Presentation on theme: "1 Satellite Communications BY ZULFIQAR ALI ARAIN."— Presentation transcript:
1 Satellite Communications BY ZULFIQAR ALI ARAIN
2 Important Milestones (before 1950) Putting the concepts together 1600 Tycho Brache’s experimental observations on planetary motion Kepler’s laws on planetary motion 1926 First liquid propellant rocket lauched by R.H. Goddard in the US First transatlantic radio link communication 1942 First successful launch of a V-2 rocket in Germany Arthur Clarke publishes his ideas on geostationary satellites for worldwide communications (GEO concept).
3 V2 Rocket
4 Important Milestones (1950’s) Putting the pieces together Trans-Atlantic cable opened (about 12 telephone channels – operator) First man-made satellite launched by former USSR (Sputnik, LEO) First US satellite launched (SCORE). First voice communication established via satellite (LEO, lasted 35 days in orbit after batteries failed).
5 Sputnik - I
6 Explorer - I
7 Important Milestones (1960’s) First satellite communications 1960 First passive communication satellite launched into space (Large balloons, Echo I and II). 1962: First non-government active communication satellite launched Telstar I (MEO). 1963: First satellite launched into geostationary orbit Syncom 1 (comms. failed). 1964: International Telecomm. Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) created First communications satellite launched into geostationary orbit for commercial use Early Bird (re-named INTELSAT 1).
8 ECHO I
9 Telstar I
10 Intelsat I
11 Important Milestones (1970’s) GEO applications development 1972 First domestic satellite system operational (Canada). INTERSPUTNIK founded First successful direct broadcast experiment (one year duration; USA-India) A plan for direct-to-home satellite broadcasting assigned by the ITU in regions 1 and 3 (most of the world except the Americas) International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat) established.
12 Important Milestones (1980’s) GEO applications expanded 1981 First reusable launch vehicle flight International maritime communications made operational ITU direct broadcast plan extended to region First direct-to-home broadcast system operational (Japan) Successful trials of land-mobile communications (Inmarsat) Global mobile communication service extended to land mobile and aeronautical use (Inmarsat)
13 Important Milestones (1990’s) : - Several organizations propose the use of non-geostationary (NGSO) satellite systems for mobile communications. - Continuing growth of VSATs around the world. - Spectrum allocation for non-GEO systems. - Continuing growth of direct broadcast systems. DirectTV created. 1997: - Launch of first batch of LEO for hand-held terminals (Iridium). - Voice service telephone-sized desktop and paging service pocket size mobile terminals launched (Inmarsat). 1998: Iridium initiates services. 1999: Globalstar Initiates Service. 2000: ICO initiates Service. Iridium fails and system is sold to Boeing.
15 INTRODUCTION TO ORBITS
16 Main orbit types: LEO km GEO 36,000 km MEO 5,000 – 15,000 km
17 USEFUL ORBITS 1: GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT In the equatorial plane Orbital Period= 23 h 56 min s = one Sidereal Day (defined as one complete rotation relative to the fixed stars) Satellite appears to be stationary over a point on the equator to an observer Radius of orbit, r, = 42, km NOTE: Radius = orbital height + radius of the earth Average radius of earth = 6, km
18 USEFUL ORBITS 2: Low Earth Orbit (>250 km); T 92 minutes Polar (Low Earth) Orbit; earth rotates about 23 o each orbit; useful for surveillance Sun Synchronous Orbit(example, Tiros- N/NOAA satellites used for search and rescue operations) 8-hour and 12-hour orbits Molniya orbit (Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); T 11h 38 min; highly eccentric orbit; inclination 63.4 degrees
19 Orbital Velocities and Periods Satellite OrbitalOrbital Orbital System Height (km) Velocity (km/s) Period h min s INTELSAT 35, ICO-Global 10, Skybridge 1, Iridium
20 Coverage vs. Altitude Satellite Altitude (km)
21 LEO, MEO and GEO Orbit Periods
22 Minimum Delay for two hops
23 F 1 (Gravitational Force) v (velocity) Why do satellites stay moving and in orbit? F 2 (Inertial-Centrifugal Force)
24 Current Developments and Future Trends
25 Bigger, heavier, GEO satellites with multiple roles More direct broadcast TV and Radio satellites Expansion into Ka, Q, V bands (20/30, 40/50 GHz) Massive growth in data services fueled by Internet Mobile services: May be broadcast services rather than point to point Make mobile services a successful business? Current Trends in Satellite Communications
26 Growth requires new frequency bands Propagation through rain and clouds becomes a problem as RF frequency is increased C-band (6/4 GHz) Rain has little impact 99.99% availability is possible Ku-band (10-12 GHz) Link margin of 3 dB needed for 99.8% availability Ka-band ( GHz) Link margin of 6 dB needed for 99.6% availability The Future for Satellite Communications – 1
27 Low cost phased array antennas for mobiles are needed Mobile systems are limited by use of omni-directional antennas A self-phasing, self-steering phased array antenna with 6 dB gain can quadruple the capacity of a system Directional antennas allow frequency re-use The Future for Satellite Communications - 2