T HE F IVE C ATEGORIES OF L EARNING O UTCOMES Intellectual skills (“knowing how” or having procedural knowledge) Verbal information (being able to state ideas, “knowing that”, or having declarative knowledge) Cognitive strategies (having certain techniques of thinking, ways of analyzing problems, and having approaches to solving problems) Motor skills (executing movements in a number of organized motor acts such as playing sports or driving a car) Attitudes
H OW TO USE THIS THEORY ??? 1. Gain attention - show variety of computer generated triangles Example: Teacher tells learners how he has used Kidspiration in the classroom. teacher asks questions to leaners
2. Identify objective - pose question: "What is an equilateral triangle?" Example: Teacher says, "Today I am going to show you how to use a multimedia presentation software called Kidspiration."
3. Recall prior learning - review definitions of triangles Example: For this particular group of learners, they have learned previously about Mind Mapping and Schemata. Teacher associates this knowledge with lesson at hand.
H OW TO USE THIS THEORY ??? Individualism versus collectivism. Example: China as a Homogeneous Culture Wealth. There is a strong relationship between a nation’s wealth and individualism. Geography. Countries with moderate and cold climates tend to show more individualism. Birth rates. Countries with higher birth rates tend to be collectivist. History
4. INNOVATION DIFFUSION THEORY ( EVERETT ROGERS )
H OW TO USE THIS THEORY ??? 1. Attributes of innovation Examples: What qualities make an innovation spread. The importance of peer-peer conversations and peer networks. Understanding the needs of different user segments.
2. Time dimension Example: Persuasion Decision Implementation Confirmation
5. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY (L EON F ESTINGER ) Leon Festinger is perhaps best known for his theory of cogniti ve dissonance. According to this theory, people experience tension or discomfort when their beliefs are true.
H OW TO USE THIS THEORY ??? Example: Changing one or more of the elements involved in dissonant relations. Adding new cognitive elements that are consonant with already existing cognition. Decreasing the importance of the elements involved in the dissonant relations