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McGill University School of Computer Science ‘07 Eugene Syriani and Hans Vangheluwe McGill University School of Computer Science 1

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‘07 OVERVIEW In the context Overview of the Discrete EVent system Specification (DEVS) formalism Building example with AToM 3 Graph Rewriting Control Flow (GRCF): Mimic AToM 3 and beyond Summary 2

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‘07 IN THE CONTEXT Model transformation: Programmed Graph Rewriting At least as expressive as: GreAT, VMTS, Fujaba, ProGreS, MOFLON Sequencing, Branching, Looping, Hierarchy, Parallelism Cleanly tear apart – Transformation entities – Control flow, structure, hierarchy DEVS gives us time and modularity too 3

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‘07 OVERVIEW In the context Overview of the Discrete EVent system Specification (DEVS) formalism Building example with AToM 3 Graph Rewriting Control Flow (GRCF): Mimic AToM 3 and beyond Summary 4

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‘07 OVERVIEW OF THE DEVS FORMALISM Bernard Zeigler, late ‘70s Basis for compositional modelling and simulation of discrete event systems Design, performance analysis and implementation 5

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‘07 OVERVIEW OF THE DEVS FORMALISM Block: Atomic / Coupled Port: Inport / Outport Event Global time 6

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‘07 OVERVIEW OF THE DEVS FORMALISM Atomic DEVS: – Time Advance – Output Function – Internal Transition –External Transition ATOMIC 7

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‘07 OVERVIEW OF THE DEVS FORMALISM Coupled DEVS C A1 A2 A3 8

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‘07 C OVERVIEW OF THE DEVS FORMALISM Coupled DEVS: – Select Function A1 A2 9

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‘07 OVERVIEW OF THE DEVS FORMALISM class AExample(AtomicDEVS): def __init__(self): self.state = ExampleState() self.in = self.addInPort() self.out = self.addOutPort() def extTransition(self): X = self.peak(self.in)... return self.state def intTransition(self):... return self.state def outputFnc(self):... self.poke(self.out, Y) def timeAdvance(self): return 1 Our implementation: pythonDEVS class CExample(CoupledDEVS): def __init__(self): self.M1 = self.addSubModel(Example()) self.M2 = self.addSubModel(Example()) self.connectPorts(self.M1.out, self.M2.in) def select(self, immList): return immList[0] 10

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‘07 OVERVIEW In the context Overview of the Discrete EVent system Specification (DEVS) formalism Building example with AToM 3 Graph Rewriting Control Flow (GRCF): Mimic AToM 3 and beyond Summary 11

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‘07 BUILDING EXAMPLE WITH ATOM 3 [1] Simplified PacMan formalism [2] [1] de Lara J., Vangheluwe H., AToM 3 : A tool for multi-formalism and meta-modelling, LNCS (2002), 174-188 [ 2] Heckel R., Graph Transformation in a nutshell, ENTCS (2006), 187-198 12

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‘07 BUILDING EXAMPLE WITH ATOM 3 Build the Meta-Model of the PacMan formalism 13

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‘07 BUILDING EXAMPLE WITH ATOM 3 Build the Graph Grammar 14

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‘07 BUILDING EXAMPLE WITH ATOM 3 Build the Graph Grammar 1 4 2 1 2 5 pacLink 3 ghostLink 3 1: return self.LHS.nodeWithLabel(1).score + 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 5 4 pacLink foodLink 6 4 pacLink P 1 P 2 15

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‘07 BUILDING EXAMPLE WITH ATOM 3 Build the Graph Grammar 4 12 3 6 gridLeft ghostLink 12 3 4 7 gridLeft ghostLink 4 12 5 gridRight pacLink 12 4 6 gridRight pacLink 3 3 P 3 16

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‘07 BUILDING EXAMPLE WITH ATOM 3 17

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‘07 BUILDING EXAMPLE WITH ATOM 3 Capture a trace of execution – Keep log of used rules 18

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‘07 OVERVIEW In the context Overview of the Discrete EVent system Specification (DEVS) formalism Building example with AToM 3 Graph Rewriting Control Flow (GRCF): Mimic AToM 3 and beyond Summary 19

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‘07 GRAPH REWRITING CONTROL FLOW DEVS blocks – Atomic block: encapsulate the graph rewriting rule – Coupled block: encapsulate the graph grammar Events – Inport: recieve the host graph – Outport(s): send the transformed graph 20

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‘07 GRAPH REWRITING CONTROL FLOW 21

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‘07 GRAPH REWRITING CONTROL FLOW Model AToM 3 ’s graph transformation engine Input graph Step Send graph to transform Transformed graph Rules used 22

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‘07 GRAPH REWRITING CONTROL FLOW Graph transformation engine g_out out_step done_rcv g_initdone_sendin_stepg_out g_modified g_unmodified g_in g_succeed match_fail match_succeed g_in match_fail trace trace g_in g_fail trace match_succeed 23

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‘07 GRAPH REWRITING CONTROL FLOW Managing priorities g_in match_fail g_in g_in abort match_succeed Priority n g_in abort abort out_fail match_fail match_succeed in_successin_fail out_success g_succeed g_fail Priority n+1 Non-determinism: Randomize select function 24

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‘07 GRAPH REWRITING CONTROL FLOW Use compiled version of AToM 3 ’s rule class pacDie:... 25

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‘07 import compiled rules… GRAPH REWRITING CONTROL FLOW class AExample(AtomicDEVS): def __init__(self): self.state = ExampleState() self.in = self.addInPort() self.out = self.addOutPort() def extTransition(self): X = self.peak(self.in)... return self.state def intTransition(self):... return self.state def outputFnc(self):... self.poke(self.out, Y) def timeAdvance(self): return 1 26

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‘07 GRAPH REWRITING CONTROL FLOW Extension of AToM 3 ’s graph transformation engine g_outout_step g_init done_send in_step done_rcv g_out g_succeed g_failg_ing_fail g_modifiedg_unmodified g_in out_control control_out control_in in_control 27

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‘07 GRAPH REWRITING CONTROL FLOW Extension of AToM 3 ’s graph transformation engine g_incontrol_in keyg_in g_up g_down g_in match_succeedmatch_fail g_in match_succeedmatch_fail g_in match_succeedmatch_fail g_in match_fail g_left out_fail in_successin_fail out_success g_succeedg_fail match_succeed g_right 28

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‘07 match_fail g_in match_fail g_in GRAPH REWRITING CONTROL FLOW Extension of AToM 3 ’s graph transformation engine g_ing_succeed match_succeed g_in g_fail match_succeed match_fail match_succeed 29

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‘07 OVERVIEW In the context Overview of the Discrete EVent system Specification (DEVS) formalism Building example with AToM 3 Graph Rewriting Control Flow (GRCF): Mimic AToM 3 and beyond Summary 30

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‘07 SUMMARY Sequence Branching Looping Hierarchy + Modularity Parallelism Control flow structure properties satisfied 31

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‘07 Are we at the right level of abstraction? Is it the way industry should go in model transformation? 32

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‘07 DEVS DEVS “[...] the rule execution semantics is similar to the execution semantics of asynchronous dataflow graphs and DEVS, but with a difference in the hierarchical rule execution. [...] the class diagrams Figs. 14 and 15 introduce the same concepts as found in DEVS.” A. Agrawal et al. The design of a language for model transformations. SoSym, 2006 33

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‘07 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK DEVS is a sequential, deterministic formalism Parallel-DEVS Kiltera (CSP-like languages) Parallelism 34

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‘07 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK Metric, Statistics Timed graph transformation Real-Time DEVS Time 35

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‘07 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK Event-driven Graph Rewriting Modelling of the user User - Events 36

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‘07 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK Optimization hints Information on the flow Replace python code by... Statechart? Multi-formalism Add an AI block in the autonomous rules Some Extensions 37

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‘07 GRAPH REWRITING CONTROL FLOW class AExample(AtomicDEVS): def __init__(self): self.state = ExampleState() self.in = self.addInPort() self.out = self.addOutPort() def extTransition(self): X = self.peak(self.in)... return self.state return 1 e(AtomicDEVS): def ___(self): self.state = ExampleState() self.in = self.addInPort() self.out = hsdhfjhb Sdvjvkv Ds v return 1 classself.state = ExampleState() sdvv self.in = self.addInPort() self.out = self.addOutPort() def extTransition(self): X = self.peak(self.in)... return sdsdfsdfsdfsfsdfsdf In AToM 3 Outside AToM 3 38

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