Presentation on theme: "The Percussion Family For the Concert Setting By: Nicole Morrissey."— Presentation transcript:
The Percussion Family For the Concert Setting By: Nicole Morrissey
Pitched vs.. Unpitched Pitched Skin, Metal, and Wood When hit, these instruments produce a pitched sound Unpitched Skin, Metal, and Wood When hit, these instruments produce an unpitched sound.
Pitched Skin Timpani Construction: Head - There is one head for each timpano made out of calf skin or plastic. The head produces the sound of the drum. Pull Rod - These metal rods connect to the pedal and the “t” screws to adjust tuning Bowl - Serves as a frame to support the other parts. It functions as a resonator for the sound produced from the head. Tension Screws - used for tuning. Head tension increases when turned clockwise. Counter-Hoop - This pulls the head over the edge of the bowl and hold the “t” screws. Struts - Suspends the bowl so it can resonate more freely. Pedal - Makes changes in the pitch of the drum Collar - The distance between the edge of the bowl and the counter-hoop. Compression Spring Control Knob - This compresses a spring that counteracts the tension of the head. It allows to pedal to remain in any desired position.
Sound Production When playing the timpani, one should lean slightly over the drum. The arms should hang relaxed, and the angle between the mallets should form a triangle. The striking spot should happen 2 - 5 inches away from the edge of the head.
Pitched Metal Chimes Construction: Tubes - These metal tubes are suspended to produce sound when struck. Striking Cap - This refers to the top of the tube where it is struck from the side. Damper Pedal - This pedal sustains the ringing of the tubes when pushed down. Felt Damper Bar - this absorbs the vibrations of the tubes when touching them.
Pitched Metal Chimes Range: Chimes sound where written from C4 - F5 And are read in the treble clef. Sound Production: Chimes are played with wooden mallets, or hammers.
Pitched Metal Vibraphone Construction: Keyboard Bars - Made from aluminum and are suspended by a rod for maximum vibration. Resonators - These amplify the tone of the bars. A disk is located at the top of each that turns by a motor, opening and closing the resonator creating a vibrato effect. Motor - This turns the disks and can be adjusted to various speeds. Damper Pedal - When this is pressed down, the felt bar removes from the bars to allow them to vibrate freely.
Pitched Metal Vibraphone Range/Clef: The vibraphone is notated in the treble clef and ranges from F3 - F6. It sounds as written Sound Production: Varying degrees of hard wood or plastic mallets are used for the vibraphone. The bars should be struck in the center to allow for maximum vibration. Vibraphone Sound Production
Pitched Wood Marimba Construction: Keyboard Bars - These bars vary in size and are made from Honduras Rosewood. Suspension String - This string threads through the bars, suspending them to allow for vibration. Resonators - These aluminum pipes are found under the bars to amplify the sound.
Pitched Wood Marimba Range/Clef: The marimba sounds where written and can range from C3 - C7, with some extending from A2 - C7. It can be notated in bass, treble, or grand staff. Sound Production: The marimba can be played with soft to medium hard, usually rubber, mallets. It’s mallets are usually wrapped with yarn to produce a soft tone.
Pitched Wood Xylophone Construction: The xylophone has the same parts as the marimba, except the length of the resonators are different compared to the marimba. Range/Clef: The xylophone sounds an octave higher written and its written range is from F3 - F6. It is notated in the treble clef.
Pitched Wood Xylophone Sound Production: The xylophone’s tone is a lot harsher compared to the marimba’s. Its bars are made from the same wood but from different parts of the tree, which changes the quality of sound. It is played with hard mallets made from wood or plastic.
Unpitched Skin Snare Drum Construction: Head - The top head, which you hit, is called the batter head and is thicker than the bottom head also called the snare head. The snare head is thinner so that is can vibrate and in turn cause the snares to also vibrate. Shell - The drum’s skeleton that supports all other parts. These can be made from chrome plated steel, wood, copper, fiberglass, or plastic. “T” Rods and Lugs - The eight “T” rods can be turned clockwise to increase the tension of the drum heads and vice versa. The rods screw into the lugs that are located on the side of the shell. Air Vent - A hole in the side of the shell allows the compressed air to escape after the batter head is hit. The compressed air could split the head if there was no way for it to escape. Snares - These stretch the diameter of the snare head and are made from coiled steel. They give the drum its sound by vibrating against the snare head.
Unpitched Skin Snare Drum Construction Snare Extension String - This connects the ends of the snares with the throw-off switch. Throw-Off Switch - This adjusts the amount of tension of the snares against the head. Flesh Hoop - This wood, aluminum, or steel hoop goes over the shell and under the counter-hoop. The drum head tucks around it. Counter-Hoop - This metal hoop pulls the flesh hoop down over the shell of the drum. Ton Control - This felt pad inside the drum absorbs the vibrations made from striking the head and can be adjusted by a knob on the shell.
Unpitched Skin Snare Drum Sticks: Drum sticks come in various sizes. For beginners, the sticks should not be to large for the student’s hands. Teachers should look for even weight and straightness in drum sticks. Sound Production: The snare drum is played on a stand that should come to about hip level. The arms should hang relaxed. The sticks should immediately rebound off the head after being struck in order for the vibrations to last.
Unpitched Skin Bass Drum Construction: The bass drum has the same parts as a snare drum except both of its heads are the same thickness. Also, the bass drum does not have snares, or any of the parts relating to the snares. Mallets: The bass drum mallet has a ball of wool on each end with one ball being slightly larger than the other. It is held between the thumb and index finger with the other fingers curled around the stick.
Unpitched Skin Bass Drum Sound Production: The bass drum should be struck at a glance half-way between the center and the upper edge of the drum head. Damping: To stop the vibrations, the player must dampen the other drum head by placing his/her fingertips on the head. For a stronger damp, the entire palm of the hand should rest against the head of the drum.
Unpitched Metal Crash Cymbal Construction: Edge - Three inches around the circumference of the cymbal. Bow - The part, including the edge that extends up toward the cup. Cup - The center of the cymbal that is raised. Cymbals are maid in several different weights. Lighter weight cymbals produce a sharper, crisper sound, and heavier cymbals produce a slower, heavier sound. Sound Production: The crash cymbals should be gripped by the straps. The left cymbal should be held stationary while the right cymbal swipes the left one at a glance moving from the bottom to the top
Unpitched Metal Triangle Construction: Triangles are made from aluminum or steel and are usually played with a steel beater. They range in size from 6 - 10”. Sound Production: The triangle should be suspended freely in the air. It can be struck from the bottom or the side. A roll is played by alternately striking the sides at a corner.
Unpitched Wood Temple Blocks Construction: These wooden or hard plastic blocks come in sets of five. They are hallow in the middle and are played using mallets. Sound Production: They can be tuned to a pentatonic scale. Even though they are considered and unpitched instrument, they can discern certain pitches. The smaller blocks produce higher pitches than the larger blocks.
Concert Grand Piano Piano Construction: The concert grand, by definition, is 9 feet long. Case - This is the outer shell of the piano that is made first from maple, spruce, or pine. It is made from thin sheets of wood that have to be glued together and them put into a press to shape it. The piano top, lid, legs, and braces are also made from wood. Sound Board - This is located under the strings as it amplifies the sound produced by the strings. Bridge - This strip of wood is fits on top of the sound board to fasten the strings. Once this step is finished, the sound board is placed in the case on top of the braces. Plate - This is made of cast iron and supports the 240 metal strings. It weighs around 325 lbs. because it has to support the tension of the strings. This part is suspended on top of the sound board.
Concert Grand Piano Construction: Strings - The thinner strings vibrate at faster speeds producing the higher notes. Conversely, the thicker strings produce the lower notes. Pedal - The sustain pedal lifts the dampers on the strings and allows them to vibrate freely.
Piano Action 1. The key (1) is pressed down. 2. The key lifts the underlever (2) which lifts the damper (3) off of the string (4). 3.While all this happens, the capstan screw (5) pushes up the support (6) that flips the hammer (7) to strike the string. There are 88 keys on the piano and this process has to happen for each key. The way you strike the key determines the quality of sound. It is notated on the grand staff and ranges from A0 - C8.
Sources http://www.philharmonia.co.uk/thesoundexchange/the _orchestra/http://www.philharmonia.co.uk/thesoundexchange/the _orchestra/ Stomp DVDs (for info click here) Percussion Manual for Music Educators by: Joel Leach The Piano Makers by: David Anderson
Works Cited Leach, Joel. Percussion Manual for Music Educators. New York: Henry Alder INC, 1964. Anderson, David. The Piano Makers. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984. http://www.philharmonia.co.uk/thesoundexch angehttp://www.philharmonia.co.uk/thesoundexch ange http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/appe ndix/instruments/instrumentmain.htmlhttp://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/appe ndix/instruments/instrumentmain.html http://www.orchestralibrary.com/reftables/ran g.htmlhttp://www.orchestralibrary.com/reftables/ran g.html