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EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN USING FPGA K. M. Khare Senior Scientist Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Department of Atomic Energy.

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Presentation on theme: "EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN USING FPGA K. M. Khare Senior Scientist Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Department of Atomic Energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN USING FPGA K. M. Khare Senior Scientist Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Department of Atomic Energy Government of India Indore - INDIA November 21, 2013 ICTP, Trieste

2 Introduction Our centre is know for LIGHT sources LASERS SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCE We are Involved: Basic Research Design and Development Applications November 21, 2013 2RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

3 Laser Instrumentation Various laser based instruments has been developed such as Uranium analyzer using N 2 laser. Land leveler, Surgical CO 2 laser system Density measurement system Micrometer Laser Marker Laser fluorescence spectroscopy of tissues etc. November 21, 2013 3RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

4 November 21, 2013 Objective Basic concept of embedded systems Importance of FPGA based embedded systems Embedded system design flow and available tools Example design of FPGA based embedded system Physical Aspect of Hardware Design 4RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

5 Embedded Systems Embedded system is nearly any computing system  Single function  Typically designed to perform a predefined function  Tightly constrained  Tuned for low cost  Single-to-fewer components  Performs functions fast enough  Consumes minimum power  Reactive and real-time  Must continually monitor the desired environment and react to changes  Hardware and software coexistence November 21, 2013 5RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

6 Embedded Systems… Examples:  Mobile phone systems Customer handsets and base stations  Automotive applications Braking systems, traction control, airbag release systems, and cruise-control applications  Aerospace applications Flight-control systems, engine controllers, auto-piloting systems, and passenger in-flight entertainment systems  Defense systems Radar systems, fighter aircraft flight-control systems, radio systems, and missile guidance systems November 21, 2013 6RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

7 Embedded Systems… Almost every embedded systems design includes Logic circuit design Processor-based hardware development Memory Other input output peripherals Interface In a single or few chips solution. November 21, 2013 7RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

8 Integration in Embedded System Design November 21, 2013 Embedded Software Tool Tool s CPU Logic Design Tools I/O FPGA Memory FPGA + Memory + IP + High Speed IO Embedded Software Tools CPU Logic Design Tools Logic + Memory + IP + Processors Integration of Functions Time Logic Design Tools Programmable systems usher in a new era of system design integration possibilities Programmable systems usher in a new era of system design integration possibilities Curtsey: Xilinx Inc. 8RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

9 FABRIC Highly configurable Fast Design & Modification Time Avoid Obsolescence FPGAs SoC Software, Hardware Configurble With CPU and GPU like ZYNQ, ARM Support Complex Functions Embedded Systems with Soft Processors Embedded Systems with Soft Processors Embedded System Design…

10 Soft Cores Synthesizable RTL, Gate level, IPs, Technology independent High flexibility, Customizable Hard Cores Transistor layout, predefined block (hardwired ) Process dependentHigh Performance Hardcore verses Soft-core Processors

11 Advantages of Softcore Processors  Configurability to trade between price and performance,  Faster time to market,  Easy integration with the FPGA fabric,  Avoids obsolesces. November 21, 2013RRCAT, Indore - INDIA 11

12 Softcores Processors… Different soft processor available from different FPGA manufacturers.  Xilinx: Picoblaze and Microblaze  Altera: Nios-II  Actel : Cortex-M3(From ARM)  Lattice : Lattice Micro32(open-source)  ARM: Cortex-M3(open-source) November 21, 2013 12RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

13 FPGA based Embedded Design Embedded design in an FPGA consists of the following: Develop FPGA hardware design Customization of soft core processors and Custom IPs Create the software application Software routines Interrupt service routines etc November 21, 2013 13RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

14 MicroBlaze TM Processor Based- Embedded System Design Flexible Soft IP MicroBlaze  32-Bit RISC Core UART 10/100 E-Net Memory Controlle r Off-Chip Memory FLASH/SRAM Fast Simplex Link 0,1….15 Custom Functions Custom Functions BRAM Local Memory Bus D-Cache BRAM I-Cache BRAM Configurable Sizes Arbiter PLB Processor Local Bus CacheLink SDRAM On-Chip Peripheral Bus GPIO Bus Bridge OPB Arbiter On-Chip Peripheral This is a v7.1 architecture. Versions 6.0 or earlier do not support PLB bus off the processor. Instead they have OPB bus November 21, 2013 Curtsey: Xilinx Inc. 14RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

15 Partitioning the design Criteria for partitioning into hardware and software components -Picoseconds and nanosecond logic  To be implemented in hardware(fabric) - Microsecond logic  Can be implemented in hardware or software - Millisecond logic  Such as communication with slower peripherals can be mapped to software November 21, 2013 15RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

16 Xilinx Embedded Development Kit (EDK) Embedded Development Kit is the Xilinx software for  Designing complete embedded programmable systems.  Tools for customization and integration of soft processor cores.  Tools for integration of both hardware and software components of an embedded system. November 21, 2013 16RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

17 Xilinx Platform Studio (XPS) Select cores from the IP catalog Develop software applications Access project files Connect the hardware system View a block diagram of the system November 21, 2013 17RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

18 Add IP cores to an existing project, select the IP Catalog tab in XPS Select a core and drop it in the system view or double-click on it to add Select a bus instance to which it need to connect Adding IP and Bus Connection November 21, 2013 18RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

19 Created Hardware: Block Diagram Block diagram of created hardware shows the interconnection between the selected peripherals and processor In also shows the input and out ports of the system November 21, 2013 19RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

20 XPS Functions XPS Software Design Hardware Design HW/SW Debug HW/SW Simulation Project management Creation of MHS or MSS file Xilinx Microprocessor Project (XMP) file Software application Management Platform management Tool flow settings Software platform settings Tool invocation Debug and simulation November 21, 2013 20RRCAT, Indore - INDIA Curtsey: Xilinx Inc

21 Library Generation Flow Then Library Generator (LibGen) utility generates the necessary libraries, drivers and user project directories for the embedded software processors The LibGen takes Microprocessors Software Specification(MSS ) file as input and produces an archive of object files libc.a, libxil.a and libm.a The MSS file, generated by XPS, defines the defines the drivers associated with peripherals, standard input/output devices, interrupt handler routines and other related software features November 21, 2013 21RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

22 SDK Application Development Flow Ye s Create software App Project Add sources + Edit Compile + Link Generate Hardware Platform Done? Import ELF file, Download to board Debug / Profile Platform Studio SDK Generate Software Platform libraries, drivers Platform Studio Libraries can be generate/updated from SDK November 21, 2013 22RRCAT, Indore - INDIA Curtsey: Xilinx Inc

23 Merging Hardware and Software Flows Final download.bit file generated from the input files system_bd.bmm, system.bit and executable.elf files, which contains information regarding both the software and the hardware part of the design This invokes the data2MEM tool, which initializes the instruction memory of the processor This is the stage where hardware and software flows come together. Download the generated bitstream file November 21, 2013 23RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

24 Example Design of Embedded System Designed system consists of softcore processor Custom IP for multi axis motor controllers, Encoder Interface. UART and general purpose I/Os Peripheral interface. Application Software for soft-core processor. November 21, 2013RRCAT, Indore - INDIA 24 XILINX FPGA XC3S500AN-4I TQ144 MULTI AXIS MOTOR DRIVERS CLK & RST POWER SUPPLY UART ENCODER INTERFACE XILINX FPGA XC3S50AN-4C TQ144 STEPPER MOTOR DRIVERS CLK & RST POWER SUPPLY UART ENCOD ER INTERF ACE

25 November 21, 2013 25 Development Board for Embedded Applications Development Board Custom Board Curtsey : Xilinx RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

26 November 21, 2013 26 Hardware Design Why customization required? How to customize FPGA boards? Practical Example Advantages of customization Some Tricks and Techniques Tools Available Overview RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

27 November 21, 2013 27 Why Customization Required? Customization technique used very widely: Fulfill specific requirements. Gain the competitive edge. Save time, money and space. Minimize board complexity. Reduce unused components Make it flexible. RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

28 November 21, 2013 28 Specify your product features Selection of FPGA Incorporating essential circuits Specify the constraints Implementation techniques Testing and debugging How to customize FPGA Boards? RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

29 November 21, 2013 29 Specification of Product Features UART/USB/Ethernet DISPLAY(LCD/OLED/Touch Screen/Matrix) Key Board/Buttons External Memory Interface ADCs/DACs Indication and Debug port How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

30 November 21, 2013 30 Selection of FPGA An appropriate FPGA for specific application is determined by the following features. Density No. of I/Os Package Speed Grade Vendor Series Part no. How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

31 November 21, 2013 31 Incorporating Essential Circuits Power Circuit Clock Circuit Reset Circuit In system programming circuit (JTAG) Configuration Memory Interface Debug Port How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

32 November 21, 2013 32 Power Circuit Design While designing power supply to fulfill the power requirements of FPGA and other peripherals on board, we keep following points in mind. Voltage and current requirements Voltage tolerances Power distribution Sequencing Monotonicity Power up ramp time. How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

33 November 21, 2013 33 Power Circuit Design ….  Voltage Requirement: Most of FPGAs require multiple power supply. Internal core logic power supply (VCCINT). Input Output drivers power supply (VCCO). Auxiliary power supply (VCCAUX).  Current Requirement: Depends on Logic utilization, Frequency of operation Other on board peripherals. Hence estimate power requirement before designing the power circuit. How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

34 November 21, 2013 34 Power Circuit Design…. Voltages Tolerances: Check the voltage tolerances of FPGA and peripherals. Generally voltage tolerances of FPGA in the order of 5% to 10% of voltage requirement. Power Distribution: Power distribution should be such that to maintain power around the device during peaks and drops. Power Sequencing: It is good design practice to switch on power in sequence (core and then I/O) to avoid initial power on surges. Most of the FPGAs do not require power sequencing, Monotonicity: Ramp the voltages without any dips in the power ramp up to respective threshold. Power up Ramp Time: It should neither be fast nor be slow. Ex. Minimum ramp time is 200 micro second and maximum is 100 mili seconds. How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

35 November 21, 2013 35 Switching vs. Linear Regulators Linear Regulators  Advantages Good for low power applications Few external components Low output noise Fast response to output disturbances  Disadvantages Lower efficiency Higher power consumption Limited range for Vin/Vout Switching Regulators  Advantages Higher efficiency Lower power consumption Large Vin/Vout range, largely independent of load current Ability to step-up and step- down.  Disadvantages More external components if modules are not used How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

36 November 21, 2013 36 How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) Power Circuit Design…. Example: Power supply design for Spartan-II FPGA RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

37 November 21, 2013 37 Decoupling Capacitors Power and Ground voltages are affected by logic transition and may cause the operational issues. The external package pins should be properly decoupled, which provides local energy storage, for stable power supply and ground. Proper decoupling improves the overall signal integrity. Decoupling capacitors should place as close as possible. Smaller the capacitor package, lower the Inductance and hence recommended. How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

38 November 21, 2013 38 Decoupling Capacitors… How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) Curtsey : Xilinx RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

39 November 21, 2013 39 Clock Circuit External clock should be connected to global clock inputs (GCLK) pin of the FPGA. GCLK pins are low- capacitance, low-skew interconnect lines well- suited to carrying high- frequency signals throughout the FPGA. How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) Fig.: Clock Circuit using oscillator RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

40 November 21, 2013 40 Reset Circuit Most of the FPGA has internal power on reset. It’s good design practice to provide external power on reset RST should be connected to global Set/Reset (GSR) pin of the FPGA. How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) Fig.: Reset Circuit RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

41 November 21, 2013 41 How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) Dedicated JTAG port is available in all FPGA. Every package has four dedicated JTAG pins. Namely, TDI, TMS, TCK (Input) and TDO (Output). Internal charge pumps create high voltages for programming the memories powered by VCCAUX. The signal integrity of the TCK signal is critical because all JTAG operations are synchronous to the TCK clock. The JTAG interface is easily cascaded to any number of FPGAs by connecting the TDO output of one device to the TDI input of the next device in the chain. The TDO output of the last device in the chain loops back to the port connector. In System Programming (ISP) RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

42 November 21, 2013 42 How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) In System Programming (ISP) Curtsey : Xilinx RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

43 November 21, 2013 43 How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) In System Programming (ISP) Mode configuration Pin: M0. M1,M2. Curtsey : Xilinx RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

44 November 21, 2013 44 How to customize FPGA Boards? (cont..) Wherever it is necessary, implement the hardware debugging and testing point must tap and brought out of circuit. Ex. Power supply, clk, Rx and Tx etc Some of I/O of the FPGA may also be connected through switch/LED and brought out for debugging of hardware. This port may also be used for implementation debugging. Debug & Testing Port RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

45 November 21, 2013 45 Practical Example: FPGA Based Motor Controller Power Supply Reset & Clock RS-232/ RS 485 JTAG & SPROM LOGIC AND INTERFACE DECODER DPRAM PWM DIR / SPEED FPGA CUSTOM BOARD with FPGA Curtsey : Actel RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

46 November 21, 2013 46 Schematic Design: For Motor Controller RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

47 November 21, 2013 47 Tools Available  Cadence PCB design Tools: OrCAD PCB design tools Allegro PCB design tools OrCAD/Allegro FPGA system planner  ModelSim PCB design Tools PADs  Zuken PCB design tools and many more… RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

48 November 21, 2013 48 PCB Designing Tools… Almost all available PCB design tools are bundle of following modules used for different stages of the PCB design. Schematic design tool PCB design tool Foot print editor Thermal analysis tools EMI analysis tools Verification Tools Simulation tools RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

49 November 21, 2013 49 OrCAD FPGA System Planner… Fig.: The OrCAD FPGA System Planner Methodology Curtsey : Cadence RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

50 November 21, 2013 50 PCB Design for Motor Controller After Routing TOP LAYER RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

51 Embedded Controller FPGA: For sequential control module and digital PID etc FPGA: For peripheral Interface and other digital I/Os etc November 21, 2013 51RRCAT, Indore - INDIA

52 Thank You

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