Presentation on theme: "Medium of exchange: Money can be exchanged for goods and services."— Presentation transcript:
1 Medium of exchange: Money can be exchanged for goods and services. Ch.13 Money and BankingFunctions of MoneyMedium of exchange: Money can be exchanged for goods and services.Unit of account: Prices are quoted in dollars and cents.Store of value:allows us to transfer purchasing power from present to futurethe most liquid of all assetsa convenient way to store wealthSupply of MoneyM1: M1 is the most narrow definition of U.S. money supply M1 consists of currency and checkable depositsCurrency: coins + bills; so-called “token” money; issued by the Federal Reserve.Checkable deposits: deposits in financial institutions on which checks can be drawn.Currency and checkable deposits held by the federal government, Federal Reserve, or other financial institutions are not included in M1.
2 Definition of M2: M1 + some “near-monies”: Savings deposits and money market deposit accounts.Certificates of deposit less than $100,000Money market mutual fund balancesDefinition of M3: M2 + large certificates of deposit $100,000 or moreM1 M2 or M3???M1 is assumed for analysis in this course (unless otherwise noted). However, …M2 and M3 are important:M2 is watched closely by the Federal Reserve in determining monetary policy.M2 and M3 are fairly liquid; they influence spending.Note that the ease of shifting between M1, M2, and M3 complicates the task of controlling the spendable money supply.Note: Credit cards are not money (they constitute short‑term loans). the convenience of credit allows lower M1 balances
3 Why is money worth anything? What “backs” the money supply? Government’s ability to keep its value stable provides the backing. government action to avoid times of excessive inflation/deflationValue arises not from its intrinsic value, but its value in trade. Currency is “legal tender” (or fiat money)…must be accepted by law. Checks are not legal tender (but are generally acceptable in trade)Money’s relative scarcity (relative to goods and services) helps it retain purchasing power.Maintaining the value of moneyThe government tries to maintain the value of money with both fiscal and monetary policy:Fiscal policy can impact the velocity of money and the money supplyMonetary policy (enacted by the Federal Reserve) tries to keep money relatively scarce to maintain its purchasing power, while expanding enough to allow the economy to grow.
4 Rate of interest, i (percent) Amount of money demanded The Demand for MoneyTransactions demand money kept for purchasesAsset demand money kept as a store of value for later useThe Money MarketThe Federal Reserve can shift supply,which affects interest rates,which in turn affectinvestment and consumption(and aggregate demand)and ultimatelyoutput, employment, and prices.Rate of interest, i (percent)Amount of money demanded(billions of dollars)107.552.5DmieSm
5 Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve:selected by the U.S. president with the confirmation of the Senate.seven board members14 year terms — staggered so that one member is replaced every 2 years.U.S. President selects the chairperson and vice-chairperson of the boardChairperson and vice-chairperson serve 4‑year terms and can be re-appointed.Several groups help the Board of Governors determine banking and monetary policy, including:The Federal Open Market CommitteeVotes on the Fed’s monetary policydirects the purchase or sale of government securities.A rotation of presidents of the 12 Federal Reserve Banks have voting rightsannual rotation of voting rights among the 12 banks (president of the NY Fed is permanent)
6 THE FEDERAL RESERVE (cont.) The 12 Federal Reserve Banks are “central” banks whose policies are coordinated by the Board of Governors.They are quasi-public banks, meaning that they are a blend of private ownership and public control.They are also banker’s banks in that they perform essentially the same functions for banks and thrifts as those institutions perform for the public.The Federal Reserve performs 7 basic functions:1. The Fed issues Federal Reserve Notes, the paper currency used in the U.S. monetary system.2. The Fed sets reserve requirements and holds the mandated reserves that are not held as vault cash.3. The Fed lends money to banks and thrifts.4. The Fed provides for check collection and the oversight of debit card transactions.5. The Fed acts as fiscal agent for the Federal government.6. The Fed supervises the operation of commercial banks.7. The Fed has responsibility for regulating the supply of money, and this in turn enables it to affect interest rates.
7 The Monetery Equation of Exchange the Velocity of MoneyEquation of Exchange: MV = PQM = M1; the nominal amount of money in circulationV = the income velocity of money the number of times $1 is spent on goods and services over a given time periodP = the price level of the goods and services making up GDP; the “GDP deflator”Q = Real GDPHistorically, the velocity of money has been relatively stable due to structured pay periods, standardized payment terms, etc.However, the expanded use of technology (credit/debit cards, on-line bill pay, etc.) has increased the velocity of money in recent decades.Macro W/B Activity 36
8 What is money?How is money created?What is The Fed?
9 What determines the value (domestic purchasing power) of money? 13‑5 What “backs” the money supply in the United States?Nothing; there is no concrete backing to the money supply in the United States.What determines the value (domestic purchasing power) of money?Paper money has little intrinsic value.Paper money has value only because people are willing to accept it.Checks and debit card transactions constitute money (but are not legal tender); people accept them willingly from people believed trustworthy.How does the value of money relate to the price level?The value or purchasing power of money is inversely related to the price level.Who in the U.S. is responsible for maintaining money’s value? Why is it important to be able to alter the money supply?The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the Fed) is responsible for managing the United States’ money supply so that money retains its value.
10 If the price level falls to 0.50, the value is $2.00 (= 1/.50). Suppose the price level and value of the dollar in year 1 are 1.0 and $1.00, respectively. If the price level rises to 1.25 in year 2, what is the new value of the dollar? If instead the price level had fallen to .50, what would have been the value of the dollar? What generalization can you draw from your answer?Use the formula 𝐷= 1 𝑃 where D is the value of the dollar and P is the price level.If the price level rises to 1.25, the value of the dollar (in year 2, relative to year 1) is $0.80 (= 1/1.25).If the price level falls to 0.50, the value is $2.00 (= 1/.50).Generalization: The price level and the value of the dollar are inversely related.Over the years the Federal Reserve Banks have printed many billions of dollars more in currency than American households, businesses, and financial institutions now hold. Where is this “missing” money? Why is it there?This missing money is outside of the country:It left the country to pay for imports of goods and services purchased by Americans from producers abroad.It is in circulation outside the country, especially in countries whose currencies are not stable.For example, it is estimated that Russians hold about $40 billion worth of U.S. dollars.The same is true in other countries with high rates of inflation.The dollar is also used in international transactions, both legal and illegal, where it is acceptable because of its stability.