Presentation on theme: "V2.05 1 OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM PREVENTIVE MEDICINE BRIEFING Presenter’s Name Presenter’s Command Local Contact Information Prepared."— Presentation transcript:
V OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM PREVENTIVE MEDICINE BRIEFING Presenter’s Name Presenter’s Command Local Contact Information Prepared by: U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (800) / DSN /(410)
V PURPOSE To inform personnel deploying to Iraq of: potential health hazards individual countermeasures In wars, battles, and military training, the greatest loss of forces is not caused by combat wounds. Most losses are the result of disease and non-battle injury.
V IRAQ Coalition forces remain in Iraq, helping to restore degraded infrastructure and facilitating the establishment of a freely elected government. The Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Interim Government on 28 June 2004.
V IRAQ: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Sea Level Meters Depression Climate: Desert with mild to cool winters and extremely hot, dry cloudless summers. Severe dust and sandstorms. Northern mountains have cold winters with occasional heavy snows Terrain: Mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; Zagros mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey Lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m Highest point: Unnamed peak 3,611 m Numerous peaks exceed 3,281 meters (10,000 feet)
V IRAQ: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Environmental factors posing the greatest health risk: – Water contamination – Localized air pollution – Localized food contamination – Seasonal temperature extremes – Dust and sand storms (especially from May to October)
V IRAQ: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Water Contamination – Poorly treated domestic and industrial waste – Fertilizers, pesticides, and waste oils – Sewage and industrial effluents
V IRAQ: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Air Contamination – Petroleum refineries, petrochemical and fertilizer plants, cement production facilities, power plants, and vehicle exhaust Food Contamination – Fecal pathogens from waste fertilizers and unsanitary food preparation – Pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers – Seeds containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids on grains Soil Contamination – Localized to areas surrounding industrial facilities and waste disposal sites
V SAND, DUST, AND WIND (MOST COMMON COMPLAINT) Sand, wind, and dust cause health problems, particularly to skin, eyes, throat and lungs High winds create flying object hazards which may not be visible in blowing sand or dust Wash daily, especially body areas that collect dust and sand Protect lips with lip balm and use moisturizing skin lotion on your hands to prevent cracked, chapped fingers Shield your face with cloth materials to protect from blowing dust and sand Protect your eyes
V OIL FIELD HAZARDS (OIL BURNING) Burning Trench – See/Feel - Wall of fire and black smoke, low visibility, intense heat, sulfur-oily smell – Danger - Toxic smoke, gases, fumes, darkness, intense heat – Do This - Avoid burning fields, trenches, facilities, move upwind if possible, avoid intense heat, avoid contact with oil/oil spray, use sand to clean skin and clothing, close up vehicles Burning Storage Tanks – See/Feel - Burning pools of oil around well heads and tanks – Danger - Sudden expansion of fires, range finders/IR won’t work well Blown Well Head – See/Feel - Intense blow torch fire from well heads
V OIL FIELD HAZARD (OIL NOT BURNING) Blown Well Head – Avoid area, avoid oil spray, clean – with soapy water, stay away from – well heads, don mask and evacuate – upwind, use detection equipment if available Ruptured Storage Tanks and Refineries – Avoid area NOTE: Igniting oil and gas is EXTREMELY dangerous. It is a Command decision to ignite oil or gas that is not burning. This should only be done under strict supervision. Intact Well Head – Avoid the well head
V TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS/MATERIALS Personnel may be exposed to harmful TICs/TIMs as a result of industrial accidents, sabotage, the intentional or unintentional actions of enemy or friendly forces. CAUTION - There are many uncommon/unknown TIC/TIM sources. COUNTERMEASURES Become familiar with individual response technique, such as shelter in place, and any emergency warning systems. Protective measures are chemical specific – rely on trained personnel for recommendations. There is no one size fits all protective measures – this includes MOPP gear.
V UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE Do not touch Can explode at any time No souvenirs!
V CARBON MONOXIDE Do not use unapproved commercial off-the-shelf heaters. Check with your unit Safety Officer. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas produced by engines, stoves, and gas/oil heaters. headache, sleepiness, coma, and death CO replaces oxygen in the body, causing headache, sleepiness, coma, and death. COUNTERMEASURES Keep sleeping area windows slightly open for ventilation and air movement. DO NOT sleep in vehicles with the engine running or use engine exhaust for heat. DO NOT park vehicles near air intakes to tents, trailers, or environmental control units.
V PERSONAL PROTECTIVE MEASURES Wash hands frequently Do not rub eyes or inside of nose with bare finger(s) Bathe/shower regularly (field expedients will do); use unscented products Wear shower shoes to prevent athlete’s foot Dry thoroughly after showering Sleep head-to-toe if billeted in common areas Wear clean, dry uniforms; change socks daily and uniform at least weekly Do not wear nylon or silk undergarments; cotton undergarments are more absorbent and allow the skin to dry Seek prompt medical care if problem exists
V HEAT INJURY PREVENTION You should receive annual unit training on prevention of heat injury. Heat injuries are preventable! Heat Cramps, Exhaustion, or Stroke COUNTERMEASURES Drink fluids continuously (hourly fluid intake should not exceed 1 1/2 quarts, daily fluid intake should not exceed 12 quarts) Maintain acclimatization Protect yourself from exposure to sunlight and wind Maintain good physical condition Establish work/rest schedules Wear proper clothing
V STRESS Operational stressors Different types and intensities Recognize the symptoms of depression Seek or encourage help Take steps to reduce operational stress Stress can be intensified for personnel who are exposed to or observe human suffering and/or death
V Authorized wear IAW AR HEARING CONSERVATION Loud noise causes permanent hearing loss COUNTERMEASURES Have your hearing protection with you at all times and use it Be sure your ear plugs, noise muffs or helmets fit properly and are in good condition Avoid noise or limit time around noise to only critical tasks Combat Arms Earplug NSN If you have to raise your voice to be understood, it is too noisy. Put on hearing protection.
V VISION CONSERVATION Preventive Measures and Eye Protection – Contact lens use is prohibited for use in environments where exposure to smoke, toxic chemical vapors, sand, or dust occurs – If required, maintain 2 pair of glasses and 1 protective mask insert – Use eye protection when in any potentially eye hazardous environment Safety goggles or spectacles with side shields* Chemical splash goggles* *(ANSI Z87.1 approved) Vision Ready is Mission Ready!
V FOOD-BORNE AND WATER-BORNE DISEASES Diseases of high risk – Diarrhea (bacterial) – Hepatitis A – Typhoid/Paratyphoid Fever COUNTERMEASURES Do not consume any food, ice, water, or beverage (to include bottled water) that have not been approved by the U.S. military Assume all non-approved food, ice, and water is contaminated Even a one-time consumption of these foods or water may cause severe illness
V VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES Diseases of high risk (continued) – Vector-borne (high risk as a group) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Leishmaniasis – cutaneous and visceral Malaria Plague Rickettsioses, tick-borne (spotted fever group) Sand fly fever West Nile fever
V LEISHMANIASIS Caused by parasite obtained from sand fly bites – Increased risk from dusk to dawn and July through September Symptoms – Skin (cutaneous) form - sores on skin or in nose, mouth, and throat – Internal form - fever, substantial weight loss, anemia, swelling of the spleen and liver, and possibly death Countermeasures Prevent sand fly bites – Use the DOD Insect Repellent System – Sleep under a permethrin treated bed net Sand flies may be hard to see as they are very small - only about one-third the size of typical mosquitoes.
V Caused by parasite found in mosquitoes Increased risk: April through November In areas north of Baghdad Symptoms range from none to fever, chills, sweating, headaches, muscle pains; to cerebral malaria, anemia, kidney failure that can result in death COUNTERMEASURES: Anti-malarial drugs (weekly mefloquine or daily doxycycline) Prevent mosquito bites Use the DOD Insect Repellent System Sleep under a permethrin-treated bed net Primaquine on redeployment MALARIA
V VECTOR-BORNE DISEASE COUNTERMEASURES Wash and inspect your body for insects/ticks and bites daily Launder uniform routinely to remove insects and eggs Order a permethrin-impregnated bed net and use while sleeping + + = MAXIMUM PROTECTION Permethrin On Uniform DEET On Exposed Skin Properly Worn Uniform DOD Insect Repellent System
V SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Diseases of intermediate risk Gonorrhea/ Chlamydia Hepatitis B HIV/AIDS COUNTERMEASURE: Always use condoms during sex – regardless of other measures you choose. Using latex or polyurethane condoms during each sexual encounter provides improved (not 100%) prevention against STD’s and pregnancy. Abstinence is the only 100% effective method for preventing sexually transmitted diseases
V WATER CONTACT, RESPIRATORY & ANIMAL CONTACT DISEASES Diseases of intermediate risk – Water Contact: Leptospirosis, Schistosomiasis Avoid contact with standing water Towel dry vigorously after exposure Take all medications as directed – Respiratory – Tuberculosis – Use N95 respiratory protection when directed – Pneumonia – Animal-contact: Anthrax, Q-fever, Rabies Do not feed, handle, or keep wild or stray animals Do not tolerate the presence of rodents Seek medical attention for animal bites or scratches
V PNEUMONIA 19 cases of severe pneumonia - 2 deaths 15 smokers In the more severe cases, troops had just started smoking on this deployment COUNTERMEASURES: Stay hydrated Wash hands frequently Use cravat or dust mask to avoid inhaling dust Use wet mops to clean dust Seek medical care for fever, chills & cough If you don’t smoke, don’t start during deployment. If you do smoke, quit.
V FOOD AND WATER-BORNE DISEASES OF INTERMEDIATE RISK Diseases of intermediate risk (continued) – Food and water-borne Brucellosis – avoid livestock, local dairy products Diarrhea – cholera Diarrhea - protozoal Hepatitis E NO LOCAL FOOD, WATER, OR ICE!