Presentation on theme: "EVAPORATIVE WATER LOSS"— Presentation transcript:
1EVAPORATIVE WATER LOSS Effective channel - heat lossTa 25 C - latent heat of vaporization = cal/gm100 kg animal - with 140,000 cal/h metabolic rateCan maintain thermal equilibrium with evaporationof 240 g H2O per hour
2Respiratory Evaporation Difference in moisture content - expired and inspired airExpired air collected-Open-Circuit System-Use narrow-range humidity sensing elements (hygrometers)or desiccant to absorb water vapor
3Skin vaporizationAir - known moisture content passed over skin -Then change - moisture content - dependent on cutaneous vaporizationAssuming constant air flowAlso assume - water vapor content - air low enough to maintain complete and rapid evaporationImportant factors:1. Percent Relative Humidity2. Air Flow Rate3. Air Temperature
4Relies on water vapor pressure gradient Depends on state change - waterLIQUID >>>>> GAS STATESLatent Heat Vaporization = kcal / gmCooling - only by vaporization at skinIf water remains on skin or drips off >>NO COOLING EFFECTImpermeable garments or covering - reduces evaporation>> increased discomfort
5Body Heat Loss - via evaporation - ALWAYS OCCURSEven at cold Ta there are respiratory andcutaneous evaporationsCutaneous Evaporation - both passive and activeprocessesInsensible water loss = passive evaporationExcludes excreted water (sweat, urine, feces)
6Respiratory & cutaneous evap. water loss contribute equally - heat loss at restRepresents ~ 25% total heat loss - TNZEven occurs at cold TaHuman - Ta < 30 C - evaporation is constantg / m2 x hr(1/2 respiratory ; 1/2 cutaneous)-- Even dry skin has moisture loss --Ta > 30 C Evaporation increases linearily with Taas active sweating is initiatedTakes care of decr. heat loss via radiation, convection,conductionbelow LCT
7Cattle - 17 Watts / m2 below LCT up to 116 Watts / m2 above UCTJersey cow (400 kg) - EHL >> 18% THL (15 C)EHL >> 84% THL (35 C)Brahman cow - lower EHL rates than European cowsbelow 32 C - due to their lower MRBrahman reach maximum EHL at 35 CEuropean cattle reach maximum EHL at 27 CLarge species differences - water loss through skinAbility - control Tb - high Ta by cutaneous EHL -related to sweat glands.
8Pigs - have no sweat glands Therefore - little incr. EHL (cutaneous) - high TaBirds - also no sweat glandsLimited water loss - skin - even during heat stressPassive water loss - not directly underthermoregulatory control.Humans - more sweat secretion than any other species2.5 million sweat glands• Sweating - superior to panting & respiratory evap. -when no obstruction to evaporation
9Sweat glands - of ancient origen - derived from glands of skin - even in amphibians & reptilesLike mammalian glands - duct surrounded bymyoepithelial network (contactile epithelial cells)Sweat Gland Functions:1. Thermoregulation2. Lubrication3. Secretion - noxious material4. Defense against predators5. Sexual attractantsSweat Gland Types:1. Apocrine 2. Eccrine
10APOCRINE - glands associated with primary hair follicles; involves breakdown of membranes ofsecretory cells of glands - discharge cell contents.• Begin function - puberty; viscous secretionECCRINE - glands not associated with hair follicles;involves fluid secretion across intact cell membranes.Function throughout life; watery secretionHuman - all eccrine glands do not function simultaneously- or under same conditions - all parts of body.At high Ta - sweating starts - forehead - spreads >> faceand then rest of body. Finally - palms & soles increase production -BUT with nervous strain - they may start first.
11Sheep - sweat glands discharge briefly - over entire body surface.Sweating - of secondary importance to sheep.In contrast - to humans and cattleCattle - numerous apocrine glands - assoc. with hairfollicles.No eccrine sweat glands - as in humansAmount of sweat per gland in cattle much less thanin humans.+ total amount sweat produced per SA less than forhumans.
12Skin - cow - rarely appears wet - Originally thought - cows do not sweatBUT due to slow rate of secretionSweat collects - drops - on hairs(Therefore - sweat spreads >> skin surface for evap.)Sweat glands - Bos indicus - larger & morenumerous than for Bos taurus.Apocrine glands - adrenergic controlEccrine glands - cholinergic controlhich are water repellant)
13Horse - at high Ta - relies primarily on sweating - with little or no effective panting.Endurance trained horses at high Ta lose kgsweat / hourand may become clinically dehydrated with %decrease in body weight.For kg horse - this water loss =30-45 L or % EFVAlso racehorses may exhibit NaCl deficiency with excessivesweating.
14Sweat differs from fluid lost via skin Contains large quantities - electrolytes + ureaSweat resembles extracellular fluid(Na and Cl being the major ionic components)BUT - hyposmotic to plasma and variable• NaCl = chief substance of sweat ( g/ 100 ml)Concentration rises with increasing sweating rateAcclimation >> hot Ta >> decreased NaCl (sweat)This does not occur if extra salt consumed.BUT - dehydration or increased salt intake >> shiftsplasma volume and decreased sweating efficiencyand secretion rate.Due to hypertonicity - body fluids
15VAPOR PRESSURE GRADIENT = Driving force for EvaporationVapor pressure = measure of absolute humidityNOT relative humidity (proportion of saturationvapor pressure represented by water vaporalready present)If water vapor amount constantIncrease in Ta >> decrease in % RH
16If water vapor amount constant Increase in Ta >> decrease in % RH• Saturation vapor pressure higher at higher TaAt Ta 20°CSaturation vapor pressure mbar = 100%RH11.7 mbar = 50%RHAt Ta 30°CSaturation vapor pressure mbar = 100%RH23.3 mbar = 55%RH11.7 mbar = 28%RH
17Increase %RH with decrease dry bulb temperature may eventually reach dew point temperature (Ta atwhich air is saturated and condensation occurs.)
18RESPIRATORY HEAT LOSS1.Heat loss warming inspired air due to differences intemperatures of inspired and expired air• Only small part of heat balanceAir has low specific heatTherefore - heat required increase temperature is small.Heavy exercise - incr. in ventilation rate - but only inproportion to incr. HP and incr. HLProportional loss by warming air does not increase.What about very cold air? (-40°C)Heat required warm air to Tb level increased(77°C difference)
192. More heat lost - saturate inspired air with water vapor. Conditioning - inspired air - efficient processEven at CAir - heated >> Tb & saturated with water vapor whenreaches alveoli.EXPIRATION - Air meets mucosa (cooled by inspiration)Heat Loss:1. Sensible heat transferCondensation - latent heat releaseMuch of respiratory exchange - seen - upper resp. tract(turbulent convection)Contrast - lungs - conditions - invariant - even underextremes
20In cattle - expired air - almost saturated at Tb Some water condensation - mucosa - at temp.below dew-point.Latent heat release - some heat returnAir leaves at temp. below Tb - maybe below Ta.Form of counter-current exchange >> heat + water savings.Very important - desert animalsKangaroo rat - can live without water intakeInstead water derived from:1. Metabolic water2. Respiratory counter-current exchange
21At 15C & 25% RHWater recondensed on expiration=74% water added (cactus wren)83% for kangaroo ratCactus wren % heat added on inspiration recoveredKangaroo rat % recoveredHuman - dry air at 0 C - loss of only 20% of heat prod.Much smaller than if no counter-current exchangeDehydrated camels: upper resp. tract cools expired air -extracts waterDefense against dehydration more important forsurvival - when hyperthermia is allowed
22PANTING - Reptiles, birds, mammals Less effective than sweatingNon-primate mammals - less than 100 kg adult BW primarily pantWhat is panting?Open-mouth - rapid, shallow breathing1. Evaporative water loss2. Convective exchange
23Breathing pattern - maximizes volume - air over buccal surface.Without increasing ventilation - lungsTherefore - less CO2 blowoff &disturbance acid-base balanceOccurs in animals with lower sweating capabilities(pigs, sheep)Higher body wt. - usually correlated with lower panting freq.
24Respiratory minute volume = amount air inspired/min Increases with pantingOx 10-foldSheep 12-foldRabbit 15-foldDog 23-foldIncrease in pig only 3-fold + with inability to sweat >>very poor heat tolerance.Cow pants - but less effective than sweating