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CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL DISORDERS WHICH WAY? Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center.

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Presentation on theme: "CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL DISORDERS WHICH WAY? Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL DISORDERS WHICH WAY? Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

2 ICD-10 International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems This is used worldwide and published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Currently, it is in its 10 th revision. Chapter 5 is entitled Mental and Behavioral Disorders Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

3 ICD - Mental and Behavioral Disorders F0 Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders F1 Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use F2 Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders F3 Mood (affective) disorders F4 Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders F5 Behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors F6 Disorders of adult personality and behavior F7 Mental retardation F8 Disorders of psychological development F9 Behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence F10 Unspecified mental disorder Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

4 DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth revision The classification system used in the U.S. Developed by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

5 DSM 4 – Clinical Disorders 1. Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence 2. Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and Other Cognitive Disorders 3. Mental Disorders Due to a General Medical Condition Not Elsewhere Classified 4. Substance-Related Disorders 5. Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders 6. Mood Disorders 7. Anxiety Disorders 8. Somatoform Disorders (Disorders with somatic symptoms) 9. Facticious Disorders (Disorders involving faking) 10. Dissociative Disorders (for example multiple personalities) 11. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders 12. Eating Disorders 13. Sleep Disorders 14. Impulse Control Disorders Not Elsewhere Classified 15. Adjustment Disorders 16. Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

6 Classification Challenges Mental disorders comingle with other mental disorders. A person with a mood disorder (DSM-IV #6) might also at times have psychotic episodes (5) and at other times have serious sleep problems (13). A person with an adjustment disorder (15) might also be very anxious (7). Instead of each classification staying within neat boundaries... depression anxiety ADHD Alzheimer Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

7 Classification Challenges There can be overlap in symptoms, causes, and treatments. depression anxiety ADHD Alzheimer Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

8 Classification Challenges Much thought and research go into updating the DSM. Some disorders are added and some are deleted, so things change. depression anxiety ADHD Alzheimers autism Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

9 Classification Challenges Some publications go a safe route and list mental disorders alphabetically. Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

10 Classification Challenges Even the most dedicated professional can find it exhausting! Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

11 DSM History DSM-I, 1952 – 106 diagnoses DSM-II, 1968 – 185 diagnoses DSM-III, 1980 – 265 diagnoses DSM-IV, 1994 – 365 diagnoses Does this mean that more people are developing mental disorders? It means that our understanding of mental disorders is improving and diagnosis can be more specific. Instead of one classification for bipolar, now there are bipolar 1, bipolar 2, rapid cycling, and others. This enables diagnosis and treatment to be more accurate and effective. Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

12 DSM-V And if it’s not challenging enough to classify and organize the current knowledge about mental disorders, they keep updating. Publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) is scheduled for May Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

13 There is a proposed chapter reorganization. For instance, all of the chapters are organized in a developmental lifes pan fashion, starting with Neurodevelopmental Disorders, which often are diagnosed in infancy and early childhood, and progressing through diagnostic areas more commonly diagnosed in adulthood, such as Sleep-Wake Disorders. This revised chapter ordering also makes a greater attempt to closely situate diagnostic areas that seem to be related to one another, such as creating a specific category for Bipolar and Related Disorders and placing it immediately after Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders. Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.

14 Proposed DSM-5 Organizational Structure Neurodevelopmental Disorders Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders Bipolar and Related Disorders Depressive Disorders Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders Dissociative Disorders Somatic Symptom Disorders Feeding and Eating Disorders Elimination Disorders Sleep-Wake Disorders Sexual Dysfunctions Gender Dysphoria Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders Substance Use and Addictive Disorders Neurocognitive Disorders Personality Disorders Paraphilias Other Disorders Copyright © Notice: The materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of The Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas Tech University.


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