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11 Chapter 15: Money, Banking, and Central Banking 1 ECON 151 – PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS Materials include content from Pearson Addison-Wesley which.

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Presentation on theme: "11 Chapter 15: Money, Banking, and Central Banking 1 ECON 151 – PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS Materials include content from Pearson Addison-Wesley which."— Presentation transcript:

1 11 Chapter 15: Money, Banking, and Central Banking 1 ECON 151 – PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS Materials include content from Pearson Addison-Wesley which has been modified by the instructor and displayed with permission of the publisher. All rights reserved.

2 Money  Any medium that is universally accepted in an economy both by sellers of goods and services and by creditors as payment for debts 15-2

3 Table 15-1 Types of Money 15-3

4 The Functions of Money The functions of money  Medium of exchange  Unit of accounting  Store of value (purchasing power)  Standard of deferred payment 15-4

5 The Functions of Money (cont'd) Medium of Exchange  Any item that sellers will accept as payment Barter  The direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services without the use of money 15-5

6 The Functions of Money (cont'd) Medium of exchange  Money facilitates exchange by reducing transaction costs associated with means-of- payment uncertainty. Permits specialization, facilitates efficiencies Barter  Simply a direct exchange Double coincidence of wants 15-6

7 The Functions of Money (cont'd) Unit of Accounting  A measure by which prices are expressed  The common denominator of the price system  A central property of money 15-7

8 The Functions of Money (cont'd) Store of Value  The ability to hold value over time  A necessary property of money  Money allows you to transfer value (wealth) into the future. 15-8

9 The Functions of Money (cont'd) Standard of Deferred Payment  A property of an item that makes it desirable for use as a means of settling debts maturing in the future  An essential property of money 15-9

10 Liquidity  The degree to which an asset can be acquired or disposed of without much danger of any intervening loss in nominal value and with small transaction costs  Money is the most liquid asset

11 Figure 15-1 Degrees of Liquidity The cost of holding money (its opportunity cost) is the alternative interest yield obtainable by holding some other asset. Money is not backed by gold, silver, or even the federal government. It is backed by the confidence of those willing to accept it.

12 Monetary Standards, or What Backs Money (cont'd) Transactions Deposits  Checkable and debitable account balances in commercial banks and other types of financial institutions, such as credit unions and mutual savings banks  Any accounts in financial institutions on which you can easily transmit debit-card and check payments without many restrictions 15-12

13 Monetary Standards, or What Backs Money Fiduciary Monetary System  A system in which currency is issued by the government and its value rests on the public’s confidence that it can be exchanged for goods and services  The Latin fiducia means “trust” or “confidence.”  Currency and transactions deposits are money because of their acceptability and predictability of value

14 Defining Money Money is important  Changes in the rate at which the money supply increases or decreases affect important economic variables (at least in the short run) such as inflation, interest rates, employment, and the level of real GDP. Money Supply  The amount of money in circulation  Economists use two basic approaches to define and measure money. The transactions approach The liquidity approach 15-14

15 Defining Money (cont'd) Transactions Approach  A method of measuring the money supply by looking at money as a medium of exchange Liquidity Approach  A method of measuring the money supply by looking at money as a temporary store of value 15-15

16 Defining Money (cont'd) The transactions approach to measuring money: M1  Currency  Checkable (transaction) deposits  Traveler’s checks not issued by banks 15-16

17 Defining Money (cont'd) M1  Currency Minted coins and paper currency not deposited in financial institutions The bulk of currency “in circulation” actually does not circulate within the U.S. borders

18 Defining Money (cont'd) M1  Transactions deposits Any deposits in a thrift institution or a commercial bank on which a check may be written or debit card used  Thrift Institution Financial institutions that receive most of their funds from the savings of the public 15-18

19 Defining Money (cont'd) M1  Traveler’s Checks Financial instruments purchased from a bank or a nonbanking organization and signed during purchase that can be used as cash upon a second signature by the purchaser 15-19

20 Defining Money (cont'd) The liquidity approach to measuring money: M2 Near Moneys  Assets that are almost money  Highly liquid  Easily converted to cash  Time deposits are an example 15-20

21 Defining Money (cont'd) The liquidity approach: M2 is equal to M1 plus 1. Savings and small denomination time deposits 2. Balances in retail money market mutual funds 3. MMDAs 15-21

22 Defining Money (cont'd) M2  Savings Deposits Interest-earning funds that can be withdrawn at any time without payment of a penalty  Depository Institutions Accept deposits from savers and lend those funds out 15-22

23 Defining Money (cont'd) M2  Money Market Deposit Accounts (MMDAs) Accounts issued by banks yielding a market rate of interest with a minimum balance requirement and a limit on transactions They have no minimum maturity 15-23

24 Defining Money (cont'd) M2  Time Deposit A deposit in a financial institution that requires notice of intent to withdraw or must be left for an agreed period Early withdrawal may result in a penalty  CD (Certificate of Deposit) Time deposit with fixed maturity 15-24

25 Defining Money (cont'd) M2  Money Market Mutual Funds Funds obtained from the public that investment companies hold in common Funds used to acquire short-maturity credit instruments  CD’s, U.S. government securities 15-25

26 Figure 15-2 Composition of the U.S. M1 and M2 Money Supply, 2007, Panel (a) 15-26

27 Figure 15-2 Composition of the U.S. M1 and M2 Money Supply, 2007, Panel (b) 15-27

28 Defining the U.S. Money Supply The M2 definition of money correlates best with economic activity, although some business people and policymakers prefer MZM. MZM (money-at-zero-maturity) MZM entails adding deposits without set maturities to M1. MZM includes all MMFs but excludes all deposits with fixed maturities.

29 Financial Intermediation and Banks Most nations have a banking system that encompasses two types of institutions. 1. One type consists of private banking institutions. 2. The other type of institution is a central bank

30 Financial Intermediation and Banks (cont'd) Central Bank  A banker’s bank, usually an official institution that also serves as a country’s treasury’s bank  Central banks normally regulate commercial banks

31 Financial Intermediation and Banks (cont'd) Financial Intermediation  The process by which financial institutions accept savings from businesses, households, and governments and lend the savings to other businesses, households, and governments 15-31

32 Financial Intermediation and Banks (cont'd) Direct finance  Individuals purchase bonds from a business Indirect finance  Individuals hold money in a bank  The bank lends the money to a business 15-32

33 Figure 15-4 The Process of Financial Intermediation 15-33

34 Financial Intermediation and Banks (cont'd) Question  Why might people wish to direct their funds through a bank instead of lending directly to a business? Answers  Asymmetric information  Adverse selection  Moral hazard  Larger scale and lower management costs 15-34

35 Financial Intermediation and Banks (cont'd) Asymmetric Information  Information possessed by one party in a financial transaction but not by the other Adverse Selection  The likelihood that borrowers may use their borrowed funds for high-risk projects 15-35

36 Financial Intermediation and Banks (cont'd) Moral Hazard  The possibility that a borrower might engage in riskier behavior after a loan has been obtained Larger scale and lower management costs  People can pool funds in an intermediary, reducing costs, risks.  Pension funds and investment companies are examples

37 Financial Intermediation and Banks Assets  Amounts owned  The uses of funds by financial intermediaries Liabilities  Amounts owed  The sources of funds for financial intermediaries 15-37

38 Table 15-2 Financial Intermediaries and Their Assets and Liabilities 15-38

39 Financial Intermediation and Banks (cont'd) Payment Intermediaries  Institutions that facilitate transfers of funds between depositors who hold transactions deposits with those institutions 15-39

40 Figure 15-5 How a Debit-Card Transaction Clears 15-40

41 Financial Intermediation and Banks (cont'd) Capital Controls  Legal restrictions on the ability of a nation’s residents to hold and trade assets denominated in foreign currencies International Financial Intermediation  Financing investment projects in more than one country 15-41

42 Table 15-3 The World’s Largest Banks 15-42

43 Banking Structures Throughout the World The ways that banks around the world differ  Size United States has banks of various sizes Europe and Japan have a few large banks  Legal Universal banking Limits on financial services such as insurance and bank stock ownership  Importance in financial system Major importance Part of a varied financial system (United States) 15-43

44 Banking Structures Throughout the World (cont'd) Universal Banking  An environment in which banks face few or no restrictions on their powers to offer a full range of financial services and to own shares of stock in corporations World Index Fund  A portfolio of bonds issued in various nations whose individual yields generally move in offsetting directions, thereby reducing the overall risk of losses 15-44

45 Banking Structures Throughout the World (cont'd) Central banks and their roles 1. Perform banking functions for their nations’ governments 2. Provide financial services for private banks 3. Conduct their nations’ monetary policies 15-45

46 The Federal Reserve System The Fed  The Federal Reserve System; the central bank of the United States  The most important regulatory agency in the U.S. monetary system  Established in 1913 by the Federal Reserve Act 15-46

47 The Federal Reserve System (cont'd) Organization of the Fed  Board of Governors 7 members, 14-year terms  Federal Reserve Banks (12 Districts) 25 branches  Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) BOG plus 5 presidents of district banks 15-47

48 Figure 15-6 Organization of the Federal Reserve System 15-48

49 Figure 15-7 The Federal Reserve System 15-49

50 The Federal Reserve System (cont'd) Depository institutions  7,500 commercial banks  1,300 savings and loans  11,000 credit unions All may purchase Fed services 15-50

51 The Federal Reserve System (cont'd) Functions of the Fed 1. Supplies the economy with fiduciary currency 2. Provides a payment-clearing system 3. Holds depository institutions’ reserves 4. Acts as the government’s fiscal agent 5. Supervises depository institutions 6. Acts as a “lender of last resort” 7. Regulates the money supply 15-51

52 Figure 15-8 The Volume and Value of Federal Reserve Check Clearings Since

53 53 Chapter 15: Money, Banking, and Central Banking 53 ECON 151 – PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS Materials include content from Pearson Addison-Wesley which has been modified by the instructor and displayed with permission of the publisher. All rights reserved.


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