a person’s weight in kilograms square of height in metres (kg/m2).
* <18.5 : Underweight * 18.5-24.9 : Normal/Healthy * 25.0-29.9 : Overweight (pre-obese) * 30.0-34.9 : Obese (Class I) * 35.0-39.9 : Obese (Class II) * ≥40 Obese ( Class III = morbid obesity) o Waist –hip ratio correlates more with the metabolic disorder. Obesity. Guidance on the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children. London: (NICE), 2006.
In1997 : obesity is a global epidemic. At 2008 : 1.5 billion individuals < 20 ys. are obese. Obesity rates are rising worldwide. Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Geneva : WHO, 2000.
25% of adults in the UK are now obese. 50% of women would be obese by 2050. ( if no action were taken). [ The Government commissioned Foresight report 2007] Statistics on Obesity, physical activity & diet :England 2010 in NHS information centre for life style statistics 2010.
About one-third of U.S. adults (33.8%) are obese. National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007 -2008
In 1992, mothers with young children had a mean (BMI) of 26.9. By 2005, rise to a mean BMI of 30.1, with nearly 50% of Egyptian women of reproductive age classified as obese. WHO study (Musaiger 2004) Demographic and Health Surveys
The most common cancer of the female genital tract. The fourth most common cancer in women. 5% of all female cancers in 2007. (ASR 19.4) 1975 - 1993 : Incidence remained stable. 1993 - 2007 : Incidence increased by <40%. Cancer statistics registrations ; Registrations of cancer diagnosed in 2007, England 2010, National statistics,London
Gharbia Population Based Cancer Registry 2002- 2003: Endometrial cancer is the 2 nd Gynaelogical cancer in female, 9 th of all female cancers. (ASR 2.1%) Incidence of uterine cancer in urban areas is almost 6 times higher than rural ones. Aswan Population Based Cancer Registry 2008: Endometrial cancer is the 2 nd Gynaelogical cancer in female,6 th of all female cancers. (ASR 4.1%) ASR= Age Standardised Incidence Rate
No. 1 No.2 WHO/FAO, Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases, in WHO Technical Report Series. 2003, WHO: Geneva
Major studies confirmed that being overweight or obese increases risk of various cancers. Esophagus Pancreas Colon and rectum Breast (after menopause) Endometrium Kidney Thyroid Gallbladder Renehan, A.G., et al., Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 2008. 371(569-578).
Overweight and obesity are behind around 17,000 cases of cancer each year in the UK. Parkin, M., et al., The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. BJC 2011. 105, Supp. 2, 6 December 2011
In 2007 : 50,500 cancer in women (7 %) were due to obesity. By 2030 : obesity will lead to about 500,000 additional cases of cancer in the USA. NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, 2007, United States
Risk of endometrial cancer is increased in women with a BMI greater than 30kg/m2 The risk increases linearly with increasing BMI. In the UK, approximately 50% of endometrial cancers are attributable to obesity. Reeves, G.K., et al., Cancer incidence & mortality in relation to BMI in the Million Women Study: BMJ 2007
Obese women are 3 to 4 times more likely to develop endometrial cancer than people with a healthy bodyweight,regardless of menopausal status. Friedenreich, C., et al., Anthropometric factors and risk of endometrial cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Causes Control, 2007
Obesity is predominantly associated with type1(endometroid) endometrial cancer, rather than type 2 (non-endometroid type such as serous or carcino-sarcoma). However, both subtypes are increased with obesity. McCulloiugh, M.L.,et al., body mass & endometrial cancer risk by HRT & cancer subtypes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev,2008
In pre-menopausal women: obesity ----- anovulatory cycles, the endometrium is exposed to un-opposed oestrogen. In post-menopausal women: obesity ----- increased conversion of androstenedione to oestrone in adipose tissue + lower levels of SHBG----- higher levels of unopposed oestrogen.
Increased levels of insulin and Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) Fat cells produce hormones, called adipokines, that may stimulate or inhibit cell growth. ( e.g. leptin, promote cell proliferation, whereas adiponectin,, may have anti- proliferative effects ).
Fat cells may also have direct and indirect effects on other tumor growth regulators, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase. Obese people often have chronic low-level, or “sub-acute,” inflammation, which has been associated with increased cancer risk. Other possible mechanisms include altered immune responses, effects on the nuclear factor kappa beta system, and oxidative stress.
Apple-shaped people who put on weight around their stomach may have higher risks than pear-shaped people who put on weight around their hips.
Abdominal fat is measured using either waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. Studies have found that people with larger waists or waist-to-hip ratios have higher risks of certain cancers. Normal waist-to-hip ratio in female 0.7,waist is 30% smaller than hip.
A study was conducted in Alexandria, Egypt. ◦ It intended to assess the relation between different measures of obesity and the risk to develop endometrial cancer in Egyptian females with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB). ◦ Result: Using ROC curve analysis, only the measure of abdominal obesity (waist circumference) showed significant accuracy in predicting endometrial cancer (area = 0.63, P <.05). The best cutoff point that maximizes accuracy was 88 cm. Zaki.A, Gaber.A, Ghanem.E, Moemen.M, Shehata G. Biomedical Informatics and Medical Statistics Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt.
Research is focusing on improved evaluation of risk, so that women can receive the optimal chemo-preventive agent when diagnosed as being at high risk of cancer. Risk IdentificationPreventive measures Screening Program
Large studies are now trying to confirm that losing weight may reduce cancer risk. One study : loss of 20 pounds ---11% decrease in overall cancer risk. Another study: women who had sustained some degree of weight loss for 5 years or more had a 25% lower risk of developing endometrial cancer than those who had not lost weight.(1) Trentham-Dietz A, Nichols H, Hampton J, Newcomb P. Weight change and risk of endometrial cancer. Int J Epidemiol 2006
Weight loss Non-surgical Behavioral changes Diet Exercise Pharmacotherapy Bariatric surgery
Traditional methods of weight loss are less successful than bariatric surgery to induce successful long-term weight loss.!!!!!!!!
A study based on ongoing Swedish Obese Subjects trial : Bariatric surgery that results in sustained weight loss may help to reduce cancer risk in obese women. The Lancet Oncology, Swedish study based on ongoing Swedish Obese Subjects trial
COC use for about 3 years reduces a women's risk of developing endometrial cancer by about 50%. Use of COCs for 10 years or more reduces a woman's risk of developing such cancers by 80%. The protective effect lasts for up to 20 years after cessation of COCs. Hannaford PC, Selvaraj S, Elliott AM, Angus V, Iversen L, Lee AJ. “Cancer risk among users of oral contraceptives: cohort data from the Royal College of Practitioner’s oral contraception study”. BMJ online 12 Sept 2007
However, Obese women using oral contraceptives may also have a higher failure rate as a contraceptive. Also obesity complications as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and thrombo-embolism may limit COCs use.
Depo-Provera reduces the risk of endometrial cancer by 80%. The reduced risk of endometrial cancer in Depo- Provera users is thought to be due to both the direct anti-proliferative effect of progestogen on the endometrium and the indirect reduction of estrogen levels by suppression of ovarian follicular development. WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives (1991). "Depot- medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and risk of endometrial cancer". Int J Cancer
DMPA ( Depo-Provera) and the combination contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing) are most effective for obese women because they don't appear to be affected by body weight.
Progestogen-containing IUCDs (Mirena) might considered partially chemo-preventive although as yet there are no data to support them being prophylactic. The POET study (Prevention Of Endometrial Tumours), shortly to be launched, will look at a small group of women who are deemed to be genetically predisposed to develop endometrial cancer at a young age and will evaluate progestogen-containing IUCDs in this setting.
YearTotal cc. PillInjecta ble +Impla nts IUCDFemale Sterliz Male Sterliz Condo m UK200284 %22 %3 %6 %13%17%18% Egypt200360%9.3 %8.8%36.7%0.9%0%0.9% United Nations.Department of economic & social affairs. Population Division. World contraceptive use.
At present, there are not screening methods with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Ultrasound imaging: endometrial thickness 4 mm cut value reliable in postmenopausal women experiencing bleeding, but the test carries a high false positive rate in asymptomatic women. The idea that combination of TVS and color Doppler can reduce the number of false-positive findings, are still under research. Gupta, J.K., et al., Ultrasonographic endometrial thickness for diagnosing endometrial pathology in women with postmenopausal bleeding: a meta- analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2002Ultrasonographic endometrial thickness for diagnosing endometrial pathology in women with postmenopausal bleeding: a meta- analysis.
Cytological sampling is technically viable, but there is no evidence from RCTs to support its use. The Cancer Genetics Studies Consortium recommends gynaecological screening for women with HNPCC syndrome, but there is no clear evidence that ultrasound screening in this group is of benefit.
Standard treatment ( Abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral SO, with or without radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy). Laparoscopic hysterectomy. Primary Radiotherapy.
Hysterectomy and bilateral SO, with or without radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy as indicated. Obesity is associated with an increase risk of peri-operative complications due to associated disorders as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. In morbidly obese women, obstructive sleep apnoea is 10 times more common and puts post- operative patients at risk of arrhythmia and acute cardiac events. So, more detailed preoperative assessment to exclude co-existing morbidity and more intensive postoperative care is required.
Neither the PORTEC trial nor the more recent ASTEC trial has suggested a meaningful role for pelvic lymph-adenectomy, although sampling of the nodes remains a part of FIGO staging.
Laparoscopic hysterectomy &bilateral SO has been demonstrated to be the surgical technique of choice for women with endometrial cancer in three large RCTs : 1.The American RCT, the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) LAP2 study. 2.The Australian, New Zealand and Hong Kong RCT. 3. The Dutch RCT. However, a higher conversion rate to open surgery was noticed with high BMI.
Endometrial cancer is radiosensitive. Radiotherapy may be used as a sole treatment modality. There have been no direct comparisons of primary radiotherapy with surgery in women with local disease and significant co morbidities, early case series suggest that primary radiotherapy has inferior survival rates compared to hysterectomy. Inciura, A., et al., Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy in the primary treatment of endometrial cancer. J Radiat Res (Tokyo)
May be used in selected cases for fertility reservation. Early case series to be used in early stages with obesity co-morbidites. In atypia & well-differentiated stage (1a ) cancer.
Obesity is now clearly established as a major risk factor for endometrial cancer. In medium income country like ours, Obesity prevention and lifestyle initiatives should become the responsibility of public health services. Stepwise programmes with realistic time-related goals are required, starting with modification of lifestyle, progressing to pharmacotherapy and ultimately obesity surgery. The real challenge now is to triage those women at a higher risk and offer them prophylactic measures as COCPs,DMPA, oral progesterone or Mirena coil.
Standard treatment for endometrial cancer is surgery. Obesity is associated with numerous disorders which put the patient at increase risk of peri- operative complications that require more detailed pre-operative assessment and more intensive post-operative care. Thus treatment for endometrial cancer needs to be reassessed in the complex and increasingly common situation of the obese, older women with this disease.