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1 www.scienceintransition.nl @SciTransit en @MiedemaF

2 1971

3 1979

4 2000

5 2010/12

6 October 2013

7 NRC 2 nov 2013

8 Cycles of Credit ‘ Volkskrant 9 Nov 2013

9 Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar (1979) Laboratory Life

10 Cycles of Credit ‘ Volkskrant Hessels et al, Science and public policy 2009

11 Science in Transition ‘ Volkskrant Major developments in science over the past 30 years : The scale of the enterprise has increased in numbers of people involved in many countries Big Science: larger, international and often multidisciplinary teams and consortia obtain funding (‘hunting in packs’) science is increasingly capital intensive, with rapid depreciation of equipment, lab etc The business cycle is much shorter: technologies, methods, break through concepts arise faster with more and fast ‘creative destruction’ Management has changed also because of this to more business-like styles (NPM)

12 Science in Transition ‘ Volkskrant Major developments in science over the past 30 years : Rewards and incentives have changed: more quantitative, ‘objective’ measures are widely being used. IF, H index, numbers of papers, numbers of citations, earning capacity = amount of grant money won Funding schemes are mostly short term (4 years), projects thus aim for deliverables on a very short term; ‘long haul’ funding is scarce More problem- oriented science but this is still seen as a problem, because of adherence to the classical linear model

13 Science in Transition ‘ Volkskrant Major problems associated with developments in science over the past 30 years : Short- term, high- rate production because of careerism and economics not always related to content Quality control suffers : because of the rapid increase in scale and competition reviewing is poor, replication not done; all this because of lack of reward and time

14 Science in Transition ‘ Volkskrant Major problems associated with developments in science over the past 30 years: Problem choice: risk reduction and risk avoidance, 'art of the soluble' Relation with society: image and understanding of the system democracy and poblem choice The mores and behaviour of administrators, scientists and students which has changed

15 Science in Transition ‘ Volkskrant Signaling the issues and start the debate Get insights by literature study, but mainly by empirical studies From analysis to action: STS insights need to be put to practice. Like in medicine, science must not only reveal pathogenesis and diagnose, but must also deliver ideas and interventions for prevention, care and cure. Societal Impact of STS is to produce ideas and interventions for game-changers in science. STS Innovation thus a Toolbox for SiT

16 Cycles of Credit ‘ Volkskrant Hessels et al, Science and public policy 2009

17 A Toolbox for Science in Transition

18 Reflections 1. Science in Transition: a Science of Science Project Scientific research on the current system of science. Multidisciplinary theoretical and empirical work, mainly on the sociology and economy of science, Historical analyses of the changes that science has gone through since World War II.

19 A Toolbox for Science in Transition ‘Low hanging fruit’ to start with now: 2. Impact 3.0 The evaluation of research impact needs to change. The simple use of impact factors in funding, appointment and promotion decisions is on the way out, see the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment. Measures both for in-science use and for societal impact; value attributed by potential users in society must be developed including use of hybrid fora.

20 A Toolbox for Science in Transition 3. Incentives and Rewards Research management will have to take into account the various types of impact and provide career opportunities for the different types of researchers Grants from NWO, ZonMw and charities should explicitly be awarded based on Impact 3.0. This must result in a mix of basic and targeted research, where also basic science is judged in a wider context.

21 Cycles of Credit ‘ Volkskrant Hessels et al, Science and public policy 2009

22 A Toolbox for Science in Transition 4. Dealing with Risk Avoidance High profile personal grants tend to favor researchers based on the usual metrics, who produce knowledge for the internal science market mainly. Because of this risk reduction in grant review procedures too much emphasis is on short term production of high impact publications. This results in too little diversification of leading investigators in the institutes.

23 A Toolbox for Science in Transition 5. PhD Talent Management and Education Our PhD factories provide poor prospects for PhDs and post docs that want to make a career in academia. We have to rethink and redesign these streams to better coach our students for careers in and out side science: How much PhD’s should we produce? Do MD's in high numbers need a PhD at all. What are optimal criteria for PhD theses We have to promote scientific literacy among our Master and PhD students. Paula Stephan: How economics shapes Science, 2012

24 A Toolbox for Science in Transition 6. Targeting Societal Problems Trust in science and scientists is not only about how trustworthy and careful we do and report our science, it is as much about the question whether we do research on the right questions. We have to relate more with stakeholders in society to orient our research, both basic and targeted research, this has already started in anticipation of EU HORIZON 2020 which targets the so-called Grand Challenges.

25 A Toolbox for Science in Transition 7. Communication Stop telling the myth of a perfect method performed by individuals with high moral values without any bias or interests. Be honest to tell about science being a job and how the economy of science shapes science and the content of our science. That scientists have personal beliefs that shape their scientific ideas. Explain how science does make objective facts, but that a lot of uncertainty remains in particular regarding complex real world problems.

26 A Toolbox for Science in Transition The bigger societal picture 8. Problem Choice in Democracy Finally the problem of agenda setting in a democratic society presents it self. How are we organizing this process designated by Philip Kitcher the 'ideal deliberation'. The KNAW presented 49 big questions coming from the scientific fields, as a national research agenda. This was, however, not in ideal deliberation with representatives from society.

27 UMC Utrecht 3.0 Science and Innovation driven by clinical needs of patients and society Patient Basic Care Experimental & Top clinical care Safety & Efficacy studies Clinical studies Translational research Research Innovation Clinical Need Supporting Technologies Care Delivery Organization Fundamental research

28 Research Patient Innovation Clinical Need Education Research infrastructure Flanking care Availability function Complimentary and supportive to programs, regional and 2 nd opinion functions, select specialist functions PhD / Postdoc, B BMW, M BMS, B GNK, M GNK, M KGW, AIOS, NP, PA Basic-, Acute-, and Intensive Care,Traumacenter Brain Infection & Immunity Circulatory Health Personalized Cancer Care Regenerative Medicine & Stem Cells Child Health Stroke, ADHD/Autism, Bipolar disorders/Schizophrenia, ALS Opportunistic infections, Immunodeficiency, Chronic inflammation Atherosclerotic vascular disease, Stroke, Heart failure Breast cancer, GI Cancer (Liver metastases, Oesophagus, Pancreas) Stem cell based therapies Musculoskeletal & Cardiovascular tissue regeneration Fertility Interventions, Prevention of respiratory infections, Chronic Inflammation, Orphan diseases (RM/genetics) UMC Utrecht 3.0


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