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MANAGEMENT of INFORMATION SECURITY Second Edition.

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1 MANAGEMENT of INFORMATION SECURITY Second Edition

2 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 2 Organization  Introduction  Staffing the Security Function  Qualifications and Requirements for the Security Profession  Information Security Positions  Information Security Professional Credentials  Employment Policies and practices  Conclusions

3 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 3 Introduction  Maintaining a secure environment requires that the InfoSec department be carefully structured and staffed with appropriately credentialed personnel  Proper procedures must be integrated into all human resources activities, including hiring, training, promotion, and termination practices

4 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 4 Staffing the Security Function  Selecting an effective mix of information security personnel requires that you consider a number of criteria  Some of these criteria are within the control of the organization, and others are not  Real economy is seldom in a state of equilibrium

5 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 5 Staffing the Security Function (continued)  In order to improve the InfoSec staffing discipline : –The general management community of interest should learn more about the requirements and qualifications for both information security positions and relevant IT positions –Upper management should learn more about information security budgetary and personnel needs –The IT and general management communities of interest must grant the information security function (and CISO) an appropriate level of influence and prestige

6 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 6 Staffing the Security Function (continued)  In order to improve the InfoSec staffing discipline (continued): –Develop an information security organizational staffing plan E.g. NIST Information Technology Security Staffing Plan

7 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 7 Information Technology Security Staffing Plan  The staffing plan can include : –Security staff functions Describe the key areas of influence, functions in each area, required time to be spent in each area and the amount of staff required to perform the function in each area E.g. areas of influence: audit, physical security, disaster recovery & contingency planning, procurement, training, personnel, risk management, telecommunications, helpdesk

8 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 8 Information Technology Security Staffing Plan (continued)  The staffing plan can include (continued) : –Roles and responsibilities of the security community Outline the position and security responsibilities of the individuals who make up the decision-making segment Outline the basic staff roles and responsibilities Define the authority and reporting relationships –Staffing budget Security budget allocation for various functions

9 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 9 Qualifications and Requirements  When hiring information security professionals at all levels, organizations frequently look for individuals who have the following abilities: –Understand how organizations are structured and operated –Recognize that InfoSec is a management task that cannot be handled with technology alone –Work well with people in general and communicate effectively using both strong written and verbal communication skills –Acknowledge the role of policy in guiding security efforts –Understand the essential role of information security education and training, which helps make users part of the solution, rather than part of the problem

10 Qualifications and Requirements (continued)  When hiring information security professionals at all levels, organizations frequently look for individuals who have the following abilities (continued): –Perceive the threats facing an organization, understand how these threats can become transformed into attacks, and safeguard the organization from information security attacks –Understand how technical controls can be applied to solve specific information security problems –Demonstrate familiarity with the mainstream information technologies Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 10

11 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 11 Qualifications and Requirements (continued)  When hiring information security professionals at all levels, organizations frequently look for individuals who have the following abilities (continued): –Understand IT and InfoSec terminology and concepts

12 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 12 Entering the Information Security Profession

13 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 13 Information Security Positions  Information security positions can be classified into one of three areas: those that define, those that build, and those that administer –Definers provide the policies, guidelines, and standards The people who do the consulting and the risk assessment, and develop the product and technical architectures Senior people with a broad knowledge, but not a lot of depth –Builders are the real techies, who create and install security solutions –The people who operate and administer the security tools, the security monitoring function, and the people who continuously improve the processes This is where all the day-to-day, hard work is done

14 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 14 Figure 10-2 Information Security Positions and Relationships

15 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 15 Security Technician Qualifications and Position Requirements  Security technicians are technically qualified individuals who ensure that the security technology is properly implemented  The role of security technician is the typical information security entry-level position, albeit a technical one  Security technicians often tend to be specialized  Organizations typically prefer expert, certified, proficient technicians  Job requirements usually include some level of experience

16 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 16 Security Manager Qualifications and Position Requirements  Security Manager is accountable for day to day operations of information security program  These individuals require an understanding of the technology administered  Several types of information security managers exist, and the people who fill these roles tend to be much more specialized  It is not uncommon for a security manager to have a CISSP  These individuals must have experience in traditional business activities

17 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 17 Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) Qualifications and Position Requirements  The CISO is considered the top information security officer in the organization  This individual is the spokesperson for the security team and is responsible for the overall information security program  The most common qualification for the CISO is the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)  A graduate degree in criminal justice, business, technology, or another related field is usually required as well

18 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 18 Information Security Professional Credentials  Many organizations rely to some extent on recognizable professional certifications to ascertain the level of proficiency possessed by any given candidate  Many of the certification programs are relatively new, and consequently their precise value is not fully understood by most hiring organizations  The certifying bodies work diligently to educate their constituent communities on the value and qualifications of their certificate recipients  Employers struggle to match certifications to position requirements, while potential information security workers try to determine which certification programs will help them in the job market

19 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 19 Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)  The CISSP is considered the most prestigious certification for security managers and CISOs  The CISSP certification recognizes mastery of an internationally recognized common body of knowledge (CBK) in information security, covering ten domains of information security knowledge: –Access control systems and methodology –Applications and systems development –Business continuity planning –Cryptography –Law, investigation, and ethics

20 Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) (continued)  The CISSP certification recognizes mastery of an internationally recognized common body of knowledge (CBK) in information security, covering ten domains of information security knowledge (continued): –Operations security –Physical security –Security architecture and models –Security management practices –Telecommunications, network, and Internet security Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 20

21 Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) Concentrations  A number of concentrations are available for CISSP’s to demonstrate advanced knowledge beyond CISSP CBK: –Information Systems Security Architecture Professional (ISSAP) –Information Systems Security Engineering Professional (ISSEP) –Information Systems Security Management Professional Enterprise Security Management Practices (ISSMP) Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 21

22 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 22 Systems Security Certified Practitioner (SSCP)  The SSCP certification is more applicable to the security manager than the technician, as the bulk of its questions focus on the operational nature of information security  The SSCP focuses “on practices, roles, and responsibilities as defined by experts from major IS industries” and covers seven domains: –Access controls –Administration –Audit and monitoring –Risk, response, and recovery –Cryptography –Data communications –Malicious code/malware

23 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 23 Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA)  The Information Systems Audit and Control Association and Foundation (ISACA) touts the CISA as being appropriate for auditing, networking, and security professionals  The exam covers the following areas of information systems auditing: –The IS audit process –Management, planning, and organization of IS –Technical infrastructure and operational practices –Protection of information assets –Disaster recovery and business continuity –Business application system development, acquisition, implementation, and maintenance –Business process evaluation and risk management

24 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 24 Certified Information Security Manager (CISM)  The CISM certification is geared towards experienced information security managers  The CISM can assure executive management that a candidate is apposite for security management and consulting  The CISM exam is offered annually  The exam covers: –Information security governance –Risk management –Information security program management –Information security management –Response management

25 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 25 Global Information Assurance Certification (GIAC)  The System Administration, Networking and Security Organization (SANS) has developed a series of technical security certifications known as the GIAC  The GIAC family of certifications can be pursued independently or combined to earn a comprehensive certification called GIAC Security Engineer (GSE), at a silver, gold or platinum level

26 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 26 Security Certified Program (SCP)  The SCP offers three tracks: the Security Certified Network Specialist (SCNS), the Security Certified Network Professional (SCNP), and the Security Certified Network Architect (SCNA)  All are designed for the security technician and emphasize technical knowledge; the latter also includes authentication principles  The SCNS is the introductory certification and covers Tactical Perimeter Defense (TPD)  The SCNP track is the second level of certification and covers Strategic Infrastructure Security (SIS)  The SCNA program is the advanced certification and covers Enterprise Security Solution (ESS) and Advanced Security Implementation (ASI)

27 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 27 Security+  The CompTIA Security+ certification tests for security knowledge mastery of an individual  The exam covers five domains: –1.0 General security concepts –2.0 Communication security –3.0 Infrastructure security –4.0 Basics of cryptography –5.0 Operational/Organizational security

28 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 28 Certified Computer Examiner (CCE)  The CCE certification is a computer forensics certification provided by the International Society of Forensic Computer Examiners  This certification has concentrations/endorsements corresponding to various operating systems  A CCE who earns three or more of these endorsements qualifies as Master Certified Computer Examiner (MCE)

29 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 29 Certified Information Forensics Investigator (CIFI)  The International Information Security Forensics Association is developing the Certified Information Systems Forensics Investigator certification  This program will evaluate expertise in the tasks and responsibilities of a security administrator or security manager  The body of knowledge includes: –Countermeasures –Auditing –Incident response teams –Law enforcement and investigation –Traceback –Tools and techniques

30 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 30 Certification Costs  Certifications cost money, and the preferred certifications can be expensive  Given the nature of the knowledge needed to pass the examinations, most experienced professionals find it difficult to do well without at least some review  Certifications are designed to recognize experts in their respective fields, and the cost of certification deters those who might otherwise take the exam just to see if they can pass  Most examinations require between two and three years of work experience, and they are often structured to reward candidates who have significant hands-on experience

31 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 31 Preparing for Security Certification

32 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 32 Employment Policies and Practices  The general management community of interest should integrate solid information security concepts across all of the organization’s employment policies and practices  Security concepts should be associated with hiring, firing or releasing, and management of human resources

33 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 33 Hiring  From an information security perspective, the hiring of employees is laden with potential security pitfalls  Information security considerations need to be made a part of the hiring process

34 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 34 Hiring (continued)  Integrating information security into the hiring process requires that security considerations are applied to: –Job Descriptions When advertising open positions, omit the elements of the job description that describe access privileges –Interviews It is advisable to limit the information provided to the candidates on the access rights of the position When an interview includes a site visit, the tour should avoid secure and restricted sites

35 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 35 Hiring (continued)  Integrating information security into the hiring process requires that security considerations are applied to (continued): –Security Checks A background check should be conducted before the organization extends an offer to any candidate Background checks differ in their levels of detain and depth

36 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 36 Common Background Checks  Some of the common security background checks include –Identity checks –Education and credential checks –Previous employment verification –Reference checks –Worker’s compensation history –Motor vehicle records –Drug history –Medical history –Credit history –Civil court history –Criminal court history

37 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 37 Hiring (continued)  Integrating information security into the hiring process requires that security considerations are applied to (continued): –Contracts and Employment Monitoring and nondisclosure agreements must be made a part of the employment contracts Apply “employment contingent upon agreement” where required –New Hire Orientation New employees should receive, as part of their orientation, an extensive information security briefing

38 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 38 Personnel Security Practices  The ever present threat associated with personnel is the insider threat  Insider threats can be either intentional or unintentional  Unintentional compromise of information from an insider can be due to lack of policy awareness or failure to adhere to the organizational policies  Intentional compromise of information from an insider is the bigger of the two threats

39 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 39 Personnel Security Practices (continued)  Unintentional information compromise can be handled by incorporating: –On-the-Job Security Training Organizations should conduct periodic security awareness and training activities to keep security at the forefront of the employees’ minds and minimize employee mistakes

40 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 40 Personnel Security Practices (continued)  Unintentional information compromise can be handled by incorporating (continued): –Security as Part of Performance Evaluation Employees pay close attention to job performance evaluations Including information security tasks in them will motivate employees to take more care when performing these tasks

41 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 41 Personnel Security Practices (continued)  Intentional information compromise can be handled by: –Separation of duties –Two-person control –Job rotation –Task rotation –Mandatory vacation –Principle of least privilege

42 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 42 Personnel Security Controls

43 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 43 Personnel Security Practices (continued)  Intentional information compromise can be handled by (continued) : –Some additional measures that can be taken may be: Forming an internal security group Clearly emphasizing on the consequences of being detected of fraud –Detection of security compromise is important, this can be achieved by: Periodic review of logs Using honey tokens

44 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 44 Security Considerations for Non-employees  Many individuals who are not employees often have access to sensitive organizational information  Relationships with individuals in this category should be carefully managed to prevent threats to information assets from materializing

45 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 45 Temporary Workers  Because temporary workers are not employed by the organization for which they’re working, they may not be subject to the contractual obligations or general policies that govern other employees  Unless specified in its contract with the organization, the temp agency may not be liable for losses caused by its workers  From a security standpoint, access to information for these individuals should be limited to what is necessary to perform their duties  It should be made sure that these individuals follow good security practices

46 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 46 Contract Employees  While professional contractors may require access to virtually all areas of the organization to do their jobs, service contractors usually need access only to specific facilities  In a secure facility –All service contractors are escorted from room to room, and into and out of the facility –Someone must verify that services are actually requested or scheduled –Advance notice for scheduling, rescheduling or cancellation of maintenance visits must be given

47 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 47 Consultants  Consultants have their own security requirements and contractual obligations  Special requirements, such as information or facility access requirements, being integrated into the contract before they are given free access to the facility  In particular, security and technology consultants must be prescreened, escorted, and subjected to nondisclosure agreements to protect the organization from intentional or accidental breaches of confidentiality  Always remember to apply the principle of least privilege when working with consultants.

48 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 48 Business Partners  Businesses sometimes engage in strategic alliances with other organizations to exchange information, integrate systems, or enjoy some other mutual advantage  A prior business agreement must specify the levels of exposure that both organizations are willing to tolerate  Nondisclosure agreements are an important part of any such collaborative effort

49 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 49 Termination Issues  When an employee leaves an organization, the following tasks must be performed: –The former employee’s access to the organization’s systems must be disabled –The former employee must return all removable media –The former employee’s hard drives must be secured –File cabinet locks must be changed –Office door locks must be changed –The former employee’s keycard access must be revoked –The former employee’s personal effects must be removed from the premises –The former employee should be escorted from the premises, once keys, keycards, and other business property have been turned over

50 Termination Issues (continued)  In addition to performing these tasks, many organizations conduct an exit interview  Some organizations adopt the policy of immediate severance  Two methods for handling employee out processing, depending on the employee’s reasons for leaving, are: –Hostile departures –Friendly departures Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 50

51 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 51 Hostile Departure  Security cuts off all logical and keycard access, before the employee is terminated  The employee reports for work, and is escorted into the supervisor’s office to receive the bad news

52 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 52 Hostile Departure (continued)  The individual is then escorted from the workplace and informed that his or her personal property will be forwarded, or is escorted to his or her office, cubicle, or personal area to collect personal effects under supervision  Once personal property has been gathered, the employee is asked to surrender all remaining company property, and is then escorted from the building

53 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 53 Friendly Departure  The employee may have tendered notice well in advance of the actual departure date  Employee accounts are usually allowed to continue, with a new expiration date  The employee can come and go at will and usually collects any belongings and leaves without escort  The employee is asked to drop off all organizational property before departing.

54 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 54 Termination Issues  In either circumstance, the offices and information used by departing employees must be inventoried, their files stored or destroyed, and all property returned to organizational stores  It is possible that departing employees have collected and taken home information or assets that could be valuable in their future jobs  Only by scrutinizing system logs during the transition period can the organization determine whether a breach of policy or a loss of information has occurred

55 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 55 Summary  Introduction  Staffing the Security Function  Information Security Professional Credentials  Employment Policies and Practices

56 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 56 Case Discussion  What do you think Amy should do now ?  What could be the consequences of her action?  How do you think should the management react to this incident?

57 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 57 References  Whitman, Michael E., and Herbert J. Mattord Management of information security. Boston: Thomson Course Technology  Whitman, Michael E., and Herbert J. Mattord Readings and cases in management of information security. Boston: Thomson Course Technology  Carroll, M. D Information security: examining and managing the insider threat. In Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on information Security Curriculum Development (Kennesaw, Georgia, September , 2006). InfoSecCD '06. ACM, New York, NY, DOI=  Sample Information technology security staffing plan, NIST- Computer Security Division/Archives

58 Management of Information Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 10 Slide 58 Thank you for your time Questions and comments are welcome!


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