D 5 - yrs Verbal memoryP & D 3 - 6 yrs Phonological sensitivity P & D 3 - 5 yrs Inflectional skills P & D 2 - 3 yrs Articulation accuracy P 2 yrs Maximum sentence length P & D 6 mth Speech perception P & D Birth ERP to speech sound P & D IDENTIFYING & PREDICTING RISK a summary of significant measures P = Predictors D = Differences between groups Lyytinen et al., Annals of Dyslexia, 2004; Dyslexia, 2004; Sage Handbook of Dyslexia, 2008

14 From: F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4 (Ag/AgCl-electrodes), referred to ipsilateral mastoid Bandpass: 0.5-35 Hz, sampling rate 200 Hz METHODS – ERP recording

15 Prediction for the very early ERPs Predictors: ERP responses to speech sounds which significantly differentiate children with and without risk Criterion measures: The most important language measures that predict early reading skills and early reading

16 Newborn ERPs in the at-risk group /ba/ /da/ /ga/ Guttorm, et al. (2005) Cortex 41, 291-303. F4 C3C4 P3P4 EogL 500ms EogR 5 µV _ + F3 540-630 ms Writing letters 6.5 y -.336* Reading 6.5 y -.329* Audio-phonemic associations 5.5 y -.451* Boston Naming Test 5.5 y -.311* Word identification 6.5 y -.308* Word identification 6.5 y -.339** Letter identification 6.5 y -.339* Phoneme Deletion 6.5 y -.339* Naming 1st Phoneme 6.5 y -.342* Rapid Naming: Faults 6.5 y.414* Word identification 6.5 y -.415**

17 3.54.555.56.5 Age (years) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0,85 2,68 3,74 6,21 14,03 3,09 10,41 13,57 16,59 25,41 Reading acquisition fails during 1. grade Reading acquisition normal during 1. grade The letter knowledge of 3.5-6.5 year olds (JLD) and reading acquisition Lettternames knownLettternames known Lyytinen et al., (2007) Nordic Psychology

18 Reading composite 2. gr. Reading composite, 1. gr. IQ, 5 y. Letter knowledge 5.5 y. Letter knowledge, 5 y. Letter knowledge, 4.5 y. Letter knowledge, 3.5 y. Rapid naming, 6.5 y. Rapid naming, 5.5 y. Phonological skills, 5.5 y. Phonological skills, 4.5 y. Phonological skills, 3.5 y. Pseudoword repetition, 3.5 y. Receptive speech, 2.5 y. -3-201 z-score (mean = 0, sd =1) Individual profiles of the prediction measures of the JLD children whose reading acquisition was most severely compromised Lyytinen, et al. Scand. J. of Psychology, 2009. From the JLD-follow-up from birth to school age of reading-related development

19 Precursors/predictors: conclusions Familial background increases the risk of dyslexia substantially – relatively the more so, the more severe reading difficulties are attended Speech perception is predictive from 6 months and does so at school age still after controlling for other known predictors Among at risk children very early language delays can be informative, both in the expressive and receptive language domains but receptive language may be more important Poor letter name learning predicts without false negatives (false positives should be accepted) Naming fluency predicts the most persistent difficulties …also when the phonological skills revealed by traditional assessment tools fail to predict

20 How to support reading acquisition among at risk children An enjoyable learning game: Graphogame

21 Graphogame The task: Catch the letter that matches the sound you hear! Competitor’s catcher Player’s catcher Falling letters Correctly chosen letters Player’s results Competitor’s results Mouse pointer Programming: Tuomo Hokkanen



24 GraphoMath

25 A learning environment for L1 and L2 spoken and written languages: Graphogame Introduces reading skill of any wanted language Teaches the phonetic basis of language with the help of written language –Tunes the speech perception for the use of a wanted language –Helps in training correct pronunciation of the sounds of a language –Introduces spoken words (vocabulary) via written language

26 How and where Graphogame works Applies phonics: trains the connections between spoken and written items in optimized order: from easy to differentiate to more similar phonemic units… from letter-sounds to syllables and words Adapts automatically to child’s actual skill level Guarantees experience of success (80%)

27 The cumulative number of learned items Hours of playing Exemplary learning curves of 4-8 year olds (N=726) Modelling: Janne Kujala

28 After 2. training session After 1. training session Before training Correctly assembled soundst 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 Order of training sessions: 1.Math game – 2.Letter-sound g. 1.Letter-sound g.– 2. Math game Ability to assemble sounds on the basis of letters

29 Screeni ng test (N=166) CARRI group (n=25) Main- stream group (n=116 ) RRI group (n=25) Subtes t 2 Subtes t 3 Subtes t 4 Subtes t 5 Post test Follow- up 1 IQ Estimatio n Remedial reading intervention (RRI) (T1-T6) Remedial reading intervention and computer- assisted instruction (CARRI) (T1-T6) Screenin g August Grade 1 Grouppin g Septemb er Grade 1 T1 October Grade 1 T2 Decembe r Grade 1 T3 January Grade 1 T4 March Grade 1 T5 May Grade 1 T6 August Grade 2 T8 August Grade 3 CARRI group = Computer assisted remedial reading intervention group Mainstream group = Mainstream reading instruction group RRI group = Remedial reading intervention group T7 May Grade 2 Follow- up 2 Saine et al., Child Development, 2011 (=1/4 of the remedial reading support session)

30 Saine et al., Child Development, 2011


32 Successful preventive practice Effective if not used too early, starting just before child enters school –practiced > 1 times per day in subsequent days –short < 12 minutes’ sessions –playing in so ”active” form as possible (by e.g. repeating the sounds) –the task of parents: to show that they are happy when child plays –playing long enough (2-20 hours) See: (where Finnish children play) for description and demo in English

33 For explanations, see Lyytinen et al., 2009

34 Illustration of the game developed byJanne Kujala

35 GG training of <5 hours affects brain Pre-Post GG: Children (n=15) before and after playing with Graphogame BA18/19 LG-FG, IFG No differenceCondition differences Post-pre interaction between groups playing Graphogame vs Mathgame (same with numbers): p<0.005 Condition differences Increased activation in occipito-temporal areas Words- False fonts HL and UR in collaboration with Swiss colleagues Daniel Brandeis, Sylvia Brehm Brem et al., PNAS, 2010, 107(17), 7939-7944.

36 Potential assessment use of Graphogame Dynamic assessment: –Online follow-up of the proceedings of the training of the letter-sound connections –Application of the observed results to guiding the next steps of the practice towards contents still in need of further practice i.e. integrating assessment and intervention as made in the response-to-intervention model …note, the cycle of refocussing the intervention can happen in seconds

37 Supporting Finnish children All children entering school this autumn are screened –for familial risk and/or letter knowledge < 7 Motivating children showing such a risk to play dynamic assessment version of Graphogame > resistance to training with optimal phonics  Children showing resistance (1-2%) followed individually for testing the limits of the Graphogame  Note: percentiles 3-15% trained successfully

38 GRAPHOLEARN model Ekapeli/Graphogame used under the responsibility and funding of the Ministry of Education in Finland > 200.000 users (2006-) Centralized automatized feedback from our servers Could work as main model for implementations elsewhere as well

39 The basic principles of Graphogame development for a new writing system Careful study of the written language environment with local experts for developing and implementing an appropriate content Evidence-based documentation of the efficiency of the game of the content before any distribution Distribution and use under the responsibility of the local Ministry of Education after research has shown its efficiency in a new orthographic/cultural environment

40 For more.., please, Call: +358 50 552 4892 Have a look of our research: Ask for reprint(s): The service for Finns: English: http://www.graphogame.com See also for the whole approach Thank you for your attention!

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