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A Retrofit Strategy for Aging Multi-unit Residential Buildings in Toronto Marianne Touchie November 29 th, 2012 Passive House Canada AGM.

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Presentation on theme: "A Retrofit Strategy for Aging Multi-unit Residential Buildings in Toronto Marianne Touchie November 29 th, 2012 Passive House Canada AGM."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Retrofit Strategy for Aging Multi-unit Residential Buildings in Toronto Marianne Touchie November 29 th, 2012 Passive House Canada AGM

2 Outline Motivation for MURB energy retrofit research Performance issues and the status quo Current Research at the University of Toronto including NTED™ 2

3 Motivation for MURB retrofit research 3 Source: CMHC, Tower Renewal Guidelines Housing starts in the GTA Housing Stock Residential GHG Emissions 30% 40% Indoor Environmental Quality Issues: Draughts and overheating High relative humidity and mould growth Transmission of smoke, odours, noise, insects

4 Causes of performance issues Minimal Thermal Resistance Uncontrolled Air Leakage Thermal Bridge through Slab 4 Image source: Tower Renewal Guidelines Architectural

5 Causes of performance issues 5 Operational +

6 Causes of performance issues 6 Operational Negative Positive Balanced Dynamic pressures (wind, stack and mechanical) Architectural Loose envelope and interior partitions + = Uncontrolled air flow

7 Overclad Enclose balconies Upgrade HVAC controls Install sensors Replace MAU Replace windows Install solar thermal Submeter Replace lighting Recaulk windows Cost Time Required for Implementation Replace boiler Install PVs 30% Sources: Natural Resources Canada; Toronto Atmospheric Fund Space Heating Requirements Typical Retrofit Existing Building Current Retrofit Strategies IEQ issues remain IEQ issues solved?

8 Emerging Techniques Compartmentalization 8 Reduced stack pressure results in less infiltration Corridor ventilation remains insufficient Source: CMHC 2005

9 Suite-based Equipment Emerging Techniques 9 Preferred by condo owners, building managers In conjunction with a central system and without compartmentalization Source: Finn Projects

10 Proposed Solution: NTED™ 10 18°C 0°C Conduction and Air Leakage Heat Transfer Adiabatic and Airtight -6°C Enclosed Balcony Ventilation Air Heating Exterior Apartment Heat Recovery Zone Combine emerging techniques with a modified version of Nested Thermal Envelope Design™ for single family homes

11 NTED™ Research Objectives Determine the viability of NTED™ application in the MURB sector Through monitoring, gather detailed information about MURB operation Verify suite-level performance through laboratory testing Develop model with energy simulation program Image source: Tower Renewal Guidelines

12 Monitoring Program Building-level and suite-level monitoring 12-month period Charles Street Student Family Residences

13 Building-level: Natural gas (hourly) and electricity use (sub-hourly) Suite-level: electricity use E E Monitoring Program 13

14 ambient lighting sensors L L D D D D P P P P Monitoring Program 14 E T/R Selected suites: pressure differential sensors P (at corridor, exterior, exhaust), displacement sensors D window), Building-level: Natural gas (hourly) and electricity use (sub-hourly) Suite-level: electricity use E temperature T relative humidity R

15 Laboratory Testing 15 Climate Simulator at the University of Toronto Enclosed Balcony Warm Room Cold Room HP HRV Apartment Chiller Baffle

16 Energy Modelling 16 Test various retrofit strategies Envelope Types Base Wall R2000 Wall Optimized Wall Base Wall + Overcladding New Wall + New Wall In-Suite Mechanical components Heat Recovery Ventilator Heat Pump Domestic Hot Water Tank Sensitivity Analyses Orientation Fenestration-to-wall ratio HRZ dimensions Envelope air tightness Envelope thermal resistance Cooling season performance

17 Laboratory Results Retrofit Strategies for MURBs Bringing it all together Building Monitoring Laboratory Results Energy Simulations

18 References Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation Energy Audits of High-Rise Residential Buildings. Technical Series from schl.gc.ca/publications/en/rhpr/tech/97100.htm Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation “Assessment of Suite Compartmentalization and Depressurization in New High-Rise Residential Buildings,” Technical Series Dixon, E., Pressnail, K.D., Richman, R., Touchie, M Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings XI International Conference: NTED: An innovative design using nested thermal envelopes to achieve significant reductions in energy use. Finn Projects (Synchronicity Projects Inc.) 2003."Survey of In-Suite Space and Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems in Multi-unit Residential Buildings," Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation Research Report. Kesik, T. and Saleff, I., Tower renewal guidelines. Toronto: University of Toronto. Natural Resources Canada Comprehensive Energy Use Database Tables. [Online]. Available: United Way. (2011) Vertical Poverty: Poverty by Postal Code 2. United Way Toronto. 18


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