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Telecommunication (302) Theory: 2x3 hours/week (Monday 15.20-17.55, room: TA 323, Friday 13.30- 16.05, room: TG 107) Last lecture: 20. october, test: until.

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Presentation on theme: "Telecommunication (302) Theory: 2x3 hours/week (Monday 15.20-17.55, room: TA 323, Friday 13.30- 16.05, room: TG 107) Last lecture: 20. october, test: until."— Presentation transcript:

1 Telecommunication (302) Theory: 2x3 hours/week (Monday 15.20-17.55, room: TA 323, Friday 13.30- 16.05, room: TG 107) Last lecture: 20. october, test: until 31. october If the test result is 4 or 5, we accept it as an exam result, otherwise exam at the end of semester! Condition of the signature: completion of all laboratory excercises with documentations Laboratory excercises: 6 excercises: 3 „traditional” (in the first part of semester), 3 programming (in the second part of semester), room: TA 15/A

2 Telecommunication Instructor responsible: Dóra Maros Theory: 39 hours Teachers: Dóra Maros: standardization, concepts(6 hours) Tibor Gudra: networks basics (12 hours) Péter Antók: optical networks (3 hours) György Lukács: radio transmission (6 hours) Sándor Gyányi : IP (9 ) József Kármán: network management (3 hours) Test: 2 hours

3 Specifications, Standardization and Related Bodies

4 Comité Européen de Normalisation Électrotechnique; European Telecommunications Standards Institute International Telecommunication Union International Electrotechnical Commission International Organization for Standardization Szabályozási szervezetek Standardization Bodies WORLD EUROPE

5 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force International Federation for Information Processing Other Important Organizations

6 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies – ICTs.. 193 Member States, ITU membership includes ICT regulators, leading academic institutions and some 700 private companies. Goals: allocate global radio spectrum and satellite orbits, develop the technical standards that ensure networks and technologies seamlessly interconnect, and strive to improve access to ICTs to underserved communities worldwide. International Telecommunication Union (

7 International Telecommunication Union International Telecommunication Union Sectors Sectors: ITU-R: Radiocommunication ITU-T: Telecommunication Standardization ITU-D: Telecommunication Development

8 ITU-R The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) plays a vital role in the global management of the radio- frequency spectrum and satellite orbits. Global Management of services (land, sea, sky): fixed, mobile telecommunications broadcasting amateur radio space research emergency telecommunications meteorology global positioning systems environmental monitoring and communication services

9 ITU-T Assemble of experts from around the world to develop international standards known as ITU-T Recommendations which act as defining elements in the global infrastructure of information and communication technologies (ICTs).ITU-T Recommendations Standards are critical to the interoperability of ICTs and whether we exchange voice, video or data messages, standards enable global communications by ensuring that countries’ ICT networks and devices are speaking the same language.

10 ITU-D Core mission: foster international cooperation and solidarity in the delivery of technical assistance and in the creation, development and improvement of telecommunication equipment and networks in developing countries. Most important projects: Climate change: Facilitating carbon emission reductions and monitoring, mitigating impact and adapting to change. Emergency telecommunication: Maximizing the contribution of ICTs to disaster predication, detection and coordination. Cyber security: Fostering the integrity of ICT systems that is essential for their continued development. And others like: Regulatory & market environment (e.g roaming), ICT applications (e-health, e-government), Digital Inclusion (special solutzions for persons with disabilities, children etc.)

11 ITU Study Groups (SG) ITU-RITU-T (2013-2016)

12 ITU-T Documents ITU-T Recommendations: so called normative documents (more than 4000) ITU-T Recs have non-mandatory status until they are adopted in national laws. Technical papers (SG reports, case studies etc) Handbooks (on operation, network planning, quality of service, implementation guidelines)

13 European Telecommunications Standards Institute ( Officially recognized by the European Union as a European Standards Organization. ETSI is a not-for-profit organization with more than 750 ETSI member organizations drawn from 63 countries across 5 continents world- wide.

14 ETSI Membership ( Nemzeti Média és Hírközlési Hatóság

15 European Telecommunications Standards Institute ETSI Products and Services (

16 European Telecommunications Standards Institute Different types of ETSI standards Different types of documents allows us to meet the variety of needs within the different industries we serve: European Standard (EN) – Used when the document is intended to meet needs specific to Europe and requires transposition into national standards, or when the drafting of the document is required under a mandate from the European Commission (EC)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA). An EN is drafted by a Technical Committee and approved by European National Standards Organizations. ETSI Standard (ES) – Used when the document contains technical requirements. An ES is submitted to the whole ETSI membership for approval. ETSI Guide (EG) – Used for guidance to ETSI in general on the handling of specific technical standardization activities. It is submitted to the whole ETSI membership for approval.

17 ETSI Technical Specification (TS) – Used when the document contains technical requirements and it is important that it is available for use quickly. A TS is approved by the Technical Committee that drafted it. ETSI Technical Report (TR) – Used when the document contains explanatory material. A TR is approved by the Technical Committee that drafted it. ETSI Special Report (SR) – Used for various purposes, including to make information publicly available for reference. An SR is approved by the Technical Committee which produced it. ETSI Group Specification (GS) – Provides technical requirements or explanatory material or both. Produced and approved within our Industry Specification Groups (ISGs). European Telecommunications Standards Institute Different types of ETSI standards

18 European Telecommunications Standards Institute HOW we can find technical specifications? IMPORTANT! IF YOU'RE INTERESTED IN THE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AUTHENTIC SOURCES ALWAYS WORK! Use ETSI documentations libary! ALL STANDARDS ARE AVAILABLE ON WEBPAGE AND FREE OF CHARGE! Let’s look:

19 European Telecommunications Standards Institute ETSI Clusters ETSI clusters provide a simple, easy to grasp overview of ETSI activities in ICT standardization. grasp: to understand sth completely

20 Third Generation Partnership Project 3GPP specialised for mobile broadban standards Technical Committees

21 3GPP the Main Body of Mobile Communicatons Standards Members : 3GPP produces Technical Specifications, to be transposed by relevant Standardization Bodies (Organizational Partners) into appropriate deliverables (e.g., standards).

22 3GPP Specifications Releases and Numbering The RELEASE is a group of specificitaions. First was R99 (about 2000)! Then: R4…..R12 (Better way to find mobile standards!)

23 Internet Engineering Task Force  IETF is a large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. It is open to any interested individual.  Memos in the Requests for Comments (RFC) document series contain technical and organizational notes about the Internet. They cover many aspects of computer networking, including protocols, procedures, programs, and concepts, as well as meeting notes, opinions.

24 IETF WG-k Working Groups (WGs) work on special fields:


26 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Eye-triple-E IEEE is the world's largest professional association dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity. Its members inspire a global community through IEEE's highly cited publications, conferences, technology standards, and professional and educational activities. IEEE’s roots go back to 1884 when electricity began to become a major influence in society. There was one major established electrical industry, the telegraph, which since the 1840s had come to connect the world with a data communications system faster than the speed of transportation.

27 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE Membership  more than 430,000 members in more than 160 countries, more than 50 percent of whom are from outside the United States;  more than 120,000 Student members from 80 countries;  333 sections in ten geographic regions worldwide;  432 affinity groups - IEEE Affinity Groups are non-technical sub-units. Eg. IEEE-USA Consultants' Network, Graduates of the Last Decade Young Professionals (YP), Women in Engineering (WIE), and Life Members (LM).

28 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE Xplore Date: 7 September 2014 Journals from 1872!

29 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE Xplore Standards xpl/standards.jsp

30 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE standards The best known IEEE standard is IEEE 802.11 WLAN

31 Hungarian Authority Its task is to ensure the undisturbed operation, in compliance with pertaining legislation in force, of the media and the markets for electronic communications, postal and information technology services. The Authority has an active role in the work of international organisations: ITU, ETSI, IETF and others Nemzeti Média és Hírközlési Hatóság

32 NMHH Main Activities Nemzeti Média és Hírközlési Hatóság Legistlation: Becoming familiar with the most important items of Hungarian legislation on the regulation of electronic communications, postal services, and the regulation of the IT and media markets (acts and decrees). Official statements: Statements include publication of notices on given procedures where the law requires publication through notice. Statements describing the details of given procedures and calling attention to them in this way help accurate high-standard fulfilment of provisions of law and supply of current information to the consumers and customers.

33 NMHH Main Activities Nemzeti Média és Hírközlési Hatóság Frequency management: is an activity performed in order to ensure the undisturbed operation of radio communications and other, non-telecommunications services Services, appliances, constructions: the authority accepts and judges the notifications of services in conformity with legal prescriptions, registers the services and service providers belonging to its competence, determines the obligatory technical and operational conditions for sake of integrity of the communications network.

34 NMHH Main Activities Nemzeti Média és Hírközlési Hatóság Numbering: the numbers, addresses and the ranges of those needed for operation of communications networks and for the provision of services - the identifiers – are scarce resources. The available identifiers are registered in the national allocation plan of identifiers which stipulates the distribution of all the identifiers among the activities and services, the type, allocation and dimension of identifiers. E-signature, E-advertisement: supervises the services and service providers connected with the electronic signature, and checks the operation of the organizations appointed for certifying the conformance of the electronic signature products.

35 NMHH Main Activities Information on market: Communicaton market data, reports, Market analysis, Market surveillance, Communication statistic database, Market research

36 Telecommunications Networks and their Scope

37 Telecommunication Networks Network part which the end user does not see much

38 Telecommunication Networks User part which the operator does not see much

39 …and between.. which no one can see anything

40 The electronic transmission of information over distances, called telecommunications, has become virtually inseparable from computers. Computers and telecommunications create value together. The information may be in the form of voice telephone calls, data, text, images, or video. Today, telecommunications are used to organize more or less remote computer systems. A telecommunications network is an arrangement of computing and telecommunications resources for communication of information between distant locations. Telecommunication Networks Definition

41 Telecommunication Networks Geographical Scope 1. Terminals for accessing the network 2. Computers that process information and are interconnected by the network 3. Telecommunications links that form a channel through which information is transmitted from a sending device to a receiving device. 4. Telecommunications equipment that facilitates the transmission of information. 5. Telecommunications software that controls message transmission over the network.

42 Geographical Scope Wide Area Network Metropolitan Area Network Local Area Network Personal Area Network

43 Techniques in radio communicaton

44 Computer networks

45 Basic topologies

46 Wide Area Network Swicthing 1. Leased line: Point-to-Point connection between two computers or Local Area Networks (or users), fix monthly fee Safe but expensive (e.g ATM bank automats) 2. Circuit switched, (SC): A dedicated circuit path is created between end points. Best example is dialup connections (phone call) Slow, not too expensive

47 3. Packet swiched (PS): The information is sent in separated packets Connection oriented: Devices transport packets via a shared single point-to-point or point-to-multipoint link across a carrier internetwork. Before information can be exchanged between two endpoints, they first establish a Virtual Circuit. Variable length packets are transmitted Connectionless: Between endpoints no connection is build; endpoints can just offer packets to the network, addressed to any other endpoint and the network will try to deliver the packet. As an example: the Internet Wide Area Network Swicthing

48 Wide Area Network Swicthing 4. Cell relay : Similar to packet switching, but uses fixed length cells instead of variable length packets. Data is divided into fixed-length cells and then transported across virtual circuits Before 2000 this was seen as the best option for simultaneous use of voice and data. (ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

49 Circuit Switching (CS)  Phone call (fix, mobile)  Data (modem)  Problems: lf Switching node is overloaded the connection is not established  If connection is established, services quality is good!

50  Internet (fix, mobile)  Data, voice (VoIP), video, audio  Problems: packet delay, congestion in nodes  Connection established, but some packets are lost (causes bad quality) Packet Switching (PS)

51 Cell relay (outdated)

52 Multiple Access, MA FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) Frequency ITime TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) 1 channek = 1 timeslot CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) 1 channel = 1 code Time MA: Many users share a common resource NMT 450 GSM UMTS 1 channel = 1 frequency Frequency

53 OFDMA Space Division Multiple Access, SDMA Multiple Access, MA 4G mobile and Wlan4G-5G futute networks

54 FDMA: user on different frequency subbands to share the available bandwith TDMA: user on same frequency subbands but in different times (timeslots) FDMA and TDMA

55 CDMA transmitter using DS CDMA Users transmit on same frequency band in the same time, the original info is multiplied by a special code Each user has a unique code c 1 (t) s 1 (t) c 2 (t) s 2 (t) c n (t) s n (t) ∑ Acos(ω c t) f(Hz) Power f(Hz) Power S TX Pseudo-zaj 1 Pseudo-zaj 2 Pseudo-zaj 3 Backround noise Power Modulator spreading DS: Direct sequence C 1 -Cn: channek codes

56 f(Hz) Received channel f c =  c /2  c 1 (t) f c =  c /2  Band filter The received signal is the SUM of all channels on the carrier frequency  Channel despreading means the multiplication (XOR) of channel signel and the channel code. S RX interferenceChannel Received signal Demodulator CDMA receiver using DS CDMA Processing gain

57 Channelization Codes (I.)  ACF (AC Function): → L lengh bit sequence and its shifted version is compared CC: Number of Equal bit in the same position NCC: Number of not Equal bit in the same position Auto-correlation and cross-correllation for digital codes  CCF (CC Function): two totally different bit sequence is compared bit by bit  Orthogonal codes: CCF = 0

58 Chanellization Codes (II.) Walsh code Walsh, or Walsh-Hadamard codes: Codes are orthogonal in the same matrix (CCF = 0) Walsh matrix: n x n matrix m: matrix size i: matrix row (0…n)

59 CDMA FH-Frequency hopping FH: Many subbands, transmittion hops between carriers For each user a sequence of frequencies is allocated, there is no the same carrier for two or more channels at the same time Channel B: 7-9-1-14-10-5-13-2-11 Channek C: 9-2-4-11-8-14-10-6-3

60 Subcarrier are orthogonal, they don’t disturb each other OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access LTE (4G) spectrum: one user transmits on two or more subcarriers

61 Narrow band and wide band transmission Narrow bandWide band GSM channel Bandwidth: 200 KHz 3G UMTS channel Bandwidth: 5 MHz

62 OFDMA vs. FH CDMA OFDMA: more carriers for one user at the same time FH CDMA: one carrier for one user in different times Channel 3: C-H Channel 1: A-F Channel 2: C-H

63 TDMA: Different timeslots CDMA: Different codes FDMA: one user, one carrier OFDMA: more then one carriers at the same time Single Carrier and Multi Carrier Systems FH: more carriers, transmission is hopping t1 (c1) t2 (c2) t3 (c3) t1 t2 t3 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f1 f2 f3 f4 f1 f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 t1 t2 t3

64 Downlink Uplink FDD: Uplink-downlink fr. Bands (2G és 3G) TDD: same carrier for UL and DL (4G) B(dl):bandwidth B(ul) B(dl)=B(ul) fk(dl) fk(ul): middle frequency fk(dl)-fk(ul)= duplex distance Downlink Uplink Duplexing (mobil) time

65 Duplexing (ADSL)

66 keretidő t t f f Guard band FDD vs. TDD

67 Traffic problems in the network Connection is not establish because no free channel, (1) tipical in mobile cells. Connection is not establish because the switching node (2) is overloaded. Connection is not establish because the transmission lines (3) are overloaded. 1 2 3

68 Traffic problems in the network The cause of congestion: accident (softver upgrade)

69 Traffic problems in the network The cause of congestion: some users need bigger bandwidth (youtube, on-line games etc) Car vs Truck

70 The cause of congestion: (maintenance in the network) Traffic problems in the network

71 Thank you for Attention!

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