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Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse

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Presentation on theme: "Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse"— Presentation transcript:

1 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse

2 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse

3 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
How often do you see drugs being used?

4 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
What are drugs? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse A drug is any chemical substance that affects the physiological state of the body, such as how the central nervous system (CNS) works. Drugs can be categorized according to whether they are legal or illegal, or by the type of effect they have on the body. For example: stimulants – e.g. caffeine, cocaine depressants – e.g. alcohol, solvents painkillers – e.g. aspirin, heroin hallucinogens – e.g. LSD performance enhancers – e.g. anabolic steroids.

5 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
What do stimulants do? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Stimulants speed up the activity of the nervous system by increasing the release of neurotransmitters at certain synapses in the brain. This causes: increased alertness improved memory and endurance raised heart rate and blood pressure reduced appetite. Photo credit: Craig Jewell Common stimulants include caffeine, nicotine, cocaine and ecstasy.

6 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
What do depressants do? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Depressants slow down the activity of the nervous system by reducing the release of neurotransmitters at certain synapses in the brain. This results in sleepiness and reduced anxiety, but high doses can lead to addiction. Common depressants include alcohol, solvents and barbiturates. Photo credit: Gokhan Okur Some depressants, such as heroin, also reduce pain.

7 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
Why take drugs? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Medicinal drugs (e.g. painkillers, antibiotics) are used to treat diseases or disorders. They are obtained either with a prescription or over-the-counter at a pharmacy. Recreational drugs (e.g. alcohol, nicotine, ecstasy) are used for leisure purposes, because they cause changes in mood, behaviour or perception. Photo credit: Adam Ciesielski

8 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
Which type of drug? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Teacher notes Appropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this classification activity to increase class participation.

9 Why do drugs need to be controlled?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Illegal drugs have no quality control. It is impossible to know how strong the dose is, or which substances the drugs have been mixed (‘cut’) with. Some drugs may only be 1% pure. Medicinal drugs can be equally dangerous. Doctors are careful to prescribe the right amount of medicine to prevent patients from overdosing. How are prescription and over-the-counter drugs developed?

10 How are new drugs developed?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse

11 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
Drug trials Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Few drugs successfully pass each stage of development. For every new drug launched, thousands are abandoned. To minimize bias in drug trials, patients and doctors are not told who receives the study drug and who takes a placebo: an inactive substance that looks like the drug. This is called a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. How does this help? Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation The drug must be tested in thousands of patients to see how effective and safe it is. Why are so many patients needed?

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What was thalidomide? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Thalidomide was a drug used in the 1950s and 1960s as a sleeping pill. However, pregnant women who were given the drug to prevent morning sickness gave birth to babies with limb deformities. How did this happen? The drug manufacturers had tested thalidomide in animals, but the tests on pregnant animals had not been completed. Since then, drugs have had to be tested according to very strict guidelines. Thalidomide is now being tested for the treatment of diseases such as leprosy and some cancers.

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14 What are controlled substances?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse In Britain, illegal drugs are called controlled substances and are classified into three categories (A, B or C) under The Misuse of Drugs Act (1971). Class A drugs are considered the most harmful and/or addictive, and different penalties are given for possession and dealing. It is a criminal offence to: possess a controlled substance unlawfully possess a controlled substance with intent to supply supply, or offer to supply, a controlled drug allow your property to be used for drug taking.

15 How are illegal drugs classified?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Teacher notes Appropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this classification activity to increase class participation.

16 Should cannabis be legalized?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Recent studies have shown that cannabis can reduce muscle spasms and tremors in multiple sclerosis sufferers and relieve nausea in chemotherapy patients. However, cannabis is a mild hallucinogenic and prolonged use is linked to increased risk of developing schizophrenia. Health experts also warn that smoking cannabis can lead to the use of ‘harder’ drugs. Is cannabis any more dangerous than alcohol? Should it be legalized?

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What are gateway drugs? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse A gateway drug is a substance that leads to experimentation with ‘harder’ and more addictive drugs. Tobacco, alcohol and cannabis are often referred to as gateway drugs. Why do gateway drugs have this effect? Some scientists think that taking a gateway drug could cause physiological changes in the brain that make the user more likely to use other drugs, but there is little evidence of this. Others argue that users progress to harder drugs simply because they have access to them through drug dealers.

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What is addiction? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse A person is said to be addicted to, or dependent on, a drug when they feel unable to stop taking it. There are two types of addiction: physiological addiction – the person is compelled to take the drug to avoid or reduce unpleasant or dangerous withdrawal symptoms. psychological addiction – the person is compelled to take the drug to experience the effect it produces, rather than to treat withdrawal symptoms. Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

19 How is addiction treated?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Different addictions are treated in different ways. Physiological addiction is initially treated using detoxification. In some cases, substitute drugs may be prescribed to reduce drug cravings. For example, methadone is offered to heroin addicts. Methadone is taken orally so it also reduces the risk of infections transmitted through sharing needles, such as HIV and hepatitis. Photo credit: Fred Shakeshaft Psychological addiction is often treated using counselling. What about addicts who don’t want to quit?

20 Tackling problems caused by addiction
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Some people are lobbying the Government to legalize (or decriminalize) drugs. These people argue that by making certain drugs available from specialist pharmacists or via prescription, drug-related crime could be halved. Addicts could also have access to special drug injecting rooms (‘shooting galleries’) to get clean needles and use drugs in a safe environment. Photo credit: Davide Guglielmo

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Changing the law Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Teacher notes This citizens’ panel can be used to present a range of views on the decriminalization of illegal drugs, which could then lead into a small-group or whole-class discussion about the subject. Further discussions could explore why people hold the views they do. There are no right or wrong answers for this activity.

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23 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
What is alcohol? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Alcohol is a family of related substances, but most commonly refers to ethanol – the active ingredient in alcoholic drinks. Alcohol is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream, where it starts to have an effect on the CNS. The effects of alcohol vary from person to person and with factors such as: rate of consumption level of food/water intake age and gender body weight/body fat.

24 The short-term effects of alcohol
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Small amounts of alcohol cause a person to feel relaxed and less inhibited. It can therefore appear to stimulate people. However, further consumption has a depressant effect, making reactions uncoordinated and impairing speech. Alcohol is a diuretic, which means it causes more urine to be produced than normal. This can lead to dehydration, which contributes to a hangover! Photo credit: Melodi T Alcohol also makes blood vessels dilate, leading to heat loss.

25 Does it matter how much you drink?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse About 40% of admissions to hospital A&E wards are related to alcohol consumption, rising to 70% between midnight and 5am at weekends. Why does alcohol increase the risk of accident or injury? Alcohol slows down reaction times, gives a false sense of confidence and affects a person’s decision-making ability. Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation At high levels, alcohol causes vomiting, unconsciousness and can even cause breathing to stop and lead to death.

26 How much is it safe to drink?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse The UK Department of Health advises that men should drink no more than 4 units of alcohol per day, and women no more than 3 units. How much is 1 unit of alcohol? 1 pint of strong lager 1 pint of bitter 1 pint of cider 1 alcopop 175 mls of wine 35 mls of spirit Drink Units of alcohol 3 2 2 2 1.5 1

27 Effects of alcohol by dose
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Teacher notes This ordering activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on the short-term effects of alcohol on the body. Mini-whiteboards could be used to make this a whole-class exercise.

28 The long-term effects of alcohol
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Like all drugs, alcohol is broken down, or metabolized, by the liver. Over time, heavy drinking damages liver cells, causing them to produce fibrous scar tissue which blocks liver function. This is a disease called cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers are also at increased risk of cancer and damage to the brain, kidney and immune system.

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30 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
What is tobacco? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Tobacco is made from the leaves of the tobacco plant, which contain small amounts of nicotine. Cigarettes are made from finely cut and dried tobacco leaves. When tobacco smoke is inhaled, the nicotine quickly enters the bloodstream and has a stimulating effect on the nervous system. At high concentrations nicotine is poisonous and is used as insecticide!

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The dangers of smoking Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Teacher notes This true-or-false quiz could be used as a starter exercise to work on smoking. Students could be given coloured traffic light cards (red = false, green = true) to vote on the statements shown. To stretch students, they could be asked to explain their voting.

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Smoking kills Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Smoking is associated with over 20 fatal diseases and 50 long-term debilitating illnesses. Half of all smokers will die prematurely. What are the most common causes of death in smokers? lung cancer Photo credit: Peter Dillon Teacher notes More information about smoking-related diseases is available at bronchitis/emphysema coronary heart disease. How does smoking damage health?

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Spot the difference Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Which set of lungs would you prefer to have? Photo credit: PresMark.com Teacher notes Specimens of lungs from a non-smoker (left) and smoker (right). The smoker's lung is dark and misshapen. Smoking causes damage to the lungs in many ways. Constant irritation by tar in smoke causes chronic bronchitis (repeated inflammation of the lung's airways), which thickens the lung walls and causes fibrous scar tissue to form, which reduces the lung's elasticity. Cigarette smoke also makes the lung's alveoli (air sacs) stick together which causes emphysema (difficulty breathing). Nicotine and tar also cause tumours to develop within the lung tissue.

34 Smoking patterns and lung cancer
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Teacher notes Data from the NIH (www.nih.gov).

35 The chemicals in cigarette smoke
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse

36 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
Nicotine Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Nicotine is addictive because it increases levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. This produces feelings of enjoyment and motivation. Many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking because of the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, which include: headaches anxiety and sleeplessness Photo credit: Tijmen van Dobbenburgh weight gain. What type of products are available to help smokers quit?

37 The effect of smoking on oxygen supply
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Red blood cells are normally saturated with oxygen when they leave the lungs. Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke prevents red cells from picking up oxygen. alveolus in the lung capillary oxygen carbon monoxide carbon dioxide red blood cells

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Smoker’s cough Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse

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Pregnancy and smoking Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Smoking during pregnancy is risky for both mother and baby. Pregnant women who smoke are at increased risk of: miscarriage foetal death detachment of the placenta premature labour. Babies exposed to smoke during gestation are at increased risk of: sudden infant death syndrome limb deformities low birth weight.

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Why do people smoke? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse There are many reasons why people say they smoke: “It looks good” “It keeps weight down” “I smoke low tar cigarettes – they’re safer” “I haven’t got the will power to quit” Teacher notes Suggestions for addressing the opinions: “It looks good” Although children may think that smoking looks attractive or cool, most people agree that the smell of cigarette smoke and the fact that smoking causes wrinkling of the skin, are unappealing. “It keeps weight down” Smoking cannot make a person lose weight, but by quitting smoking, exercising regularly and eating healthily a person can get fitter. “I smoke low tar cigarettes – they’re safer” People who smoke low tar or 'light' cigarettes tend to compensate for the lower tar levels by inhaling more frequently and more deeply. Some smokers also block the vent holes in the filters, which can increase the amount of tar inhaled by up to 12 times. “I haven’t got the will power to quit” A range of nicotine replacement products are available in pharmacies and from doctors to help people quit smoking. Non-medical alternatives include hypnotherapy and counselling. “It calms my nerves” Cigarettes do not relieve stress, they only relieve nicotine withdrawal symptoms, which may be felt more strongly during stressful situations. “It calms my nerves” What is your response to each of these reasons?

41 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse

42 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
Glossary (1/2) Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse alcohol – A depressant that is widely used recreationally and can cause liver and brain damage. addiction – Physiological or psychological dependence on a drug. carcinogen – A substance that increases the risk of developing cancer. cirrhosis – Liver disease caused by long-term alcohol abuse. depressant – A drug that reduces synaptic transmission. drug – Any substance that changes the body’s chemistry.

43 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
Glossary (2/2) Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse hallucinogen – A drug that distorts perceptions. nicotine – The addictive drug in tobacco. prescription drug – A substance only legally available from a healthcare professional. recreational drug – A drug used for non-medical purposes. stimulant – A drug that increases synaptic transmission. tar – The sticky substance found in cigarette smoke. withdrawal symptoms – Unpleasant physical effects that appear when use of an addictive drug ceases.

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Anagrams Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse

45 Physiological effects of alcohol
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse

46 Effect of cigarette smoke chemicals
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Teacher notes Students could be asked to write down the effects of each component of cigarette smoke on the body in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.

47 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse
Multiple-choice quiz Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Drug Use and Abuse Teacher notes This multiple-choice quiz could be used as a plenary activity to assess students’ understanding of drug use and abuse. The questions can be skipped through without answering by clicking “next”. Students could be asked to complete the questions in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.


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