Presentation on theme: "1ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Hopi saying: does this talk grow corn?"— Presentation transcript:
1ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Hopi saying: does this talk grow corn?
2ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Reality Check: Education, Research and Development
3ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. USA 35% EUROPE 29% JAPAN 15% REST OF WORLD 21% Information Technology Teledensity (telephone lines per 100 inhabitants) Industrialized nations is over 48 Middle-income nations around 10 Least advanced countries is about 1.5 World average is 11.5 Informatics gap (PC ratio per 100 inhabitants) Industrialized nations is over 18 Middle-income nations around 2.3 Least advanced countries is about 0.01 IT MARKET SHARE
4ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Latin America Y2K There are hidden resources in Latin America. 100 million without basic education; 44 million illiterate 44% of LAC are poor, 211 million Population Growth By Y2K 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 North America RussiaEurope Latin America Millions
5ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Who does S&T? G-7 nations: industry does 50-70% of S&T resources for S&T come from government and industry majority of resources are spent in industry USA: basic R&D sponsored primarily by the government applied R&D sponsored primarily by industry and government universities perform basic R&D Latin America: R&D primarily sponsored by the government
6ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Who does S&T? Brazil, Costa Rica, Chile, and Cuba are the only countries in Latin America with greater than 1% investment of GDP in R&D. Japan 2.7% Germany 2.4% United States 2.4% Brazil 1.3 % Canada 1.6% Spain 0.9% Russia Less than 0.5% Latin American average is 0.5%
7ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Who does S&T? Expenditure in S&T USA $265 billion (68% industry) Canada$11 billion Brazil $5 billion Spain$5.4 billion Mexico$1.7 billion Argentina $1.5 billion Human Resources in S&T USA researchers1 million Latin American researchers 126 k (Brazil 50k, Arg 29k, Mex 15k) Spain and Portugal 63k Canada 100k Rest under 10k
8ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Scientists and Engineers in Brazil, South Korea and USA Source: http://.most.go.kr/research-e/3-3.htm http://www.ifi.unicamp.br/~brito 8.765 56.760 12.336 74.665 48.588 15.185 764.500 128.500 70.000 Scientists and Engineers
14ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Labor Force in R&D USA and Japan 0.8% Korea 0.4% Brazil 0.11% Mean value in developed nations is 0.54%
15ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Publications and Patents OECD nations: 14% of world population generate 86% of publications and 85% of patents 3,000 S&E per 100,000 people Invest 2.4% of GNP in R&D Latin America and Caribbean: 300 S&E per 100,000 people Invest 0.5% of GNP in R&D In 1997: LAC over 500 million people, filed 1,708 patents. Israel over 6 million, filed 1796 patents.
16ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. IEEE information used around the world
17ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Higher Education LAC: 20% population For every 100 individuals 35 finish OECD: 81% population Asia: 28% Korea: 36%
18ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Higher Education LAC: 1,963 PhD programs, 269 institutions, in 14 countries. Concentrated in Brazil, Mexico, Cuba, Argentina, and Venezuela. Brazil, Cuba, Mexico: 80% of PhD programs. Limited offer: Chile, Colombia, Peru, Costa Rica and Uruguay Extremely low offer: Bolivia, Ecuador, Honduras and Panama. No offer: El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Dominican Republic.
19ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Higher Education 36% of institutions offer one (1) PhD program 70% of institutions offer 1-5 PhD programs 13% of 2000 institutions in LAC can offer a PhD program 50% of PhD programs are offered by 7.4% of the total number of institutions that offer at least 1 program Majority of PhD programs are concentrated in 1% of the total number of institutions
20ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. Higher Education PhD programs: Humanities and Social Sciences – 31% Natural and Exact Sciences – 27% Medicine – 14% Technology and Engineering – 14% Agro Sciences – 9% Earth Sciences and Space – 4.3%
21ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. References La Oferta de Formación Doctoral en América Latina Jesús Sebastián Centro de Información y Documentación Científica (CINDOC) Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, España NSF Science and Engineering Indicators, 2002 EE Times, October 2000 Informe sobre necesidades de empleo y formacion en las Nuevas Tecnologias de la Informacion y las Comunicaciones, Madrid, Marzo 6-7, 2001 Oportunidades y desafíos tecnológicos: La brecha digital y la revolución biotecnológica. Quindi Franco y Nelson Viloria, CAF.
22ISTEC 2005All Rights Reserved. References Universidade Pública e Desenvolvimento Carlos H. de Brito Cruz, Reitor UNICAMP A Universidade, a Empresa e a Pesquisa que o País Precisa Carlos H. de Brito Cruz, Reitor UNICAMP ISTEC Publications 1990-2001 IEEE presentation to ISTEC Board of Directors, Dr. Raymond D. Findlay