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Svatava Škodová Technical university of Liberec SCLA 2009 Prague.

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1 Svatava Škodová Technical university of Liberec SCLA 2009 Prague

2 This proceeding was supported from an internal grant (IGS FP TUL 2009) of Fakulty of Science, Humanities and Education, Technical University of Liberec.

3  a type of coordination that uses coordinator and on the surface level for connection of two verbs into a construction V1aV2, without coordinating two events  The verb in the first position V1 can lose its primary meaning  meaning of the verb in the position V2 is modified S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

4 Jít/go – a/and – V2 A tak Petr šel a četl celou tu knihu. And soPeter went and read the whole book.

5  Caesar went and read the parchment!  It went and rained  Thomas Carlisle was very much impressed by the work of people like Wordsworth and Coleridge because they were just a bit before him and he actually went and met Coleridge (BNC, KGW 569) S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

6 1611 sentences with the pattern jít-a-V2 ProKoor PseKoor 923 examples 688 examples S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

7  Swedish - Gunlög, 1991; Wiklund, 2005; Darnell, 2008,  Norwegian - Lødrup, 2002,  English - Carden – Pesetzky, 1997, Grootjen- Kamphuis – Sarbo, 1999; Quirk, 2000; Wulff, 2004; de Vos, 2005; de Vos, 2007).  Russian – Kuznetsova, 2006  Czech – Škodová, 2009 S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

8 1. major uses of jít – a –V2 2. uses of PseKoor Jít-a-2V - motivated by a combination of the image schematic properties of the verb jít and the more richly specified semantics of V2 3. the precise nature of this mechanism: the image-schematic properties evoked by jít blended with the event structure of the V2 to allow the speaker to construe the event denoted by the second verb in accordance with the image-schematic meaning of jít. S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

9  the two verbs are not coordinated to create a complex clause,  they form a single syntactic unit similar to analytical form of a verb  Typically there are described 4 semantic fields concerning this construction: 1. speakers annoyance, 2. speakers surprise, 3. proceeding without hesitation, 4. actual motion. S. Škodová Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

10  a speaker expresses his annoyance about the event described by V2 A jak to bylo všechno hloupé! Kucha ř ka to p ř ece pozná -musí to poznat! Jako bych šel a sám si plivl do obli č eje. as would.I go. PAST and myself spit. I PAST REFL to face Jak je to jenom mo ž né? (And it was so silly! The cook will recognize it – she must recognize it!It was as if I went and spitted to my own face. How is it possible? ) S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

11  a speaker expresses his surprise about an unexpected action described by V2 Uhla zabil padesátkrát víc lidí ne tím no ž íkem, ale tím, ž e je nakazil. A kdy ž tu nemoc rozesel všude kolem, šel a sám na ni umřel. " go. HE PAST and himself of it die. HE PAST (Uhla killed fifty times more people not by the little knife, but by the infection. And when he had spread the illness all around he went and died of it himself.“) S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

12  speaker expresses that the action was fulfilled without hesitating and thinking about any obstacles and difficulties connected with the event (…) dal nám knihu a ř ekl : " Je to nejhez č í kniha na sv ě t ě. Č t ě te ji, uchovejte si ji. " Šly jsme a četly jsme. go. WE PAST be. WE PAST and read. WE PAST be.WE PAST Matka však zu ř ila. (…) he gave us a book and said: „This is the most beautiful book in the world. Read it, protect it. And we went and read. But our mother was furious. S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

13  using the jít-a-V2 construction, it is possible to express as dynamic also those events that are in its own nature static, the verb jít/go postures its own dynamic capacity to the event of V2, which we can accept as dynamic. " Bylo by fajn, kdyby nám tu zase bre č elo n ě jaké dít ě, " podotkl n ě kdo z rodiny, a tak šli a opatřili si dítě and so go. THEY PAST and equip. THEY PAST themselves. PARTICLE REFL a baby ze St. Cloud's. from St. Cloud´s. (“It would be nice to have a crying baby around again,” some member of a family said, and so they went and equipped themselves by a baby from St. Cloud´s.) S. Škodová:

14  In Czech the jít-a-V2 construction is very frequent in the imperative form, again the verb jít/go is semantically bleached here and its function is the one of urgent entreaty or command. Hovo ř ila se mnou - vypráv ě la mi o mém bratru Markovi – a pak mi ř ekla, abych šel a běžel závod. and then me say. SHE PAST, to. I KOND go and run the race. (She was talking to me – telling me about my brother Mark – and then she told me to go and run the race.) S. Škodová:

15 - the jít-a-V2 construction exhibit some semantic regularities that are rather surprising if one assumes that jít/go means “jít/go” or nothing at all (if considered to be a semantically empty auxiliary) S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

16  Another meaning associated with the pseudo-coordination of jít in Czech but not in English is the meaning of “activity in progress for an extended period of time”. In English this meaning does not join pseudo-coordination of go, because English own special syntactic construction expressing this quality of the time duration of event. Necht ě jí se organizovat. Lidi se d ř ív dali dohromady, people PARTICL.REFL. In the past give. THEY PAST together, šli a pomáhali si. go. THEY PAST and help. THEY PAST one another. PART REFL. Svépomocí pro sebe mnohé ud ě lali. They do not want to be organized. In the past people joined one another, they were helping one another. They did many things by themselves. S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

17  jít/go is not used in arbitrary ways  There is systematicity in using the construction  this systematicity is related to the meaning of the verb jít/go S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

18 ………………………………………………. TR LM S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

19 ….… ……. ……. TR LM S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

20 ….… ……. ………….……. TR LM S. Škodová:

21 TR LM S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

22 1. “actual motion” is the basic meaning of all schemas in Figures 1-4; that is the reason, why we do not consider jít to be a semantically empty auxiliary. 2. meanings like “continuous action” and “progressive aspect” more generally can be accounted for in terms of a metaphorical extension of the schema in Figure 2 from “motion over an extended period of time” to “action over an extended period of time” in Czech language this is combined with the aspectual characteristics of V2 to encode a progress of an event to its right boundary. 3. meanings like “surprise” and “unexpectedness” result from the same metaphorical extension applied to the schema in Figure 3. Here, the expected conceptual path corresponds to the expected flow of, and the divergence from the path corresponds to an unexpected event; S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

23 4. meanings like “annoyance”, “disappointment”, “disapproval”, or “evaluation of an action as silly” are also accounted for by the schema in Figure 3, with the difference that the expected conceptual path corresponds to the kind of actions that the speaker considers desirable or rational, and the divergence from this path corresponds to an event that is not desirable or rational from the speaker´s perspective. 5. meanings like “proceeding without hesitation”, “paying no attention to obstacles” can be counted for in terms of the same metaphorical extension as before, this time applied to the schema in Figure 4, where the obstacles correspond to potential reasons not to act in a certain way. S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

24  Pseudokoordinations using jít-a-V2 are motivated by aspects of conceptual structure There is the incorporation of the image-schematic structure of jít into the event structure of the V2.  the main verb encodes some event structure  jít encodes some construal structure in accordance with its image schematic meaning,  a coordinating conjunction encodes the blending of the two. S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

25 ARNAIZ, Alfredo; CAMACHO, Jose. A topic auxiliary in Spanish. In MARTINEZ, Gil, F.; GUITIERREZ, Reixach, J. (eds.). Advances in Hispanic linguistics. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press, 1999, pp. 48-61. AUGUSTINSKÁ, Daniela. K funkci opakovacích konštrukcií v umeleckej próze. Slovenská re č, 1980, ro č. 45, s. 278–288. B Ě LI Č OVÁ, Helena; SEDLÁ Č EK, Jan. Slovanské souv ě tí. Praha: Academia, 1990. B Ě LI Č OVÁ, Helena; UHLÍ Ř OVÁ, Ludmila. Slovanská v ě ta. Praha: Euroslavica, 1966. CARDEN, Guy; PESETZKY, David. Double-verb constructions, markedness, and a fake coordination. Chicago Linguistic Society, 1977, vol. 13, pp. 82-92. DARNELL(OVÉ), Ulrika Kvist. Pseudosamordningar i svenska - särskilt sådana med verben 'sitta', 'ligga' och 'stå'. PhD Thesis, University of Stockholm, 2008. EKBERG, Lena. The cognitive basis of the meaning and function of cross-linguistic take and V. In NUYTS, Jan; PEDERSON, Eric (eds.). Perspectives on language and conceptualization. Belgian Journal of Linguistics, 1993, vol. 8, s. 21-42. FABRICIUS-HANSEN, Cathrine. Subordination. In Deutsche Syntax: Ansichten und Aussichten. Hrsg. von Ludger Hoffmann. Jahrbuch des Instituts für Deutsche Sprache, 1991, s. 215-256. FAUCONNIER, Gilles. Mental spaces, language modalities, and conceptual integration. In TOMASELLO, Michael. The New Psychology of Language. Cognitive and functional approaches to langure. Mahwah, NY and London: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998, s. 251-279. FILIP(ová), Hana. Aspect and Interpretation of Nominal Arguments. In CANAKIS, C. P., CHAN, G.P., DENTON, J. M. (eds.). Proceedings of the Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS) 28, Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1992, pp. 139-158. S. Škodová:

26 FILIP(ová), Hana. Aspect, Situation Types and Noun Phrase Semantics. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California at Berkeley, 1993. FILIP(ová), Hana. Aspect, Eventuality Types, and Noun Phrase Semantics. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 1999. FILIP(ová), Hana. The Telicity Parameter Revisited. Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) XIV, Ithaca, N.Y.: CLC Publications, 2005, s. 92-109. GUNLÖG, Joseffson. Pseudocoordination - a VP + VP coordination. Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax. Lund: University of Lund, 1991, vol. 47, s. 130-156. HEINE, Bernd. Auxiliaries. Cognitive Forces and Grammaticalization. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993a. HEINE, Bernd, KUTEVA, Tatyana. On contact-induced grammaticalization. Studies in Language, 2003, vol. 27, pp. 529-572. LANGACKER, Ronald. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. California: Stanford university press, kap. Beyond the clause, 1991, s. 415 – 537. LØDRUP, Helge. The syntactic structures of Norwegian pseudocoordinations. Studia Linguistica, 2002, vol. 56, pp. 121-143. NÜBLER, Norbert. Zp ů sob slovesného d ě je. In Encyklopedický slovník č eštiny. Praha: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, 2002, s. 567–568. PANEVOVÁ, Jarmila; BENEŠOVÁ, Eva; SGALL, Petr. Č as a modalita v č eštin ě. Praha: Academia, 1971. S. Škodová: Chybová analýza v ž ákovských korpusech

27 RADDEN, Günter. Motion metaphorized: The case of coming and going. In CASAD, H. Eugene (ed.). Cognitive linguistics in the Redwoods. The expansion of a new paradigm in linguistics. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1996, pp. 423-458. ŠKODOVÁ, Svatava: Pseudokoordinace v syntaxi č eštiny. Liberec : Nakladatelství Bor, 2009. WIKLUND, Anna-Lena. Pseudocoordination is subordination. Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax, 1996, vol. 58, pp. 29-53. S. Škodová: Pseudo-coordination, SCLA 2009

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