Presentation on theme: "Qualitative Data Analysis"— Presentation transcript:
1 Qualitative Data Analysis With QSR NVivoGraham R Gibbs and Kathryn Sharratt
2 QSR NVivo Developed by Lyn and Tom Richards in Australia. Started as NUD.IST in 1980s. Now NVivo v. 10.
3 NVivo at Huddersfield The University now has a site licence for NVivo. NVivo now on all HHS PC lab computers, classroom computers and staff office computers.NVivo available for staff to install on their own computer at home. Go to the IT help desk in the Library, you will be able to borrow the install disk.on the University UniDesktop. NVivo generally works well but video playback is far too slow to be useable. Other media, such as audio, pdf and Word docs are OK
6 Getting help QSR website CAQDAS Networking project, U. Surrey Tutorials (also on YouTube)Help system (also from the program)Discussion lists (answered by QSR staff)CAQDAS Networking project, U. SurreyFor advanced usesOnline QDAFor info on basic qualitative data analysis
7 Types of Qualitative analysis EthnographyAnalytic InductionContent analysis.Thematic analysisGrounded TheoryPhenomenologyNarrative and biographyConversation analysisDiscourse analysis
8 Induction vs. Deduction Induction - theories and explanations derived from the data. Data ledDeduction - theories and explanations derived from theories and then tested against the data. Theory led.Most qualitative analysis approaches are inductive (e.g. Grounded Theory, Analytic induction).But we can also test theories against our data.
10 Transcription Kvale warns us to “beware of transcripts”. Dangers = superficial codingdecontextualizationmissing what came before and after the respondent’s accountmissing what the larger conversation was aboutTranscription is a change of medium
11 Format of transcript Names. Use capitals for speakers MARY C MARY I: or “IV:”or “INTIn NVivo, keep name of speaker in separate paragraph.
12 Anonymisation Names and contextual names (places etc) Keep original with real names, but keep secure.Publish only anonymised versions
13 Prepare text Check for accuracy. Use […] for missing text Use [bribery?] for words you are not sure about.Print with wide margins (for next stage, coding)
14 Levels of transcription People don’t speak in sentencesRepeat themselvesHesitate, stutterUse contractions (don’t, coz, etc)Use filler words (like, y’know, er, I mean)OptionsJust the gistVerbatimVerbatim with dialectDiscourse level.
15 Just the gist“90% of my communication is with … the Sales Director. 1% of his communication is with me. I try to be one step ahead, I get things ready, … because he jumps from one … project to another. …This morning we did Essex, this afternoon we did BT, and we haven't even finished Essex yet.”(… indicates omitted speech)
16 Verbatim“I don’t really know. I’ve a feeling that they’re allowed to let their emotions show better. I think bereavement is part of their religion and culture. They tend to be more religious anyway. I’m not from a religious family, so I don’t know that side of it.”
17 Verbatim with dialect“‘s just that – one o’ staff – they wind everybody up, I mean, – cos I asked for some money – out o’ the safe, cos they only keep money in the safe – ’s our money – so I asked for some money and they wouldn’t give it me – an’ I snatched this tenner what was mine.”
18 Conversation analysis Bashir: Did you ever (.) personally assist him with the writing of his book. (0.8)Princess: A lot of people.hhh ((clears throat)) saw the distress that my life was in. (.) And they felt it was a supportive thing to help (0.2) in the way that they did.
19 Sources in NVivo Can add: Word documents (doc, docx) and editable RTF files (.rtf) and editablePDF files (.pdf)Audio files (.mp3, .wav)Movie files (.wmv, .mp4)Web pages (as pdf via NCapture in IE or Chrome)Survey data (spreadsheet format)
20 Variable data Called attributes in NVivo Attached to cases (normally = people)E.g. occupation, gender, age, birth towni.e. categorical data or measurementsSort out casesPut data into a spreadsheet (first column = case names, first row = attribute names, cells =values)Import as a Classification Sheet.
21 Exercise 1 Prepare an interview. Use BarryT.doc Fix speaker names, new lines, capitals, spelling.SaveStart NVivo.Create new project, and import BarryT.doc and two pdfsSave your project
23 Thematic CodingGrounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss + Corbin + Charmaz)Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Jonathon Smith)Template analysis (Nigel King)Framework analysis (Ritchie and Lewis)All are types of thematic analysis.
24 Bryman suggests these stages Read the text as a whole, Make notes at the endLook for what it is aboutMajor themesUnusual issues, events etcGroup cases into types or categories (may reflect research question – e.g. male and female)
25 Stage 2. Read again Mark the text (underline, circle, highlight) Marginal notes/ annotationsLabels for codesHighlight Key wordsNote Analytic ideas suggested.
26 Stage 3. Code the text Systematically mark the text Indicate what chunks of text are about – themes – Index them.Review the codes.Eliminate repetition and similar codes (combine)Think of groupingsMay have lots of different codes (Don’t worry at early stage – can be reduced later)
27 Stage 4. Relate general theoretical ideas to the text. Coding is only part of analysisYou must add your interpretation.Identify significance for respondentsInterconnections between codesRelation of codes to research question and research literature.
28 Coding in NVivo Codes are known as Nodes Coding to nodes by: Select text, thenDrag and dropFast coding bar (with menu of nodes)Menu and dialog box (can code at multiple nodes)
29 How is coding done?TextIn a village like this ... the young fellows in the village don't seem to have much difficulty when they're out of work – a fortnight and they're back again – word of mouth, I'd say. It’s a different, tricky situation that I'm in – I just can't say, “Oh, I heard there's a job going on building site, I’ll go and have a go for it.” I wouldn't be able to do that.CodeAge contrastResidence focusYoung find work easilyWord of mouthContrast situationConstrained
30 Applying the codes to the data Need to take code and its definition and apply in standard way to the text.Identify chunks of text to which code appliesCan be phrases, sentences, several sentences or even paragraphsCoded passages may overlap
31 Questions to ask "What is going on? What are people doing? What is the person saying?What do these actions and statements take for granted?How do structure and context serve to support, maintain, impede or change these actions and statements?"(Charmaz 2003: 94-95)
32 Exercise 2 Do some coding Create a new nodes “Family” “Self care” “Care service” (Node in Create ribbon)Use drag and drop to code some text to these nodes (look at first three pages)Read some text and create new node from selected text using quick coding bar.Code several paragraphs to this node and then uncode some irrelevant segments.
33 Coding supports 2 forms of analysis RetrievalUsing the coding frame
34 1. RetrievalRetrieve all the text coded with the same label = all passages about the same phenomenon, idea, explanation or activity - Literally cut and pasteUsed envelopes/files - Now done using software – retrieval very fast.Enables cross case comparison on same theme.
35 2. Using the coding frameUse the list of codes to examine further kinds of analytic questions, e.g.relationships between the codes (and the text they code)grouping cases
36 Exercise 3 Examine text that has been coded Show nodes pane Double click on a node to retrieve text coded to that node.Open BarryT document, and show coding stripes.Right click on stripe to retrieve text (Open Node)
37 Data driven or concept driven? Inductive or deductiveMost qualitative analysis does bothi.e. start with some theoretical ideasthese derived from literature, research brief/questions, interview scheduleanddiscover new ideas, theories, explanations in the data.
38 Code list, scheme, frame, template List of codes with definitionsSeparate from the documentsMay be hierarchicalUsed:To apply the code in a consistent way.To share codes with others, especially in a team
39 Code Definitions Typically records: The label or name of the code. The name of the researcher. (Not needed if you are working alone.)Date when coding was done or changed.Definition of the code. Analytic idea it refers to.Other notes about the code, e.g.ideas about how it relates to other codesa hunch that the text could be split between two different codes.
40 Exercise 4Inspect node properties (Right click on node, or select node and Properties from Home ribbon)Add a description and change its colour
41 Coding hierarchy Codes can be arranged in a hierarchy e.g. with these codes from a study of friendshipClose, generalised friendshipsSporting friendshipsSports club membersWork friendsMaking new friends - same sexMaking new friends - different sexLosing touch with friendsBecoming sexual relationships
42 Example code hierarchy Friendship typesClose, generalizedSportingClubNon-clubWorkChanges in FriendshipMaking new friendsNew same sex friendsNew different sex friendsLosing touchBecoming sexual relationships
43 Exercise 5 Create a code hierarchy Open Nodes pane. Use drag and drop, copy and paste and new node to create a hierarchy.Open and close hierarchy by clicking on + or – sign.Use cut and paste to merge the coding at two nodes.
44 Memos Theorizing and commenting about codes as you go along Notes to yourself“… the theorizing write-up of ideas about codes and their relationships as they strike the analyst while coding… it can be a sentence, a paragraph or a few pages… it exhausts the analyst’s momentary ideation based on data with perhaps a little conceptual elaboration.”Glaser, B.G. (1978) Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley CA: Sociology Press.
45 An Example MemoWord of mouth was mentioned by Harry as important for him in searching for work. Several other respondents talked about this as a method they have used. Two thoughts occur to me.To what extent is this a separate method of looking for work, tapping into a network outside the formal one of job centres, agencies etc. or does it overlap? E.g. is some of the word of mouth information about the formal job finding agencies?Does it refer to a specific kind of network - mates and relatives finding work for those looking for it, or is it simply a passing on of information that could have been found by those looking in newspapers ads etc?Above all it raises issues about networking as a way of finding work. Is this an important method? Is it effective? Is it more important in certain areas of work than others? (e.g. in manual work.) Do those with wider social networks have more success in finding work this way?Graham Gibbs Friday, April 28, 2000
46 Exercise 6 Create and link a memo Create a memo (Memo in Create ribbon). Write some contentSelect a node and link this memo to it (use right mouse menu)Create an annotation. Select some text in a source and use right mouse menu to annotate it. (Links:Annotation)
47 Descriptive vs Analytic/theoretical Just what the people saidWhat happenedTheir termsAnalyticUse social science theoryGroups codes togetherUse terms the respondents don’t or wouldn’t
48 Example of coding‘Dancing’, ‘Indoor bowling’, ‘Dances at works club’, ‘Drive together’Descriptive codes‘Joint activities ceased’, ‘Joint activities continuing’Categories‘Loss of physical co-ordination’, ‘Togetherness’, ‘Doing for’, ‘Resignation’, ‘Core activity’Analytic codes
50 Line-by-line codingForce analytic thinking whilst keeping you close to the dataPay close attention to what the respondent is actually sayingConstruct codes that reflect respondent's experience of the world
52 Exercise 7 Text Search Word Frequency (from Query ribbon) Find Matches -> second notch (Stemmed words)Search in Text, of Selected Items (in menu), then click Select and choose BarryTThen click Run. Click on ‘Tag Cloud’ tag to right hand side of pane.Double-click a word to show it in its contexts.
53 Grounded Theory“…a qualitative research method that uses a systematic set of procedures to develop an inductively derived grounded theory about a phenomenon.”Strauss, A.L. and Corbin, J. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research, Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. London: Sage. p 24
54 Stages of CodingOpen Coding,Axial Coding,Selective Coding
55 1. Open Codingthe text is read reflectively to identify relevant categories or themes,Open, because we have not decided already what we are going to find - keep an open mind.In vivoe.g “word of mouth”, “Level 7”
56 Constant comparisonNewly gathered data are continually compared with previously collected data and its codingCompare analytic ideas with other circumstancesUsed toRefine the development of theoretical categoriesTest emerging ideasThink about what is different, what is the same, what metaphors, ideas, theories, might explain the patterns.
57 Constant comparisonExample- “Back of house” used in describing working in the hotel trade.Theatre MetaphorPerformance, roles, scripts, learning linesOut of sightUntidy, unclean, grimy backstagePeople pay for performance as well as foodCurtain divides public from private.Use of space, division of space by doors, notices, décor,
58 Constant comparison, cont. Stars get well paid, stage hands poorly paid.Star chefs, poorly paid waiters. - casual labourWhere the backstage is not hidden.MacDonalds - signs, lack of mystery, predictability, cleanliness.
59 2. Axial Coding Causal conditions Phenomenon Strategies Context categories are refined, developed and related or interconnectedCausal conditionsPhenomenonStrategiesContextIntervening conditionsAction/ InteractionConsequences
60 3. Selective coding Central phenomenon the “core category”, or central themeIt ties all other categories/themes/codes in the theory together into a storyIt is identified and related to other themes.
61 Example showing analysis One of a set of interviews by Wendy Hollway and Tony Jefferson.On fear of crimeWill use some of this for a group work exercise.Part of interview with:Barbara 65, F, White,Retired nursing auxiliary, Interview covered, Husband's death, ill health, sister - prison, stealing & drug taking, tenants association. From low crime area.
62 INT So you say - well 2 of those things happened after - when you've been talking to this accountant friend of yours. How did it come up? I mean that's er, you'd been alone for quite a while .... BARBARA They'd been burgled. INT Right. BARBARA And they got through a little window like this. Actually 'e'd got a young lad with 'im. And er, Margaret's engagement ring and she says "that was the one thing - that was the one thing, it grieved me more than anything" she said. "They could 'ave the television, the lot" she said. But the fact that they took 'er engagement ring… INT Yeah. BARBARA That upset 'er. And er, we were just talking in general and - and it came up and I says er, "I've got a chain on my door." And 'e says er, "it's not strong enough that, Barbara." He says "you really want something else on" and 'e went - his daughter lived up Stokebridge and 'e went to a little shop up there, or something. And got me that chain…
63 BARBARA …And 'e put it on and you can lock it BARBARA …And 'e put it on and you can lock it. If you put it on as you're going out, er, its 'ook, and then you 'ave to unlock it to let it drop. INT Ah ha. BARBARA When you come in. INT Oh right. BARBARA You know, you can push the door and it - oh and it is strong as well. INT Ah ha. And the 4 locks on the back? Do they date back further? BARBARA Oh God, yeah. INT So you had lots of security even when your husband was alive? BARBARA Oh yeah, mmm. Mmm. Em, I've got one of those dead locks at the top. INT Yeah. BARBARA You know, they're just a hole in the door and they're not from outside, they're only from inside. And even that locks wrong way. You 'ave to turn it that way to unlock it. (laugh).
64 Notice… Interviewer and respondent names are in capitals Wide margins and space and a half between linesUse of contractionsPlace names and people’s names anonymised
65 Read through About neighbour being burgled Lost TV etc. and engagement ringOld and new security on front door.Replaced by friend.
69 Coding FrameCrime experienced (the type of crime participants discuss having experienced themselves or by their friends and neighbours).BurglaryVandalismViolenceBut these descriptive. Be analytic. E.g.Low level (not reported etc.)Significant (with emotional impact)
70 Coding Frame, cont.Security measures (What measures people have taken to protect themselves, their property etc. both in the past and more recently).ChainDead lockBurglar alarmSafeCar alarmsPersonal AlarmStay inWalk with others
71 Coding Frame, cont. But these descriptive. Be analytic. E.g. Physical, technologyBehaviouralPsychological (lights on timer etc.)
72 Coding Frame, cont. Feelings about experience of crime Frightened Hurt by loss (especially personal items)