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COE 405 Design and Synthesis of DataPath Controllers Dr. Aiman H. El-Maleh Computer Engineering Department King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals.

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Presentation on theme: "COE 405 Design and Synthesis of DataPath Controllers Dr. Aiman H. El-Maleh Computer Engineering Department King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals."— Presentation transcript:

1 COE 405 Design and Synthesis of DataPath Controllers Dr. Aiman H. El-Maleh Computer Engineering Department King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Dr. Aiman H. El-Maleh Computer Engineering Department King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

2 1-2 OutlineOutline n Design and Synthesis of RISC Stored Program Machine (SPM) n Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transceiver (UART) n Design and Synthesis of RISC Stored Program Machine (SPM) n Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transceiver (UART)

3 1-3 RISM SPM Architecture

4 1-4 RISC SPM Instruction Format Short Format Long Format

5 1-5 RISC SPM Instruction Set

6 1-6 Controller ASM Charts

7 1-7 Controller ASM Charts

8 1-8 Controller ASM Charts

9 1-9 Controller ASM Charts

10 1-10 Controller ASM Charts

11 1-11 RISC SPM Module module RISC_SPM #(parameter word_size=8, Set1_size=3, Set2_size=2)( input clk, rst); // Data Nets wire [Set1_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_1_Mux; wire [Set2_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_2_Mux; wire zero; wire [word_size-1:0] instruction, address, Bus_1, mem_word; // Control Nets wire Load_R0, Load_R1, Load_R2, Load_R3, Load_PC, Inc_PC, Load_IR, Load_Add_R, Load_Reg_Y, Load_Reg_Z, write; module RISC_SPM #(parameter word_size=8, Set1_size=3, Set2_size=2)( input clk, rst); // Data Nets wire [Set1_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_1_Mux; wire [Set2_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_2_Mux; wire zero; wire [word_size-1:0] instruction, address, Bus_1, mem_word; // Control Nets wire Load_R0, Load_R1, Load_R2, Load_R3, Load_PC, Inc_PC, Load_IR, Load_Add_R, Load_Reg_Y, Load_Reg_Z, write;

12 1-12 RISC SPM Module Processing_Unit M0_Processor (instruction, address, Bus_1, zero, mem_word, Load_R0, Load_R1, Load_R2, Load_R3, Load_PC, Inc_PC, Sel_Bus_1_Mux, Sel_Bus_2_Mux, Load_IR, Load_Add_R, Load_Reg_Y, Load_Reg_Z, clk, rst); Control_Unit M1_Controller (Sel_Bus_2_Mux, Sel_Bus_1_Mux, Load_R0, Load_R1, Load_R2, Load_R3, Load_PC, Inc_PC, Load_IR, Load_Add_R, Load_Reg_Y, Load_Reg_Z, write, instruction, zero, clk, rst); Memory_Unit M2_Mem (mem_word, Bus_1, address, clk, write); endmodule Processing_Unit M0_Processor (instruction, address, Bus_1, zero, mem_word, Load_R0, Load_R1, Load_R2, Load_R3, Load_PC, Inc_PC, Sel_Bus_1_Mux, Sel_Bus_2_Mux, Load_IR, Load_Add_R, Load_Reg_Y, Load_Reg_Z, clk, rst); Control_Unit M1_Controller (Sel_Bus_2_Mux, Sel_Bus_1_Mux, Load_R0, Load_R1, Load_R2, Load_R3, Load_PC, Inc_PC, Load_IR, Load_Add_R, Load_Reg_Y, Load_Reg_Z, write, instruction, zero, clk, rst); Memory_Unit M2_Mem (mem_word, Bus_1, address, clk, write); endmodule

13 1-13 Memory Unit Module module Memory_Unit #(parameter word_size=8, memory_size=256)( output [word_size-1:0] data_out, input [word_size-1:0] data_in, address, input clk, write); reg [word_size-1:0] memory[memory_size-1:0]; assign data_out = memory[address]; (posedge clk) if (write) memory[address] <= data_in; endmodule module Memory_Unit #(parameter word_size=8, memory_size=256)( output [word_size-1:0] data_out, input [word_size-1:0] data_in, address, input clk, write); reg [word_size-1:0] memory[memory_size-1:0]; assign data_out = memory[address]; (posedge clk) if (write) memory[address] <= data_in; endmodule

14 1-14 Processing Unit Module module Processing_Unit #(parameter word_size=8, op_size=4, Sel1_size=3, Sel2_size=2)( output [word_size-1:0] instruction, address, Bus_1, output Zflag, input [word_size-1:0] mem_word, input Load_R0, Load_R1, Load_R2, Load_R3, Load_PC, Inc_PC, input [Sel1_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_1_Mux, input [Sel2_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_2_Mux, input Load_IR, Load_Add_R, Load_Reg_Y, Load_Reg_Z, clk, rst); wire [word_size-1:0] Bus_2; wire [word_size-1:0] R0_out, R1_out, R2_out, R3_out; wire [word_size-1:0] PC_count, Y_value, alu_out; wire alu_zero_flag; wire [op_size-1:0] opcode = instruction[word_size-1:word_size-op_size]; module Processing_Unit #(parameter word_size=8, op_size=4, Sel1_size=3, Sel2_size=2)( output [word_size-1:0] instruction, address, Bus_1, output Zflag, input [word_size-1:0] mem_word, input Load_R0, Load_R1, Load_R2, Load_R3, Load_PC, Inc_PC, input [Sel1_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_1_Mux, input [Sel2_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_2_Mux, input Load_IR, Load_Add_R, Load_Reg_Y, Load_Reg_Z, clk, rst); wire [word_size-1:0] Bus_2; wire [word_size-1:0] R0_out, R1_out, R2_out, R3_out; wire [word_size-1:0] PC_count, Y_value, alu_out; wire alu_zero_flag; wire [op_size-1:0] opcode = instruction[word_size-1:word_size-op_size];

15 1-15 Processing Unit Module Register_Unit R0 (R0_out, Bus_2, Load_R0, clk,rst); Register_Unit R1 (R1_out, Bus_2, Load_R1, clk,rst); Register_Unit R2 (R2_out, Bus_2, Load_R2, clk,rst); Register_Unit R3 (R3_out, Bus_2, Load_R3, clk,rst); Register_Unit Reg_Y (Y_value, Bus_2, Load_Reg_Y, clk,rst); Register_Unit #(1) Reg_Z (Zflag, alu_zero_flag, Load_Reg_Z, clk,rst); Register_Unit Add_R (address, Bus_2, Load_Add_R, clk,rst); Register_Unit IR (instruction, Bus_2, Load_IR, clk,rst); Program_Counter PC (PC_count, Bus_2, Load_PC, Inc_PC, clk,rst); Multiplexer_5ch Mux_1 (Bus_1, R0_out, R1_out, R2_out, R3_out, PC_count, Sel_Bus_1_Mux); Multiplexer_3ch Mux_2 (Bus_2, alu_out, Bus_1, mem_word, Sel_Bus_2_Mux); Alu_RISC ALU (alu_out, alu_zero_flag, Bus_1, Y_value, opcode); endmodule Register_Unit R0 (R0_out, Bus_2, Load_R0, clk,rst); Register_Unit R1 (R1_out, Bus_2, Load_R1, clk,rst); Register_Unit R2 (R2_out, Bus_2, Load_R2, clk,rst); Register_Unit R3 (R3_out, Bus_2, Load_R3, clk,rst); Register_Unit Reg_Y (Y_value, Bus_2, Load_Reg_Y, clk,rst); Register_Unit #(1) Reg_Z (Zflag, alu_zero_flag, Load_Reg_Z, clk,rst); Register_Unit Add_R (address, Bus_2, Load_Add_R, clk,rst); Register_Unit IR (instruction, Bus_2, Load_IR, clk,rst); Program_Counter PC (PC_count, Bus_2, Load_PC, Inc_PC, clk,rst); Multiplexer_5ch Mux_1 (Bus_1, R0_out, R1_out, R2_out, R3_out, PC_count, Sel_Bus_1_Mux); Multiplexer_3ch Mux_2 (Bus_2, alu_out, Bus_1, mem_word, Sel_Bus_2_Mux); Alu_RISC ALU (alu_out, alu_zero_flag, Bus_1, Y_value, opcode); endmodule

16 1-16 Register Unit Module module Register_Unit #(parameter word_size=8)( output reg [word_size-1:0] data_out, input [word_size-1:0] data_in, input load, clk, rst); (posedge clk, negedge rst) if (rst == 1'b0) data_out <= 0; else if (load) data_out <= data_in; endmodule module Register_Unit #(parameter word_size=8)( output reg [word_size-1:0] data_out, input [word_size-1:0] data_in, input load, clk, rst); (posedge clk, negedge rst) if (rst == 1'b0) data_out <= 0; else if (load) data_out <= data_in; endmodule

17 1-17 Program Counter Module module Program_Counter #(parameter word_size=8)( output reg [word_size-1:0] count, input [word_size-1:0] data_in, input Load_PC, Inc_PC, clk, rst); (posedge clk, negedge rst) if (rst == 1'b0) count <= 0; else if (Load_PC == 1'b1) count <= data_in; else if (Inc_PC == 1'b1) count <= count+1; endmodule module Program_Counter #(parameter word_size=8)( output reg [word_size-1:0] count, input [word_size-1:0] data_in, input Load_PC, Inc_PC, clk, rst); (posedge clk, negedge rst) if (rst == 1'b0) count <= 0; else if (Load_PC == 1'b1) count <= data_in; else if (Inc_PC == 1'b1) count <= count+1; endmodule

18 1-18 Multiplexer Modules module Multiplexer_5ch #(parameter word_size=8)( output [word_size-1:0] mux_out, input [word_size-1:0] data_a, data_b, data_c, data_d, data_e, input [2:0] sel); assign mux_out = (sel==0) ? data_a : (sel==1) ? data_b : (sel==2) ? data_c : (sel==3) ? data_d : (sel==4) ? data_e : 'bx; endmodule module Multiplexer_3ch #(parameter word_size=8)( output [word_size-1:0] mux_out, input [word_size-1:0] data_a, data_b, data_c, input [1:0] sel); assign mux_out = (sel==0) ? data_a : (sel==1) ? data_b : (sel==2) ? data_c : 'bx; endmodule module Multiplexer_5ch #(parameter word_size=8)( output [word_size-1:0] mux_out, input [word_size-1:0] data_a, data_b, data_c, data_d, data_e, input [2:0] sel); assign mux_out = (sel==0) ? data_a : (sel==1) ? data_b : (sel==2) ? data_c : (sel==3) ? data_d : (sel==4) ? data_e : 'bx; endmodule module Multiplexer_3ch #(parameter word_size=8)( output [word_size-1:0] mux_out, input [word_size-1:0] data_a, data_b, data_c, input [1:0] sel); assign mux_out = (sel==0) ? data_a : (sel==1) ? data_b : (sel==2) ? data_c : 'bx; endmodule

19 1-19 ALU Module module Alu_RISC #(parameter word_size=8, op_size=4, // opcodes NOP=4'b0000, ADD=4'b0001, SUB=4'b0010, AND=4'b0011, NOT=4'b0100, RD=4'b0101, WR=4'b0110, BR=4'b0111, BRZ=4'b1000)( output reg [word_size-1:0] alu_out, output alu_zero_flag, input [word_size-1:0] data_1, data_2, input [op_size-1:0] sel); module Alu_RISC #(parameter word_size=8, op_size=4, // opcodes NOP=4'b0000, ADD=4'b0001, SUB=4'b0010, AND=4'b0011, NOT=4'b0100, RD=4'b0101, WR=4'b0110, BR=4'b0111, BRZ=4'b1000)( output reg [word_size-1:0] alu_out, output alu_zero_flag, input [word_size-1:0] data_1, data_2, input [op_size-1:0] sel);

20 1-20 ALU Module assign alu_zero_flag = ~| alu_out; data_1, data_2) case(sel) NOP: alu_out = 0; ADD: alu_out = data_1 + data_2; SUB: alu_out = data_1 - data_2; AND: alu_out = data_1 & data_2; NOT: alu_out = ~ data_2; default: alu_out = 0; endcase endmodule assign alu_zero_flag = ~| alu_out; data_1, data_2) case(sel) NOP: alu_out = 0; ADD: alu_out = data_1 + data_2; SUB: alu_out = data_1 - data_2; AND: alu_out = data_1 & data_2; NOT: alu_out = ~ data_2; default: alu_out = 0; endcase endmodule

21 1-21 Control Unit Module module Control_Unit #(parameter word_size=8, op_size=4, state_size=4, src_size=2, dest_size=2, Sel1_size=3, Sel2_size=2)( output [Sel2_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_2_Mux, output [Sel1_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_1_Mux, output reg Load_R0, Load_R1, Load_R2, Load_R3, Load_PC, Inc_PC, Load_IR, Load_Add_R, Load_Reg_Y, Load_Reg_Z, write, input [word_size-1:0] instruction, input zero, clk, rst); // State Codes parameter S_idle=0, S_fet1=1, S_fet2=2, S_dec=3, S_ex1=4, S_rd1=5, S_rd2=6, S_wr1=7, S_wr2=8, S_br1=9, S_br2=10, S_halt=11; // Opcodes parameter NOP=0, ADD=1, SUB=2, AND=3, NOT=4, RD=5, WR=6, BR=7, BRZ=8; // Sources and Destination Codes parameter R0=0, R1=1, R2=2, R3=3; module Control_Unit #(parameter word_size=8, op_size=4, state_size=4, src_size=2, dest_size=2, Sel1_size=3, Sel2_size=2)( output [Sel2_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_2_Mux, output [Sel1_size-1:0] Sel_Bus_1_Mux, output reg Load_R0, Load_R1, Load_R2, Load_R3, Load_PC, Inc_PC, Load_IR, Load_Add_R, Load_Reg_Y, Load_Reg_Z, write, input [word_size-1:0] instruction, input zero, clk, rst); // State Codes parameter S_idle=0, S_fet1=1, S_fet2=2, S_dec=3, S_ex1=4, S_rd1=5, S_rd2=6, S_wr1=7, S_wr2=8, S_br1=9, S_br2=10, S_halt=11; // Opcodes parameter NOP=0, ADD=1, SUB=2, AND=3, NOT=4, RD=5, WR=6, BR=7, BRZ=8; // Sources and Destination Codes parameter R0=0, R1=1, R2=2, R3=3;

22 1-22 Control Unit Module reg [state_size-1:0] state, next_state; reg Sel_ALU, Sel_Bus_1, Sel_Mem; reg Sel_R0, Sel_R1, Sel_R2, Sel_R3, Sel_PC; reg err_flag; wire [op_size-1:0] opcode = instruction[word_size-1:word_size-op_size]; wire [src_size-1:0] src= instruction[src_size+dest_size-1:dest_size]; wire [src_size-1:0] dest= instruction[dest_size-1:0]; // Mux selectors assign Sel_Bus_1_Mux[Sel1_size-1:0]=Sel_R0?0:Sel_R1?1:Sel_R2?2: Sel_R3?3:Sel_PC?4:3'bx; assign Sel_Bus_2_Mux[Sel2_size-1:0]=Sel_ALU?0:Sel_Bus_1?1:Sel_Mem?2:2'bx; clk, negedge rst) begin: State_transitions if (rst==0) state<= S_idle; else state<=next_state; end reg [state_size-1:0] state, next_state; reg Sel_ALU, Sel_Bus_1, Sel_Mem; reg Sel_R0, Sel_R1, Sel_R2, Sel_R3, Sel_PC; reg err_flag; wire [op_size-1:0] opcode = instruction[word_size-1:word_size-op_size]; wire [src_size-1:0] src= instruction[src_size+dest_size-1:dest_size]; wire [src_size-1:0] dest= instruction[dest_size-1:0]; // Mux selectors assign Sel_Bus_1_Mux[Sel1_size-1:0]=Sel_R0?0:Sel_R1?1:Sel_R2?2: Sel_R3?3:Sel_PC?4:3'bx; assign Sel_Bus_2_Mux[Sel2_size-1:0]=Sel_ALU?0:Sel_Bus_1?1:Sel_Mem?2:2'bx; clk, negedge rst) begin: State_transitions if (rst==0) state<= S_idle; else state<=next_state; end

23 1-23 Control Unit Module opcode, src, dest, zero) begin: Output_and_next_state Sel_R0=0; Sel_R1=0; Sel_R2=0; Sel_R3=0; Sel_PC=0; Load_R0=0; Load_R1=0; Load_R2=0; Load_R3=0; Load_PC=0; Inc_PC=0; Load_IR=0; Load_Add_R=0; Load_Reg_Y=0; Load_Reg_Z=0; write=0; Sel_Bus_1=0; Sel_ALU=0; Sel_Mem=0; err_flag=0; next_state = state; case (state) S_idle: next_state = S_fet1; S_fet1: begin next_state = S_fet2; Sel_PC = 1; Sel_Bus_1=1; Load_Add_R = 1; end opcode, src, dest, zero) begin: Output_and_next_state Sel_R0=0; Sel_R1=0; Sel_R2=0; Sel_R3=0; Sel_PC=0; Load_R0=0; Load_R1=0; Load_R2=0; Load_R3=0; Load_PC=0; Inc_PC=0; Load_IR=0; Load_Add_R=0; Load_Reg_Y=0; Load_Reg_Z=0; write=0; Sel_Bus_1=0; Sel_ALU=0; Sel_Mem=0; err_flag=0; next_state = state; case (state) S_idle: next_state = S_fet1; S_fet1: begin next_state = S_fet2; Sel_PC = 1; Sel_Bus_1=1; Load_Add_R = 1; end

24 1-24 Control Unit Module S_fet2: begin next_state = S_dec; Sel_Mem= 1; Load_IR = 1; Inc_PC=1; end S_dec: case(opcode) NOP: next_state = S_fet1; ADD, SUB, AND: begin next_state = S_ex1; Sel_Bus_1 = 1; Load_Reg_Y=1; case (src) R0: Sel_R0=1; R1: Sel_R1=1; R2: Sel_R2=1; R3: Sel_R3=1; default: err_flag=1; endcase end S_fet2: begin next_state = S_dec; Sel_Mem= 1; Load_IR = 1; Inc_PC=1; end S_dec: case(opcode) NOP: next_state = S_fet1; ADD, SUB, AND: begin next_state = S_ex1; Sel_Bus_1 = 1; Load_Reg_Y=1; case (src) R0: Sel_R0=1; R1: Sel_R1=1; R2: Sel_R2=1; R3: Sel_R3=1; default: err_flag=1; endcase end

25 1-25 Control Unit Module NOT: begin next_state = S_ex1; Load_Reg_Z=1; Sel_ALU=1; case (src) R0: Sel_R0=1; R1: Sel_R1=1; R2: Sel_R2=1; R3: Sel_R3=1; default: err_flag=1; endcase case (dest) R0: Load_R0=1; R1: Load_R1=1; R2: Load_R2=1; R3: Load_R3=1; default: err_flag=1; endcase end // NOT NOT: begin next_state = S_ex1; Load_Reg_Z=1; Sel_ALU=1; case (src) R0: Sel_R0=1; R1: Sel_R1=1; R2: Sel_R2=1; R3: Sel_R3=1; default: err_flag=1; endcase case (dest) R0: Load_R0=1; R1: Load_R1=1; R2: Load_R2=1; R3: Load_R3=1; default: err_flag=1; endcase end // NOT

26 1-26 Control Unit Module RD: begin next_state = S_rd1; Sel_PC=1; Sel_Bus_1 = 1; Load_Add_R=1; end // RD WR: begin next_state = S_wr1; Sel_PC=1; Sel_Bus_1 = 1; Load_Add_R=1; end // WR RD: begin next_state = S_rd1; Sel_PC=1; Sel_Bus_1 = 1; Load_Add_R=1; end // RD WR: begin next_state = S_wr1; Sel_PC=1; Sel_Bus_1 = 1; Load_Add_R=1; end // WR

27 1-27 Control Unit Module BR: begin next_state = S_br1; Sel_PC=1; Sel_Bus_1 = 1; Load_Add_R=1; end // BR BRZ: if (zero==1) begin next_state = S_br1; Sel_PC=1; Sel_Bus_1 = 1; Load_Add_R=1; end else begin next_state = S_fet1; Inc_PC=1; end BR: begin next_state = S_br1; Sel_PC=1; Sel_Bus_1 = 1; Load_Add_R=1; end // BR BRZ: if (zero==1) begin next_state = S_br1; Sel_PC=1; Sel_Bus_1 = 1; Load_Add_R=1; end else begin next_state = S_fet1; Inc_PC=1; end

28 1-28 Control Unit Module default: next_state=S_halt; endcase //opcode S_ex1: begin next_state=S_fet1; Load_Reg_Z=1; Sel_ALU=1; case (dest) R0: begin Sel_R0=1; Load_R0=1; end R1: begin Sel_R1=1; Load_R1=1; end R2: begin Sel_R2=1; Load_R2=1; end R3: begin Sel_R3=1; Load_R3=1; end default: err_flag=1; endcase end default: next_state=S_halt; endcase //opcode S_ex1: begin next_state=S_fet1; Load_Reg_Z=1; Sel_ALU=1; case (dest) R0: begin Sel_R0=1; Load_R0=1; end R1: begin Sel_R1=1; Load_R1=1; end R2: begin Sel_R2=1; Load_R2=1; end R3: begin Sel_R3=1; Load_R3=1; end default: err_flag=1; endcase end

29 1-29 Control Unit Module S_rd1: begin next_state=S_rd2; Sel_Mem=1; Load_Add_R=1; Inc_PC=1; end S_rd2: begin next_state=S_fet1; Sel_Mem=1; case (dest) R0: Load_R0=1; R1: Load_R1=1; R2: Load_R2=1; R3: Load_R3=1; default: err_flag=1; endcase end S_rd1: begin next_state=S_rd2; Sel_Mem=1; Load_Add_R=1; Inc_PC=1; end S_rd2: begin next_state=S_fet1; Sel_Mem=1; case (dest) R0: Load_R0=1; R1: Load_R1=1; R2: Load_R2=1; R3: Load_R3=1; default: err_flag=1; endcase end

30 1-30 Control Unit Module S_wr1: begin next_state=S_wr2; Sel_Mem=1; Load_Add_R=1; Inc_PC=1; end S_wr2: begin next_state=S_fet1; write=1; case (src) R0: Sel_R0=1; R1: Sel_R1=1; R2: Sel_R2=1; R3: Sel_R3=1; default: err_flag=1; endcase end S_wr1: begin next_state=S_wr2; Sel_Mem=1; Load_Add_R=1; Inc_PC=1; end S_wr2: begin next_state=S_fet1; write=1; case (src) R0: Sel_R0=1; R1: Sel_R1=1; R2: Sel_R2=1; R3: Sel_R3=1; default: err_flag=1; endcase end

31 1-31 Control Unit Module S_br1: begin next_state=S_br2; Sel_Mem=1; Load_Add_R=1; end S_br2: begin next_state=S_fet1; Sel_Mem=1; Load_PC=1; end S_halt: next_state=S_halt; default: next_state=S_idle; endcase end endmodule S_br1: begin next_state=S_br2; Sel_Mem=1; Load_Add_R=1; end S_br2: begin next_state=S_fet1; Sel_Mem=1; Load_PC=1; end S_halt: next_state=S_halt; default: next_state=S_idle; endcase end endmodule

32 1-32 RISC SPM Program Execution module test_RISC_SPM #(parameter word_size=8)(); reg rst; wire clk; reg [8:0] k; Clok_Unit M1 (clk); RISC_SPM M2 (clk, rst); // define probes wire [word_size-1:0] word0, word1, word2, word3, word4, word5, word6, word7, word8, word9, word10, word11, word12, word13, word14, word128, word129, word130, word131, word132, word133, word134, word135, word136, word137, word138, word139, word140, word255; module test_RISC_SPM #(parameter word_size=8)(); reg rst; wire clk; reg [8:0] k; Clok_Unit M1 (clk); RISC_SPM M2 (clk, rst); // define probes wire [word_size-1:0] word0, word1, word2, word3, word4, word5, word6, word7, word8, word9, word10, word11, word12, word13, word14, word128, word129, word130, word131, word132, word133, word134, word135, word136, word137, word138, word139, word140, word255; module Clock_Unit (output reg clock); parameter delay =0; parameter half_cycle=10; initial begin #delay clock=0; forever #half_cycle clock=~clock; end endmodule

33 1-33 RISC SPM Program Execution assign word0=M2.M2_MEM.memory[0], word1=M2.M2_MEM.memory[1], word2=M2.M2_MEM.memory[2], word3=M2.M2_MEM.memory[3], word4=M2.M2_MEM.memory[4], word5=M2.M2_MEM.memory[5], word6=M2.M2_MEM.memory[6], word7=M2.M2_MEM.memory[7], word8=M2.M2_MEM.memory[8], word9=M2.M2_MEM.memory[9], word10=M2.M2_MEM.memory[10], word11=M2.M2_MEM.memory[5], word12=M2.M2_MEM.memory[12], word13=M2.M2_MEM.memory[5], word14=M2.M2_MEM.memory[14], word255=M2.M2_MEM.memory[255], word128=M2.M2_MEM.memory[128], word129=M2.M2_MEM.memory[129], word130=M2.M2_MEM.memory[130], word131=M2.M2_MEM.memory[131], word132=M2.M2_MEM.memory[132], word133=M2.M2_MEM.memory[133], word134=M2.M2_MEM.memory[134], word135=M2.M2_MEM.memory[135], word136=M2.M2_MEM.memory[136], word137=M2.M2_MEM.memory[137], word138=M2.M2_MEM.memory[138], word139=M2.M2_MEM.memory[139], word140=M2.M2_MEM.memory[140]; assign word0=M2.M2_MEM.memory[0], word1=M2.M2_MEM.memory[1], word2=M2.M2_MEM.memory[2], word3=M2.M2_MEM.memory[3], word4=M2.M2_MEM.memory[4], word5=M2.M2_MEM.memory[5], word6=M2.M2_MEM.memory[6], word7=M2.M2_MEM.memory[7], word8=M2.M2_MEM.memory[8], word9=M2.M2_MEM.memory[9], word10=M2.M2_MEM.memory[10], word11=M2.M2_MEM.memory[5], word12=M2.M2_MEM.memory[12], word13=M2.M2_MEM.memory[5], word14=M2.M2_MEM.memory[14], word255=M2.M2_MEM.memory[255], word128=M2.M2_MEM.memory[128], word129=M2.M2_MEM.memory[129], word130=M2.M2_MEM.memory[130], word131=M2.M2_MEM.memory[131], word132=M2.M2_MEM.memory[132], word133=M2.M2_MEM.memory[133], word134=M2.M2_MEM.memory[134], word135=M2.M2_MEM.memory[135], word136=M2.M2_MEM.memory[136], word137=M2.M2_MEM.memory[137], word138=M2.M2_MEM.memory[138], word139=M2.M2_MEM.memory[139], word140=M2.M2_MEM.memory[140];

34 1-34 RISC SPM Program Execution initial #2800 $finish; initial begin: Flush_Memory #2 rst=0; for (k=0; k<=255; k=k+1) M2.M2_MEM.memory[k]=0; #10 rst=0; end initial begin: Load_program #5//opcode_src_dest M2.M2_MEM.memory[0]=8'b0000_00_00;// NOP M2.M2_MEM.memory[1]=8'b0101_00_10;// Read 130 to R2 M2.M2_MEM.memory[2]=130; M2.M2_MEM.memory[3]=8'b0101_00_11;// Read 131 to R3 M2.M2_MEM.memory[4]=131; M2.M2_MEM.memory[5]=8'b0101_00_01;// Read 128 to R1 M2.M2_MEM.memory[6]=128; initial #2800 $finish; initial begin: Flush_Memory #2 rst=0; for (k=0; k<=255; k=k+1) M2.M2_MEM.memory[k]=0; #10 rst=0; end initial begin: Load_program #5//opcode_src_dest M2.M2_MEM.memory[0]=8'b0000_00_00;// NOP M2.M2_MEM.memory[1]=8'b0101_00_10;// Read 130 to R2 M2.M2_MEM.memory[2]=130; M2.M2_MEM.memory[3]=8'b0101_00_11;// Read 131 to R3 M2.M2_MEM.memory[4]=131; M2.M2_MEM.memory[5]=8'b0101_00_01;// Read 128 to R1 M2.M2_MEM.memory[6]=128;

35 1-35 RISC SPM Program Execution M2.M2_MEM.memory[7]=8'b0101_00_00;// Read 129 to R0 M2.M2_MEM.memory[8]=129; M2.M2_MEM.memory[9]=8'b0010_00_01;// Sub R1-R0 to R1 M2.M2_MEM.memory[10]=8'b1000_00_00;// BRZ M2.M2_MEM.memory[11]=134; M2.M2_MEM.memory[12]=8'b0001_10_11;// Add R2+R3 to R3 M2.M2_MEM.memory[13]=8'b0111_00_00;// BR M2.M2_MEM.memory[14]=140; // Load data M2.M2_MEM.memory[128]=6;M2.M2_MEM.memory[129]=1; M2.M2_MEM.memory[130]=2;M2.M2_MEM.memory[131]=0; M2.M2_MEM.memory[134]=139; M2.M2_MEM.memory[139]=8'b1111_00_00;// HALT M2.M2_MEM.memory[140]=9; end endmodule M2.M2_MEM.memory[7]=8'b0101_00_00;// Read 129 to R0 M2.M2_MEM.memory[8]=129; M2.M2_MEM.memory[9]=8'b0010_00_01;// Sub R1-R0 to R1 M2.M2_MEM.memory[10]=8'b1000_00_00;// BRZ M2.M2_MEM.memory[11]=134; M2.M2_MEM.memory[12]=8'b0001_10_11;// Add R2+R3 to R3 M2.M2_MEM.memory[13]=8'b0111_00_00;// BR M2.M2_MEM.memory[14]=140; // Load data M2.M2_MEM.memory[128]=6;M2.M2_MEM.memory[129]=1; M2.M2_MEM.memory[130]=2;M2.M2_MEM.memory[131]=0; M2.M2_MEM.memory[134]=139; M2.M2_MEM.memory[139]=8'b1111_00_00;// HALT M2.M2_MEM.memory[140]=9; end endmodule

36 1-36 RISC SPM Program Execution

37 1-37 Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) n Most computers and microcontrollers have one or more serial data ports used to communicate with serial input/output devices n The serial communication interface, which receive serial data, is often called a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter) n One application of a UART is the modem (modulator- demodulator) that communicates via telephone lines n Most computers and microcontrollers have one or more serial data ports used to communicate with serial input/output devices n The serial communication interface, which receive serial data, is often called a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter) n One application of a UART is the modem (modulator- demodulator) that communicates via telephone lines

38 1-38 Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) n Features of UARTs Data (D) is transmitted one bit at a time When no data is being transmitted, D remains high To mark the transmission, D goes low for one bit time, which is referred to as the start bit When text is being transmitted, ASCII code is usually used ASCII is 7-bit in length  the 8 th bit is used for parity check n Features of UARTs Data (D) is transmitted one bit at a time When no data is being transmitted, D remains high To mark the transmission, D goes low for one bit time, which is referred to as the start bit When text is being transmitted, ASCII code is usually used ASCII is 7-bit in length  the 8 th bit is used for parity check

39 1-39 Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) After 8 bits are transmitted, D must go high for at least one bit time When receiving, the UART detects the start bit, receives the 8 data bits, and converts the data to parallel form when it detects the stop bit The UART must synchronize the incoming bit stream with the local clock n The number of bits transmitted per second is often referred to the BAUD rate After 8 bits are transmitted, D must go high for at least one bit time When receiving, the UART detects the start bit, receives the 8 data bits, and converts the data to parallel form when it detects the stop bit The UART must synchronize the incoming bit stream with the local clock n The number of bits transmitted per second is often referred to the BAUD rate

40 1-40 Block Diagram of a UART

41 1-41 UART Transmitter Input Signals: Load_XMT_datareg: assertion in state idle asserts Load_XMT_DR which loads Data_Bus into XMT_datareg Byte Ready: assertion causes Load_XMT_shftreg to assert which loads contents of XMT_data into XMT_shftreg T_byte: assertion initiates transmission of a byte of data including start, stop and parity bits. BC_lt_Bcmax: indicates status of bit counter Output Signals: Load_XMT_DR, Load_XMT_shftreg Start: signals start of transmission by dropping XMT_shftreg[0] to 0 Shift: directs XMT_shftreg to shift by one bit towards LSB and fill with stop bit 1 Clear: clears bit_count

42 1-42 UART Transmitter ASMD Chart

43 1-43 UART Transmitter Operation

44 1-44 UART Transmitter Module module UART_XMTR #(parameter word_size=8) output Serial_out, input [word_size-1:0] Data_bus, input Load_XMT_datareg, Byte_ready, T_byte, clock, rst_b); Control_Unit M0 (Load_XMT_DR, Load_XMT_shftreg, start, shift, clear, Load_XMT_datareg, Byte_ready, T_byte, BC_lt_Bcmax, Clock, rst_b); Datapath_Unit M1 (Serial_out, BC_lt_Bcmax, Data_Bus, Load_XMT_DR, Load_XMT_shftreg, start, shift, clear, Clock, rst_b); endmodule module UART_XMTR #(parameter word_size=8) output Serial_out, input [word_size-1:0] Data_bus, input Load_XMT_datareg, Byte_ready, T_byte, clock, rst_b); Control_Unit M0 (Load_XMT_DR, Load_XMT_shftreg, start, shift, clear, Load_XMT_datareg, Byte_ready, T_byte, BC_lt_Bcmax, Clock, rst_b); Datapath_Unit M1 (Serial_out, BC_lt_Bcmax, Data_Bus, Load_XMT_DR, Load_XMT_shftreg, start, shift, clear, Clock, rst_b); endmodule

45 1-45 UART Transmitter Datapath Module Datapath_Unit #(word_size=8, size_bit_count=3, all_ones={(word_size+1){1'b1}})( output Serial_out, BC_lt_Bcmax, input [word_size-1:0] Data_Bus, input Load_XMT_DR, Load_XMT_shftreg, start, shift, clear, Clock, rst_b); reg [word_size-1:0] XMT_datareg; reg [word_size:0] XMT_shftreg; reg [size_bit_count:0] bit_count; assign BC_lt_Bcmax = (bit_count < word_size+1); (posedge Clock, negedge rst_b) if (rst_b==0) begin XMT_shftreg <= all_ones; bit_count<=0; end Datapath_Unit #(word_size=8, size_bit_count=3, all_ones={(word_size+1){1'b1}})( output Serial_out, BC_lt_Bcmax, input [word_size-1:0] Data_Bus, input Load_XMT_DR, Load_XMT_shftreg, start, shift, clear, Clock, rst_b); reg [word_size-1:0] XMT_datareg; reg [word_size:0] XMT_shftreg; reg [size_bit_count:0] bit_count; assign BC_lt_Bcmax = (bit_count < word_size+1); (posedge Clock, negedge rst_b) if (rst_b==0) begin XMT_shftreg <= all_ones; bit_count<=0; end

46 1-46 UART Transmitter Datapath Module else begin: Register_Transfers if (Load_XMT_DR==1'b1) XMT_datareg<=Data_Bus; if (Load_XMT_shftreg==1'b1) XMT_shftreg<={XMT_datareg,1'b1}; If (start==1'b1) XMT_shftreg[0]<=0; If (clear==1'b1) bit_count <= 0; If (shift==1'b1) begin XMT_shftreg <= {1'b1, XMT_shftreg[word_size:1]}; bit_count <= bit_count+1; end end// Register_Transfers endmodule else begin: Register_Transfers if (Load_XMT_DR==1'b1) XMT_datareg<=Data_Bus; if (Load_XMT_shftreg==1'b1) XMT_shftreg<={XMT_datareg,1'b1}; If (start==1'b1) XMT_shftreg[0]<=0; If (clear==1'b1) bit_count <= 0; If (shift==1'b1) begin XMT_shftreg <= {1'b1, XMT_shftreg[word_size:1]}; bit_count <= bit_count+1; end end// Register_Transfers endmodule

47 1-47 UART Transmitter Control Unit Module Control_Unit #(parameter one_hot_count=3, state_count=one_hot_count, size_bot_count=3, idle=3'b001, waiting=3'b010, sending=3'b100, all_one=9'1_111_111)( output reg Load_XMT_DR, Load_XMT_shftreg, start, shift, clear, input Load_XMT_datareg, Byte_ready, T_byte, BC_lt_Bcmax, Clock, rst_b); reg [state_count-1:0] state, next_state; (posedge Clock, negedge rst_b) if (rst_b==1’b0) state<= idle; else state<=next_state; (state, Load_XMT_datareg, Byte_ready, T_byte, BC_lt_Bcmax) begin Load_XMT_DR=0; Load_XMT_shftreg=0; start=0; shift=0; clear=0; next_state=idle; Control_Unit #(parameter one_hot_count=3, state_count=one_hot_count, size_bot_count=3, idle=3'b001, waiting=3'b010, sending=3'b100, all_one=9'1_111_111)( output reg Load_XMT_DR, Load_XMT_shftreg, start, shift, clear, input Load_XMT_datareg, Byte_ready, T_byte, BC_lt_Bcmax, Clock, rst_b); reg [state_count-1:0] state, next_state; (posedge Clock, negedge rst_b) if (rst_b==1’b0) state<= idle; else state<=next_state; (state, Load_XMT_datareg, Byte_ready, T_byte, BC_lt_Bcmax) begin Load_XMT_DR=0; Load_XMT_shftreg=0; start=0; shift=0; clear=0; next_state=idle;

48 1-48 UART Transmitter Control Unit Module case(state) idle: if (Load_XMT_datareg==1'b1) begin Load_XMT_DR=1; next_state=idle; end else if (Byte_ready==1'b1) begin Load_XMT_shftreg=1; next_state=waiting; end waiting: if (T_byte==1'b1) begin start=1; next_state=sending; end else next_state=waiting; sending: if (BC_lt_BCmax==1'b1) begin shift=1; next_state=sending; end else begin clear=1; next_state=idle; end default: next_state=idle; endcase end endmodule case(state) idle: if (Load_XMT_datareg==1'b1) begin Load_XMT_DR=1; next_state=idle; end else if (Byte_ready==1'b1) begin Load_XMT_shftreg=1; next_state=waiting; end waiting: if (T_byte==1'b1) begin start=1; next_state=sending; end else next_state=waiting; sending: if (BC_lt_BCmax==1'b1) begin shift=1; next_state=sending; end else begin clear=1; next_state=idle; end default: next_state=idle; endcase end endmodule

49 1-49 UART Transmitter Simulation

50 1-50 UART Receiver n UART receiver receives serial bit stream of data, removes start bit and transfers data in parallel. n Transmitter’s clock is not available to receiver; data is not synchronized with receiver’s clock. n Issue of synchronization is resolved by generating a local clock at higher frequency to sample received data n Cycles of Sample_clock will be counted to ensure that data are sampled in middle of bit time. n UART receiver receives serial bit stream of data, removes start bit and transfers data in parallel. n Transmitter’s clock is not available to receiver; data is not synchronized with receiver’s clock. n Issue of synchronization is resolved by generating a local clock at higher frequency to sample received data n Cycles of Sample_clock will be counted to ensure that data are sampled in middle of bit time.

51 1-51 UART Receiver n Sampling algorithm must: Verify that a start bit has been received Generate samples from 8 bits of the data Load the samples data onto the local bus n Frequency of Sample_clock is 8 times of the frequency of the bit clock that transmitted the data. n Arrival of start bit is determined by detection of successive samples of value 0 after the serial input data goes low. n Three additional samples after the first 0 confirm that a valid start bit has arrived. n 8 successive bits will be sampled at approximately the center of their bit. n Sampling algorithm must: Verify that a start bit has been received Generate samples from 8 bits of the data Load the samples data onto the local bus n Frequency of Sample_clock is 8 times of the frequency of the bit clock that transmitted the data. n Arrival of start bit is determined by detection of successive samples of value 0 after the serial input data goes low. n Three additional samples after the first 0 confirm that a valid start bit has arrived. n 8 successive bits will be sampled at approximately the center of their bit.

52 1-52 UART Receiver Block Diagram Input Signals: read_not_ready_in: signals that host is not ready to receive data Ser_in_0: asserts while Serial_in is 0 SC_eq_3: asserts while Sample_counter=3 SC_lt_7: asserts while Sample_counter<7 BC_eq_8: asserts while Bit_counter=8 Output Signals: read_not_ready_out: receiver received 8 bits clr_Sample_counter: clears Sample_counter inc_Sample_counter: inc. Sample_counter clr_Bit_counter: clears Bit_counter inc_Bit_counter: inc. Bit_counter shift: causes RCV_shftreg to shift towards LSB load: causes RCV_shftreg to transfre data to RCV_datareg Error1: if host is not ready to receive data after last bit sampled Error2: if stop bit is missing

53 1-53 UART Receiver ASMD Chart

54 1-54 UART Receiver Module module UART_RCVR #(parameter word_size=8, half_word=word_size/2)( output [word_size-1:0] RCV_datareg, output read_not_ready_out, Error1, Error2, input Serial_in, read_not_ready_in, Sample_clk, rst_b); Control_Unit M0 (read_not_ready_out, Error1, Error2, clr_Sample_counter, inc_Sample_counter, clr_Bit_counter, inc_Bit_counter, shift, load, read_not_ready_in, Ser_in_0, SC_eq_3, SC_lt_7, BC_eq_8, Sample_clk, rst_b); Datapath_Unit M1 (RCV_datareg, Ser_in_0, SC_eq_3, SC_lt_7, BC_eq_8, Serial_in, clr_Sample_counter, inc_Sample_counter, clr_Bit_counter, inc_Bit_counter, shift, load, Sample_clk, rst_b); endmodule module UART_RCVR #(parameter word_size=8, half_word=word_size/2)( output [word_size-1:0] RCV_datareg, output read_not_ready_out, Error1, Error2, input Serial_in, read_not_ready_in, Sample_clk, rst_b); Control_Unit M0 (read_not_ready_out, Error1, Error2, clr_Sample_counter, inc_Sample_counter, clr_Bit_counter, inc_Bit_counter, shift, load, read_not_ready_in, Ser_in_0, SC_eq_3, SC_lt_7, BC_eq_8, Sample_clk, rst_b); Datapath_Unit M1 (RCV_datareg, Ser_in_0, SC_eq_3, SC_lt_7, BC_eq_8, Serial_in, clr_Sample_counter, inc_Sample_counter, clr_Bit_counter, inc_Bit_counter, shift, load, Sample_clk, rst_b); endmodule

55 1-55 UART Receiver Datapath Unit Module module Datapath_Unit #(parameter word_size=8, half_word=word_size/2, Num_counter_bits=4)( output reg [word_size-1:0] RCV_datareg, output Ser_in_0, SC_eq_3, SC_lt_7, BC_eq_8, input Serial_in, clr_Sample_counter, inc_Sample_counter, clr_Bit_counter, inc_Bit_counter, shift, load, Sample_clk, rst_b); reg [word_size-1:0] RCV_shftreg; reg [Num_counter_bits-1:0] Sample_counter; reg [Num_counter_bits:0] Bit_counter; assign Ser_in_0 = (Serial_in==1'b0); assign BC_eq_8 = (Bit_counter == word_size); assign SC_lt_7 = (Sample_counter < word_size-1); assign SC_eq_3 = (Sample_counter == half_word-1); module Datapath_Unit #(parameter word_size=8, half_word=word_size/2, Num_counter_bits=4)( output reg [word_size-1:0] RCV_datareg, output Ser_in_0, SC_eq_3, SC_lt_7, BC_eq_8, input Serial_in, clr_Sample_counter, inc_Sample_counter, clr_Bit_counter, inc_Bit_counter, shift, load, Sample_clk, rst_b); reg [word_size-1:0] RCV_shftreg; reg [Num_counter_bits-1:0] Sample_counter; reg [Num_counter_bits:0] Bit_counter; assign Ser_in_0 = (Serial_in==1'b0); assign BC_eq_8 = (Bit_counter == word_size); assign SC_lt_7 = (Sample_counter < word_size-1); assign SC_eq_3 = (Sample_counter == half_word-1);

56 1-56 UART Receiver Datapath Unit Module (posedge Sample_clk) if (rst_b==1'b0) begin Sample_counter <=0; Bit_counter<=0; RCV_datareg<=0; RCV_shftreg<=0; end else begin if (clr_Sample_counter == 1) Sample_counter<=0; else if (inc_Sample_counter == 1) Sample_counter <= Sample_counter+1; if (clr_Bit_counter == 1) Bit_counter<=0; else if (inc_Bit_counter == 1) Bit_counter <= Bit_counter+1; if (shift) RCV_shftreg <= {Serial_in, RCV_shftreg[word_size-1:1]}; if (load) RCV_datareg <= RCV_shftreg ; end endmodule (posedge Sample_clk) if (rst_b==1'b0) begin Sample_counter <=0; Bit_counter<=0; RCV_datareg<=0; RCV_shftreg<=0; end else begin if (clr_Sample_counter == 1) Sample_counter<=0; else if (inc_Sample_counter == 1) Sample_counter <= Sample_counter+1; if (clr_Bit_counter == 1) Bit_counter<=0; else if (inc_Bit_counter == 1) Bit_counter <= Bit_counter+1; if (shift) RCV_shftreg <= {Serial_in, RCV_shftreg[word_size-1:1]}; if (load) RCV_datareg <= RCV_shftreg ; end endmodule

57 1-57 UART Receiver Control Unit Module module Control_Unit #(parameter word_size=8, half_word=word_size/2, Num_state_bits=2, idle=2'b00, starting=2'b01, receiving=2'b10)( output reg read_not_ready_out, Error1, Error2, clr_Sample_counter, inc_Sample_counter, clr_Bit_counter, inc_Bit_counter, shift, load, input read_not_ready_in, Ser_in_0, SC_eq_3, SC_lt_7, BC_eq_8, Sample_clk, rst_b); reg [Num_state_bits-1:0] state, next_state; (posedge Sample_clk) if (rst_b==1'b0) state <= idle; else state <= next_state; module Control_Unit #(parameter word_size=8, half_word=word_size/2, Num_state_bits=2, idle=2'b00, starting=2'b01, receiving=2'b10)( output reg read_not_ready_out, Error1, Error2, clr_Sample_counter, inc_Sample_counter, clr_Bit_counter, inc_Bit_counter, shift, load, input read_not_ready_in, Ser_in_0, SC_eq_3, SC_lt_7, BC_eq_8, Sample_clk, rst_b); reg [Num_state_bits-1:0] state, next_state; (posedge Sample_clk) if (rst_b==1'b0) state <= idle; else state <= next_state;

58 1-58 UART Receiver Control Unit Module (state, Ser_in_0, SC_eq_3, SC_lt_7, read_not_ready_in) begin read_not_ready_out=0; Error1=0; Error2=0; clr_Sample_counter=0; inc_Sample_counter=0 ; clr_Bit_counter=0; inc_Bit_counter=0; shift=0; load=0; next_state = idle; case (state) idle: if (Ser_in_0==1'b1) next_state=starting; else next_state=idle; starting: if (Ser_in_0==1'b0) begin next_state=idle; clr_Sample_counter=1; end else (state, Ser_in_0, SC_eq_3, SC_lt_7, read_not_ready_in) begin read_not_ready_out=0; Error1=0; Error2=0; clr_Sample_counter=0; inc_Sample_counter=0 ; clr_Bit_counter=0; inc_Bit_counter=0; shift=0; load=0; next_state = idle; case (state) idle: if (Ser_in_0==1'b1) next_state=starting; else next_state=idle; starting: if (Ser_in_0==1'b0) begin next_state=idle; clr_Sample_counter=1; end else

59 1-59 UART Receiver Control Unit Module if (SC_eq_3==1'b1) begin next_state=receiving; clr_Sample_counter=1; end else begin next_state=starting; inc_Sample_counter=1; end receiving: if (SC_lt_7==1'b1) begin next_state=receiving; inc_Sample_counter=1; end else begin clr_Sample_counter=1; if (SC_eq_3==1'b1) begin next_state=receiving; clr_Sample_counter=1; end else begin next_state=starting; inc_Sample_counter=1; end receiving: if (SC_lt_7==1'b1) begin next_state=receiving; inc_Sample_counter=1; end else begin clr_Sample_counter=1;

60 1-60 UART Receiver Control Unit Module if (!BC_eq_8) begin next_state=receiving; inc_Bit_counter=1; shift=1; end else begin next_state=idle; clr_Bit_counter=1; read_not_ready_out=1; if (read_not_ready_in==1'b1) Error1=1; else if (Ser_in_0==1'b1) Error2=1; else load=1; end default: next_state=idle; endcase end endmodule if (!BC_eq_8) begin next_state=receiving; inc_Bit_counter=1; shift=1; end else begin next_state=idle; clr_Bit_counter=1; read_not_ready_out=1; if (read_not_ready_in==1'b1) Error1=1; else if (Ser_in_0==1'b1) Error2=1; else load=1; end default: next_state=idle; endcase end endmodule

61 1-61 UART Receiver Simulation

62 1-62 UART Receiver Simulation


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