Alpha Processor architecture designed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) –Purchased by Compaq –Purchased by HP The alpha is a 64-bit RISC processor similar to quite similar to MIPS The alpha is also dead The alpha processor handbook is a superb piece of documentation
Alpha “Alpha AXP is a 64-bit load/store RISC architecture that is designed with particular emphasis on the three elements that most affect performance: clock speed, multiple instruction issue, and multiple processors.” The first implementation issues 2 instructions per cycle.
Alpha 32 Integer registers, all 64 bits wide. 32 floating point registers, all 64 bits wide 2 Lock registers Processor cycle counter register
Alpha 32 bit instruction words 312625212016150 opcoderarbMemory_disp Memory Format 31262521200 opcoderaBranch_disp Branch Format
Alpha 32 bit instruction words 312625212016150 opcoderarb opcodera Operate Format rcSBZ0Function rcFunction1LIT 13121154 3126252120013121154
Alpha Alpha assembly convention has destination register last –add $t0, 4, $t1# $t1 = $t0 + 4
Alpha Jump instruction uses a memory format encoding –Destination specified in Rb –Displacement field used to hint where the jump encoded in Rb will go, allowing early I- cache fill
Alpha s4add,s8add, s4sub, s8sub –Scaled addition/subtraction by 4 and 8 respectively –How would you do this in MIPS?
Alpha Conditional move integer (CMOVxx) –cmoveq $t0, 4, $t1# $t1 = 4 if $t0 eq 0 –cmovge $t0, $t1, $t2# $t2 = $t1 if $t0 ge 0 –How would you do this in MIPS? $t1 = MAX($t1, $t2) –cmplt $t1, $t2, $t3 –cmovne $t3, $t2, $t1 What is nice from an architecture point of view about the cmov instructions?
Alpha No divide instruction –Compiler must provide divide routines All memory accesses must be on a 64-bit word aligned boundary –Tedious when all you want is a single byte. –BWX extensions added in a later revision
SPARC Designed at the same time as the MIPS –MIPS was a Stanford project SPARC descended from the RISC project at Berkeley –Scalable Processor ARChitecture –was more successful than the MIPS project. –MIPS (and other processors like it) are known as RISC processors.
SPARC Concept of register windows –processor has up to 128 registers 32 are visible at any one time 8 global –8 local to current procedure Store temporary variables, intermediate working –16 shared with adjacent procedures Used to pass parameters and return values between functions
SPARC GPF1 - F2F2 – F3F2, local Function 2, 24 registers GPF2 – F3F3 – F4F3, local Function 3, 24 registers Global
SPARC Register Windows –alternative to going through tedious procedure entry / exit sequences where registers are saved to a stack –MIPS designers leave precise register usage up to compilers
Intel i386 registers are not general purpose –instructions expect their operands in specific registers destination can be either a memory location or a register complex instruction formats –somewhat restrictive too –in arithmetic instructions, the destination has to match one of the sources.
Intel i386 CPU does not require aligned access –instruction length varies, 1 – 17 bytes. 80386 can access byte, 16-bit, and 32-bit parameters –most operations provide two parameter length modes –choice between 16bit and 32bit made with bit in code segment register.