Presentation on theme: "Introduction APSIM: is a modeling environment that uses various component modules to simulate cropping systems in the semi-arid tropics. Modules can be."— Presentation transcript:
1APSIM Agricultural Production Systems Simulator Mehrnoosh Eghtedari Decamber 2013
2IntroductionAPSIM:is a modeling environment that uses various component modules to simulate cropping systems in the semi-arid tropics. Modules can be biological, environmental, managerial or economic and are linked via the APSIM "engine".can simulate the growth and yield of a range of crops in response to a variety of management practices, crop mixtures and rotation sequences, including pastures and livestock.
3Goals of APSIMTo simulate of biophysical processes in farming systems.To assist the search for better farming strategies and the development of aids to better production decision making under risk.To require a tool to accurate predictions of crop production in relation to climate, genotype, soil, and management factors regarding long term management of resources.
4 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation History of APSIMIn the early 1990s. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
5Capabilities of APSIMGrowth and yeild simulation of more than 25 crops.Growth and biomass simulation of pastures.Growth and biomass simulation of trees.Crop Competition with weeds simulation.Weed population dynamics.
6Capabilities of APSIM Intercropping systems simulation. Systems simulation in irrigated and rainfed conditions.The impact of management factors simulation. (Tillage, Irrigation, Fertilizing, Date of sowing)Rotation and fallow simulation.
7Capabilities of APSIM Agroforestry systems simulation. Key processes simulation in the soil.Carbon decomposition and surface residues simultion.Systems simulation in various scales (gene to ecosystem).The effect of climate change simulation.Production socio-economic effects simulation.
8Combining with Different Models CABALA: A model for predicting forest growth
9The APSIM Model Framework A set of biophysical modules that simulate biological and physical processes in farming systems,A set of management modules that allow the user to specify the intended management rules.Various modules to facilitate data input and output to and from the simulation.A simulation engine that drives the simulation process and controls all messages passing between the independent modules.
10STRUCTURE of APSIM (Mathematical-Mechanistic- Dynamic-Code based) System ControlManagerManagerClockReportENGINEClimateMetCanopySoilWatWheatSoilNMaizeCropsSoilPHSorghumSoilLegumeSoilPOther CropsErosionIrrigateManureFertilizeResidueEconomicsManagement
11APSIM ModulesCropSoilClimateMangementSystem Control
12Crop ModulesAPSIM contains an array of modules for simulating growth, development and yield of crops, pastures and forests and thier interactions.The plant modules simulate key physiological processes and operate on a daily time step in response to input daily weather data, soil characteristics and crop management actions.All plant species use the same physiological principles to capture resources and use these resources to grow. The main differences are the thresholds and shapes of their response functions.
13Crop ModulesCrop ontogeny is simulated via relationships defining responses to temperature and photoperiod.Leaf area production and senescence is simulated via relationships of leaf initiation rate, leaf appearance rate and plant leaf area with temperature.Potential crop water uptake is simulated via relationships with root exploration and extraction potential, which depends on soil and crop factors.
14Crop ModulesAll coefficients for general crop responses and crop/cultivar specific coefficients are stored external to the code to allow ease of use and transition across crops/cultivars.Constants and parameters from the code are stored in crop parameter files. Each file consists of two major parts: crop-specific constants and cultivar-specific parameters.
15Physiology of Yield Formation ClimateSoilMangementHIDry MatterRUELight InterceptionkLeaf Area°CPhenology
16Physiology of Yield Formation Harvest Index × Dry Matter= YieldHI = f(phenology, temperature, water,nutrients, management)HI(Grain Number x Grain size )/Dry MatterLinear function of biomass accumulation after anthesis
18Crop Submodules AgPasture : A pasture growth model, Based on the physiological model of Thornley & Johnston (2000),Designed for the simulation of mixed pastures of C3 and C4 grasses and legumes,Requirement: Micromet, Soil (SoilN and SoilWat or SWIM), Surface Organic Matter (SurfaceOM) and Fertiliser, and optionally Irrigation and pasture Managers.
19Crop Submodules Canopy (Intercropping): Simulates light and water competition between crops,On a daily basis, finds the number of crops in the simulation and their canopy heights,Canopy layers are then defined, with the layer boundaries being defined by the top of each canopy. Thus there are as many layers as canopies.
20Crop Submodules Canopy (Intercropping): Then each layer in turn is taken from the top, in the combine canopy, to get the combined (extinct_coeff * LAI) value of the canopies present in that layer.The fraction of light transmitted out of the bottom of that layer can be calculated.The total radiation intercepted in a layer is divided amongst the canopies occupying the layer, being done on the basis of (extinct_coeff * LAI) of each canopy.
21Crop Submodules Canopy (Intercropping): LAI is distributed with height in the canopy using normalized height and integration of a specific function.This results in 47% of the leaf area in the top 10% of height, 27% in the next 10%, 15% in the next 10%, and so on.
22Crop Submodules Growth: A simplified plant growth module developed for simulating pasture and forestry systems module.Major classes of biomass pools:Growth pool responsible for most growth processesStructural pool provides sinks for assimilate and nutrients and are used to describe plant properties such as plant height.
23Crop Submodules Growth: Growth Calculation: : Daily Growth : Daily intercepted solar radiation (MJ/m2): The light use efficiency (g/MJ): Growth modifiers for temperature: Growth modifiers for nitrogen: Growth modifiers for vapour pressure deficit: Soil water supply
24Crop Submodules Growth: Partitioning variation in root:shoot ratio structural fraction of above-ground growth
25Crop Submodules Plant : Simulates the growth of a number of different species on a daily time-step (on an area basis not single plant).Plant growth in this model responds to climate (temperature, rainfall and radiation from the Met module), soil water supply (from the Soilwat module) and soil nitrogen (from the SoilN module).
26Crop Submodules Slurp: a model for calculating soil water uptake by plants.Inputs :plant root (root length profile and extraction potential) canopy (live LAI, dead LAI, extinction coefficients and canopy height)
29Soil SubmodulesEroison Daily soil erosion, and its effect on the soil profileMap It maps simulation soil layers onto output layersSoilN The dynamics of both carbon and nitrogen in soilSoilP The availability of phosphorus in soilSoilTemp Soil temperature
30Soil Submodules SoilWat The soil water balance model Solute Solute balance modelSurfac Surface water conductivity changes with timeSurfaceOM The effect of surface organic matterSWIM Infiltration and water movement in soilWaterSupply The role of water-source for the Irrigate module
31Soil Erosion Module Sub model 1: Freebarin E: Event soil loss (t/ha) COV: Cover (%)Q: Event runoff (mm)K: Soil erodibility factorLS: Slope length and steepness factorP: Supporting practice factor Sine of slope angleLength of catchment (m)
32Soil Erosion Module Sub model 1: Rose E: Event soil loss (t/ha) S: Sine of slope anglecov: Fractional surface cover (0-1)Q: Event runoff (mm)λ: Factor approximating efficiency of entrainment λbare : Efficiency of entrainment (bare surface)COV: Surface cover (%)
33SoilN Module FOM - fresh organic matter (crop residues, dead roots) BIOM – the more labile, soil microbial biomassHUM – the bulk of soil organic matter
34SoilN ModuleDecomposition of Soil Organic Matter Pools
35SoilTemp Module Method: 1- Heat storage in nodes Air temperaturethermal conductanceheat storage boundary layerdepthtemperatureMethod:1- Heat storage in nodes2- Resistance to heat transfer in layersnumber of nodesannual average soil temperature
37Methods of water movement SoilWat ModuleMethods of water movementCascading Layer Richard ΄s equationDaily time step
38SoilWat Module The thickness of each layer by the user 100 or 150 mm the uppermost layer300 or 500 mm the base of the profileThe whole profile by up to 10 or more layers
39SoilWat ModuleProcesses represented in SOILWAT, adapted from water balances such as WATBAL and CERES, include:Runoff: USDA curve number (CN) runoff model, include effect of :soil water contentsoil cover both from crop and crop residueroughness due to tillageEvaporation: based on potential evaporation(Priestly/Taylor or Penman/Monteith)
40SoilWat Module Saturated flow : Swi+1 = Swi+1 + SWCONi x (SWi - DULi) for layer i, SWi > DULiUnsaturated flow : Between LL and DUL, water can move between layers in proportion to the water content gradient.Movement of solutes associated with saturated and unsaturated flow of water are calculated using a ‘mixing’ algoritm.
41Met ModuleThe APSIM Met module provided daily meteorological information to all modules within an APSIM simulation.
42Management ModuleFertilizer Effect of fertilizer application on a systemIrrigation Irrigation schedulingEconomics Maintains a cash balance through the simulation, which monitors all financial activity (e.g. income, expenses, loan repayments).
43System ControlManager Capability to specify a set of rules using conditional logic during simulations to control the actions of modules.Clock Simulation timeReport Creates a columnar output file to record data from an APSIM simulation.