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Module 2 Introduction to Cyberbullying (1) Mona O'Moore, Conor Mc Guckin, Lucie Corcoran, Niall Crowley (2) Juan Calmaestra, Rosario del Rey, Rosario Ortega.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 2 Introduction to Cyberbullying (1) Mona O'Moore, Conor Mc Guckin, Lucie Corcoran, Niall Crowley (2) Juan Calmaestra, Rosario del Rey, Rosario Ortega."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 2 Introduction to Cyberbullying (1) Mona O'Moore, Conor Mc Guckin, Lucie Corcoran, Niall Crowley (2) Juan Calmaestra, Rosario del Rey, Rosario Ortega (3) Joaquín A. Mora-Merchán (1) Trinity College Dublin (Ireland), (2) University of Cordoba (Spain), (3) University of Seville (Spain) Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying

2 M2.2 Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Objectives and envisaged learning outcomes Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying  Understanding the connection between traditional bullying and cyberbullying  Definition of cyberbullying  Gain understanding of the nature of cyberbullying  Getting an overview about the various methods used to cyberbully  Recognising the potential effects of cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, 2012

3 Cyber- bullying Definition of cyberbullying and differentiation from traditional bullying Some data about cyberbullying Forms (Internet / Mobile) Impact / Potential consequences Victims, perpetrators and bystanders Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.3

4 Traditional bullying Definition A student is being bullied when another student, or a group of students Say mean and unpleasant things or make fun of him or her or call him or her mean and hurtful names; Completely ignore or exclude him or her from their group of friends or leave him or her out of things on purpose; Hit, kick, push and shove around, or threaten him or her; Tell lies or false rumours about him or her or send mean notes and try to make other students dislike him or her; (Olweus, 1993) Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Traditional bullying Traditional bullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.4

5 Traditional bullying Definition Bullying has 3 main criteria:  intention to cause harm to the victim;  repetition of the abusive behaviour over a period of time;  imbalance of power between the victim and bully/bullies. However, one particularly severe incident, which creates an ongoing sense of intimidation can also be considered bullying. Traditional bullying Traditional bullying Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.5

6 Traditional bullying Definition Systematic victmisation  Physical aggression  Verbal abuse  Gestures – often threatening  Exclusion  Extortion Traditional bullying Traditional bullying Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.6

7 Is there a typical victim? Anyone can become a victim! Risk factors:  an anxious, sensitive, shy, insecure and cautious temperament;  few good friends;  low self-esteem;  a passive, non-aggressive, or non-assertive manner;  an emotionally reactive manner;  and clumsy behaviour when attempting to enter or join a peer group  reflecting a difference, e.g., accent, religion, culture, race, special needs Traditional bullying Traditional bullying Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.7

8 Characteristics of a typical bully Bullies often display specific characteristics, such as:  a need to dominate others;  low self-control;  an impulsive nature;  low anxiety;  a tendency to blame the victim;  tough poise;  a positive attitude towards aggression;  a lack of sensitivity and empathy;  a tendency towards other anti-social behaviour;  a loud manner;  and sometimes they have also been victims themselves. Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Traditional bullying Traditional bullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.8

9 Why do children bully (traditional/cyber) others? O'Moore believes that bullying is an attempt to manipulate relationships with the aim of meeting one's psychological needs. Examples of such needs include:  a desire to control;  a need to assert one’s dominance;  attention seeking;  desire to show off;  or desire to improve one's social status. Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Traditional bullying Traditional bullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.9

10 What happens during bullying?  Bullying creates stress o if stress continues over a period of time, illness is a common consequence  Bullying has been linked to a number of negative effects, including: o low self-esteem; o educational underperformance; o anxiety, bedwetting, abdominal pain, and feeling tense; o depression, self-harming and suicidal thoughts. Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Traditional bullying Traditional bullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.10

11 The distribution of roles in bullying Salmivalli et al. (1996) were able to identify clear roles within the process of bullying for 88% of the school children surveyed. The results were replicated in a study in German comprehensive schools (Schäfer & Korn, 2004). Fellow pupils have an important role in the process of bullying. Therefore, it is sensible to begin an intervention at the class level. Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Traditional bullying Traditional bullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.11

12 Role of bystanders Bystanders who witness cyberbullying often act in diverse ways:  Some join in  Some cheer on the bully  Others watch but don‘t participate  Some leave  Some object to others or to the bully  Some try to help the victim  Some report to someone who might help Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Traditional bullying Traditional bullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.12

13 1.Has your child ever been a victim of bullying or cyberbullying? (yes/no) 2.Have you ever been targeted? (yes/no) 3.Imagine your child is being cyberbullied. Who would you contact first? o School/teacher o School social worker o Information centres o Other 4.Do you think bullies should be prosecuted / Do you think we need an additional law regarding cyberbullying? (yes/no) Getting started: cluster Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Traditional bullying Traditional bullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.13

14 Cyberbullying - Definition Cyber- bullying Definition of cyberbullying and differentiation from traditional bullying Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.14

15 “Cyberbullying is any behaviour performed through electronic or digital media by individuals or groups that repeatedly communicates hostile or aggressive messages intended to inflict harm or discomfort on others.“ (Tokunaga 2010) Cyberbullying - Definition Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.15

16  The transition between “school bullying” and cyberbullying is fluid.  Cyberbullies can also bully using traditional, direct tactics.  Cyberbullying means that bullying is no longer restricted to the area of the school - it can be continued anywhere and at any time.  Research has shown that there is an overlap between traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.16 Cyberbullying – The problem

17 Cyberbullying can sometimes be extremely severe for a number of reasons.  Although a cyberbully may post a humiliating photo / video clip only once, it can be viewed by a huge audience.  Power can takes a different form in cyber space, such as anonymity or superior technological skills.  Technology allows a bully to attack their victim 24 hours a day in almost any location.  Cyberbullies are often not able to see or hear their victim’s reaction to the abuse. This can reduce feelings of empathy or guilt which might put a stop to bullying in the real world. Cyberbullying – The problem Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.17

18 Cyberbullying - Forms Cyber- bullying Forms (Internet / Mobile) Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.18

19 Cyberbullying can be categorised based on the type of behaviour:  Flaming  Harassment  Denigration  Impersonation  Outing  Trickery  Exclusion  Cyber stalking Alternatively, it can be categorised on the type of media … (cp. next slides) Forms of Cyberbullying Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.19

20 Cyberbullying – Forms Mobile  Repeated anonymous calls  SMS (threats, intimidation, insults)  Humiliating pictures/videos distributed online Instant Messenger Sending cruel messages,images,videos Using someone else‘s account to send unpleasent messages etc. Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.20

21 Chat rooms  Sending cruel, threatening messages  Ignoring a person/people in a group  Making friendships under false pretences  Sending cruel, threatening messages  Sending inappropriate content (videos, images)  Access a personal account (e.g., in order to forward, delete personal s) Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying – Forms © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.21

22 Webcams  Recording inappropriate content  Posting private recordings online (e.g., following a relationship break up) Social networks  Publishing cruel images, comments  Accessing someone else‘s account and abusing it  Hategroups  Creating a fake profile and acting in the name of the bullied victim Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying – Forms © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.22

23 Video/Photo sharing websites  Publishing embarrassing or humiliating videos or images  Posting private recordings online, e.g., after a relationship breaks up Gaming Websites (e.g., World of Warcraft)  Experienced players seek out weak players and repeatedly kill their characters  Targeted exclusion of individuals from group activities and events Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying – Forms © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.23

24 Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Activity Activity Source: M2.24

25 How do you feel after watching the clip? What is your first impression? Lightening Feedback Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Activity Activity © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.25

26 Video: Let‘s fight it together  What forms of cyberbullying were used?  How did Joe feel?  Would you have done something different if you were Joe's mother or father? Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Activity Activity © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.26

27 Cyber- bullying Some data about cyberbullying Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.27

28 Some data about cyberbullying Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Source: EU Kids Online report © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.28

29 Cyber- bullying Impact / Potential consequences Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.29

30  Poor self-esteem  Feelings of frustration  Anger  Sadness, hopelessness  Loneliness and depression  Inability to concentrate at school  Staying offline  Victims feel suspicious of others  Self-harm  Suicidal thoughts Impact of cyberbullying Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.30

31 Impact of cyberbullying Cyberbullying isn‘t a game - Examples - Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.31

32 Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.32.

33 Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.33.

34 Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.34

35 Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.35

36 Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.36

37 Coping with cyberbullying Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.37

38  Aggressive coping: e.g., ‘I threaten to beat him/her up’  Helpless coping: e.g., ‘I don't know what to do’  Cognitive coping: Victims try to address the problem themselves, using a diplomatic approach. They attempt to reason with the bully or to understand the bully's motive;  Technical coping: e.g., ‘I switch off my computer’, ‘I change my address or nickname and only give them to people I can trust’, and ‘I show the messages to a grown-up.’ Coping strategies (Riebel, Jäger, & Fischer, 2009) Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.38

39 Other coping strategies Reactive coping  Avoidance  Acceptance  Justification  Seeking social support Preventive coping  Talk in person  Increased security and awareness No way to prevent cyberbullying Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.39

40 Avoidance  deleting messages  blocking contact  ignoring the problem completely Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Examples Reactive coping © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.40

41 Acceptance  accepting cyberbullying as part of life and concentrating on the positive Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Examples Reactive coping © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.41

42 Justification  The victim focuses on reasons why the cyberbullying should not upset them  These students often felt that cyberbullying should not be taken seriously Examples Reactive coping Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.42

43 Seeking social support  looking to others for help  getting advice from others  asking someone with authority to put a stop to the bullying Examples Reactive coping Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.43

44 Talk in person  students talk to someone in person, as opposed to talking in cyberspace  this would help them to avoid misperceptions due to lack of intonation, something which can often occur in cyberspace Examples Preventive coping Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.44

45 Increased security and awareness  cyberbullying can be prevented when students take safety precautions (e.g., protect their password)  when students have general awareness about security (e.g., knowing which websites might be unsafe). Examples Preventive coping Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.45

46 Module 2: Introduction to cyberbullying Conclusions  Cyberbullying is a relatively new phenomenon and researchers have yet to reach a consensus on many aspects of this issue.  There are differences and similarities between bullying and cyberbullying.  Cyberbullying can be classified in two ways: by the medium/media through which the abuse occurs, (SMS, MMS, phone calls, etc.) and by the nature of the abuse itself (harassment, denigration, impersonation, etc.).  The prevalence of cyber victimization in Europe is estimated to be around 10%.  Cyber victimization has been linked to negative outcomes. Module 2: Introduction to Cyberbullying Cyberbullying Cyberbullying © CyberTraining-4-Parents, M2.46


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