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Qualitative Data Analysis

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1 Qualitative Data Analysis
With QSR NVivo Graham R Gibbs and Kathryn Sharratt

2 QSR NVivo Developed by Lyn and Tom Richards in Australia.
Started as NUD.IST in 1980s. Now NVivo v. 10.

3 NVivo at Huddersfield The University now has a site licence for NVivo.
NVivo now on all HHS PC lab computers, classroom computers and staff office computers. NVivo available for staff to install on their own computer at home. Go to the IT help desk in the Library, you will be able to borrow the install disk. on the University UniDesktop. NVivo generally works well but video playback is far too slow to be useable. Other media, such as audio, pdf and Word docs are OK


5 NVivo video

6 Getting help QSR website CAQDAS Networking project, U. Surrey
Tutorials (also on YouTube) Help system (also from the program) Discussion lists (answered by QSR staff) CAQDAS Networking project, U. Surrey For advanced uses Online QDA For info on basic qualitative data analysis

7 Types of Qualitative analysis
Ethnography Analytic Induction Content analysis. Thematic analysis Grounded Theory Phenomenology Narrative and biography Conversation analysis Discourse analysis

8 Induction vs. Deduction
Induction - theories and explanations derived from the data. Data led Deduction - theories and explanations derived from theories and then tested against the data. Theory led. Most qualitative analysis approaches are inductive (e.g. Grounded Theory, Analytic induction). But we can also test theories against our data.

9 Preparation

10 Transcription Kvale warns us to “beware of transcripts”. Dangers =
superficial coding decontextualization missing what came before and after the respondent’s account missing what the larger conversation was about Transcription is a change of medium

11 Format of transcript Names. Use capitals for speakers MARY C MARY I:
or “IV:” or “INT In NVivo, keep name of speaker in separate paragraph.

12 Anonymisation Names and contextual names (places etc)
Keep original with real names, but keep secure. Publish only anonymised versions

13 Prepare text Check for accuracy. Use […] for missing text
Use [bribery?] for words you are not sure about. Print with wide margins (for next stage, coding)

14 Levels of transcription
People don’t speak in sentences Repeat themselves Hesitate, stutter Use contractions (don’t, coz, etc) Use filler words (like, y’know, er, I mean) Options Just the gist Verbatim Verbatim with dialect Discourse level.

15 Just the gist “90% of my communication is with … the Sales Director. 1% of his communication is with me. I try to be one step ahead, I get things ready, … because he jumps from one … project to another. …This morning we did Essex, this afternoon we did BT, and we haven't even finished Essex yet.”(… indicates omitted speech)

16 Verbatim “I don’t really know. I’ve a feeling that they’re allowed to let their emotions show better. I think bereavement is part of their religion and culture. They tend to be more religious anyway. I’m not from a religious family, so I don’t know that side of it.”

17 Verbatim with dialect “‘s just that – one o’ staff – they wind everybody up, I mean, – cos I asked for some money – out o’ the safe, cos they only keep money in the safe – ’s our money – so I asked for some money and they wouldn’t give it me – an’ I snatched this tenner what was mine.”

18 Conversation analysis
Bashir: Did you ever (.) personally assist him with the writing of his book. (0.8) Princess: A lot of people.hhh ((clears throat)) saw the distress that my life was in. (.) And they felt it was a supportive thing to help (0.2) in the way that they did.

19 Sources in NVivo Can add: Word documents (doc, docx) and editable
RTF files (.rtf) and editable PDF files (.pdf) Audio files (.mp3, .wav) Movie files (.wmv, .mp4) Web pages (as pdf via NCapture in IE or Chrome) Survey data (spreadsheet format)

20 Variable data Called attributes in NVivo
Attached to cases (normally = people) E.g. occupation, gender, age, birth town i.e. categorical data or measurements Sort out cases Put data into a spreadsheet (first column = case names, first row = attribute names, cells =values) Import as a Classification Sheet.

21 Exercise 1 Prepare an interview. Use BarryT.doc
Fix speaker names, new lines, capitals, spelling. Save Start NVivo. Create new project, and import BarryT.doc and two pdfs Save your project

22 Analysis

23 Thematic Coding Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss + Corbin + Charmaz) Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Jonathon Smith) Template analysis (Nigel King) Framework analysis (Ritchie and Lewis) All are types of thematic analysis.

24 Bryman suggests these stages
Read the text as a whole, Make notes at the end Look for what it is about Major themes Unusual issues, events etc Group cases into types or categories (may reflect research question – e.g. male and female)

25 Stage 2. Read again Mark the text (underline, circle, highlight)
Marginal notes/ annotations Labels for codes Highlight Key words Note Analytic ideas suggested.

26 Stage 3. Code the text Systematically mark the text
Indicate what chunks of text are about – themes – Index them. Review the codes. Eliminate repetition and similar codes (combine) Think of groupings May have lots of different codes (Don’t worry at early stage – can be reduced later)

27 Stage 4. Relate general theoretical ideas to the text.
Coding is only part of analysis You must add your interpretation. Identify significance for respondents Interconnections between codes Relation of codes to research question and research literature.

28 Coding in NVivo Codes are known as Nodes Coding to nodes by:
Select text, then Drag and drop Fast coding bar (with menu of nodes) Menu and dialog box (can code at multiple nodes)

29 How is coding done? Text In a village like this ... the young fellows in the village don't seem to have much difficulty when they're out of work – a fortnight and they're back again – word of mouth, I'd say. It’s a different, tricky situation that I'm in – I just can't say, “Oh, I heard there's a job going on building site, I’ll go and have a go for it.” I wouldn't be able to do that. Code Age contrast Residence focus Young find work easily Word of mouth Contrast situation Constrained

30 Applying the codes to the data
Need to take code and its definition and apply in standard way to the text. Identify chunks of text to which code applies Can be phrases, sentences, several sentences or even paragraphs Coded passages may overlap

31 Questions to ask "What is going on? What are people doing?
What is the person saying? What do these actions and statements take for granted? How do structure and context serve to support, maintain, impede or change these actions and statements?" (Charmaz 2003: 94-95)

32 Exercise 2 Do some coding
Create a new nodes “Family” “Self care” “Care service” (Node in Create ribbon) Use drag and drop to code some text to these nodes (look at first three pages) Read some text and create new node from selected text using quick coding bar. Code several paragraphs to this node and then uncode some irrelevant segments.

33 Coding supports 2 forms of analysis
Retrieval Using the coding frame

34 1. Retrieval Retrieve all the text coded with the same label = all passages about the same phenomenon, idea, explanation or activity - Literally cut and paste Used envelopes/files - Now done using software – retrieval very fast. Enables cross case comparison on same theme.

35 2. Using the coding frame Use the list of codes to examine further kinds of analytic questions, e.g. relationships between the codes (and the text they code) grouping cases

36 Exercise 3 Examine text that has been coded Show nodes pane
Double click on a node to retrieve text coded to that node. Open BarryT document, and show coding stripes. Right click on stripe to retrieve text (Open Node)

37 Data driven or concept driven?
Inductive or deductive Most qualitative analysis does both i.e. start with some theoretical ideas these derived from literature, research brief/questions, interview schedule and discover new ideas, theories, explanations in the data.

38 Code list, scheme, frame, template
List of codes with definitions Separate from the documents May be hierarchical Used: To apply the code in a consistent way. To share codes with others, especially in a team

39 Code Definitions Typically records: The label or name of the code.
The name of the researcher. (Not needed if you are working alone.) Date when coding was done or changed. Definition of the code. Analytic idea it refers to. Other notes about the code, e.g. ideas about how it relates to other codes a hunch that the text could be split between two different codes.

40 Exercise 4 Inspect node properties (Right click on node, or select node and Properties from Home ribbon) Add a description and change its colour

41 Coding hierarchy Codes can be arranged in a hierarchy
e.g. with these codes from a study of friendship Close, generalised friendships Sporting friendships Sports club members Work friends Making new friends - same sex Making new friends - different sex Losing touch with friends Becoming sexual relationships

42 Example code hierarchy
Friendship types Close, generalized Sporting Club Non-club Work Changes in Friendship Making new friends New same sex friends New different sex friends Losing touch Becoming sexual relationships

43 Exercise 5 Create a code hierarchy Open Nodes pane.
Use drag and drop, copy and paste and new node to create a hierarchy. Open and close hierarchy by clicking on + or – sign. Use cut and paste to merge the coding at two nodes.

44 Memos Theorizing and commenting about codes as you go along
Notes to yourself “… the theorizing write-up of ideas about codes and their relationships as they strike the analyst while coding… it can be a sentence, a paragraph or a few pages… it exhausts the analyst’s momentary ideation based on data with perhaps a little conceptual elaboration.” Glaser, B.G. (1978) Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley CA: Sociology Press.

45 An Example Memo Word of mouth was mentioned by Harry as important for him in searching for work. Several other respondents talked about this as a method they have used. Two thoughts occur to me. To what extent is this a separate method of looking for work, tapping into a network outside the formal one of job centres, agencies etc. or does it overlap? E.g. is some of the word of mouth information about the formal job finding agencies? Does it refer to a specific kind of network - mates and relatives finding work for those looking for it, or is it simply a passing on of information that could have been found by those looking in newspapers ads etc? Above all it raises issues about networking as a way of finding work. Is this an important method? Is it effective? Is it more important in certain areas of work than others? (e.g. in manual work.) Do those with wider social networks have more success in finding work this way? Graham Gibbs Friday, April 28, 2000

46 Exercise 6 Create and link a memo
Create a memo (Memo in Create ribbon). Write some content Select a node and link this memo to it (use right mouse menu) Create an annotation. Select some text in a source and use right mouse menu to annotate it. (Links:Annotation)

47 Descriptive vs Analytic/theoretical
Just what the people said What happened Their terms Analytic Use social science theory Groups codes together Use terms the respondents don’t or wouldn’t

48 Example of coding ‘Dancing’, ‘Indoor bowling’, ‘Dances at works club’, ‘Drive together’ Descriptive codes ‘Joint activities ceased’, ‘Joint activities continuing’ Categories ‘Loss of physical co-ordination’, ‘Togetherness’, ‘Doing for’, ‘Resignation’, ‘Core activity’ Analytic codes

49 Example showing coding marks

50 Line-by-line coding Force analytic thinking whilst keeping you close to the data Pay close attention to what the respondent is actually saying Construct codes that reflect respondent's experience of the world

51 Example of line-by-line coding

52 Exercise 7 Text Search Word Frequency (from Query ribbon)
Find Matches -> second notch (Stemmed words) Search in Text, of Selected Items (in menu), then click Select and choose BarryT Then click Run. Click on ‘Tag Cloud’ tag to right hand side of pane. Double-click a word to show it in its contexts.

53 Grounded Theory “…a qualitative research method that uses a systematic set of procedures to develop an inductively derived grounded theory about a phenomenon.” Strauss, A.L. and Corbin, J. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research, Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. London: Sage. p 24

54 Stages of Coding Open Coding, Axial Coding, Selective Coding

55 1. Open Coding the text is read reflectively to identify relevant categories or themes, Open, because we have not decided already what we are going to find - keep an open mind. In vivo e.g “word of mouth”, “Level 7”

56 Constant comparison Newly gathered data are continually compared with previously collected data and its coding Compare analytic ideas with other circumstances Used to Refine the development of theoretical categories Test emerging ideas Think about what is different, what is the same, what metaphors, ideas, theories, might explain the patterns.

57 Constant comparison Example- “Back of house” used in describing working in the hotel trade. Theatre Metaphor Performance, roles, scripts, learning lines Out of sight Untidy, unclean, grimy backstage People pay for performance as well as food Curtain divides public from private. Use of space, division of space by doors, notices, décor,

58 Constant comparison, cont.
Stars get well paid, stage hands poorly paid. Star chefs, poorly paid waiters. - casual labour Where the backstage is not hidden. MacDonalds - signs, lack of mystery, predictability, cleanliness.

59 2. Axial Coding Causal conditions Phenomenon Strategies Context
categories are refined, developed and related or interconnected Causal conditions Phenomenon Strategies Context Intervening conditions Action/ Interaction Consequences

60 3. Selective coding Central phenomenon
the “core category”, or central theme It ties all other categories/themes/codes in the theory together into a story It is identified and related to other themes.

61 Example showing analysis
One of a set of interviews by Wendy Hollway and Tony Jefferson. On fear of crime Will use some of this for a group work exercise. Part of interview with: Barbara 65, F, White,Retired nursing auxiliary, Interview covered, Husband's death, ill health, sister - prison, stealing & drug taking, tenants association. From low crime area.

62 INT So you say - well 2 of those things happened after - when you've been talking to this accountant friend of yours. How did it come up? I mean that's er, you'd been alone for quite a while .... BARBARA They'd been burgled. INT Right. BARBARA And they got through a little window like this. Actually 'e'd got a young lad with 'im. And er, Margaret's engagement ring and she says "that was the one thing - that was the one thing, it grieved me more than anything" she said. "They could 'ave the television, the lot" she said. But the fact that they took 'er engagement ring… INT Yeah. BARBARA That upset 'er. And er, we were just talking in general and - and it came up and I says er, "I've got a chain on my door." And 'e says er, "it's not strong enough that, Barbara." He says "you really want something else on" and 'e went - his daughter lived up Stokebridge and 'e went to a little shop up there, or something. And got me that chain…

63 BARBARA …And 'e put it on and you can lock it
BARBARA …And 'e put it on and you can lock it. If you put it on as you're going out, er, its 'ook, and then you 'ave to unlock it to let it drop. INT Ah ha. BARBARA When you come in. INT Oh right. BARBARA You know, you can push the door and it - oh and it is strong as well. INT Ah ha. And the 4 locks on the back? Do they date back further? BARBARA Oh God, yeah. INT So you had lots of security even when your husband was alive? BARBARA Oh yeah, mmm. Mmm. Em, I've got one of those dead locks at the top. INT Yeah. BARBARA You know, they're just a hole in the door and they're not from outside, they're only from inside. And even that locks wrong way. You 'ave to turn it that way to unlock it. (laugh).

64 Notice… Interviewer and respondent names are in capitals
Wide margins and space and a half between lines Use of contractions Place names and people’s names anonymised

65 Read through About neighbour being burgled
Lost TV etc. and engagement ring Old and new security on front door. Replaced by friend.

66 Mark up text Annotations and codes.



69 Coding Frame Crime experienced (the type of crime participants discuss having experienced themselves or by their friends and neighbours). Burglary Vandalism Violence But these descriptive. Be analytic. E.g. Low level (not reported etc.) Significant (with emotional impact)

70 Coding Frame, cont. Security measures (What measures people have taken to protect themselves, their property etc. both in the past and more recently). Chain Dead lock Burglar alarm Safe Car alarms Personal Alarm Stay in Walk with others

71 Coding Frame, cont. But these descriptive. Be analytic. E.g.
Physical, technology Behavioural Psychological (lights on timer etc.)

72 Coding Frame, cont. Feelings about experience of crime Frightened
Hurt by loss (especially personal items)

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