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ESA’s Science Programme and “Beyond Einstein” Alvaro Giménez Research and Scientific Support Department, ESA Noordwijk, The Netherlands.

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Presentation on theme: "ESA’s Science Programme and “Beyond Einstein” Alvaro Giménez Research and Scientific Support Department, ESA Noordwijk, The Netherlands."— Presentation transcript:

1 ESA’s Science Programme and “Beyond Einstein” Alvaro Giménez Research and Scientific Support Department, ESA Noordwijk, The Netherlands

2 ESA Science Mandatory and Optional Programmes Long term plan Science driven Selected by the Scientific Community Projects are developed in close cooperation with scientific institutes in member states. A budget around 370 M€/year (+ new LoR)

3 ESA Science Planning Horizons 2000: –Implementation of 1990-2000 –2000+ = Planning for 2000-2010 Cosmic Vision 2020: –Planning 2011-2014 –Implementation of 2004-2014 –New Planning for 2015-2025


5 COSMIC VISION 2020 Present accepted plan (SPC November 2003) Space Science Advisory Committee, ESA HO, 14 October 2003 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 9596979899012345678910111213 Keuro (2003 EC) Basic activities IUE, HST, Ulysses, Hipparcos ISO STSP CLUSTER Recovery Huygens XMM - NEWTON INTEGRAL ROSETTA HERSCHEL JWST COROT, Microscope, ASTRO-F, Double Star, SOLAR-B 2.5% increase in cash continued after 2004 S1 MEX HST EXTENSION MISSION EXTENSIONS VEX PLANCK LOAN REPAYMENT EDDINGTON LISA 07-12 GAIA 12 BC (- MSE) 12 SO 14 HERSCHEL-PLANCK PL SUPPORT ARIANE GROUNDING VEX LAUNCHER

6 The Future of the Science Programme Cosmic Vision 2020 ESA Science Programme is defined until 2014 – no room for any new missions until then. Need to ensure that the relevant technology is being developed for the next generation of missions. Goal of “Cosmic Vision 2020” is not to immediately obtain proposals for missions, but rather to ensure that new missions are implemented to resolve outstanding problems.

7 The XPG Cross-disciplinary Perspective Groups Big Themes: –Space sciences and society in Europe –Physics and the physical processes in the Universe –Chemical and biological aspects of the evolution of the Universe. Discovery and Knowledge

8 Questions in Physics Nature of physical laws. High energy physics beyond the accelerator. Quantum world, edges of space, CMB and black holes. Complex systems, turbulence. Universe: origin and evolution.

9 What are the themes for space science? A call to the European Science Community Deadline: June 1 st 2004

10 ESA’s Future Science Programme Once the themes are identified, the scientific community will be asked to react with more specific proposals (within the selected themes) In parallel, the major technological constraints and developments needed will be identified. Possibilities for international cooperation will also be analyzed. Some feasibility studies are already ongoing. “Ideas” become “potential missions” and then real missions only when ready for implementation.

11 Cosmology High-energy Astrophysics Fundamental Physics

12 Available Facilities

13 HST Hubble Ultra Deep Field (Galaxy formation) GOODS (+ Dark energy -SN Ia- and dark matter)

14 XMM-Newton : Mirror area 0.4 m 2 Spatial resolution 15 ’’ HEW Limiting sensitivity: 10 -15 erg cm -2 s -1


16 Under Development

17 NGST (James Webb Space Telescope) JWST The first stars and galaxies (first light and assembly)

18 JWST: NIRSpec Tracing the elements

19 JWST: Mid-IR Instrument (MIRI) Imaging: 5-27 µm wavelength range Diffraction limited at 5 µm 100 mas pixels 1.3’ x 1.7’ FOV Coronagraph operating at 5, 10 and 15 µm Spectroscopy: R ~100 over 5-10 µm R~1000 & 3000 5-28 µm 200 mas pixels Integral field spectroscopy 3”x3” to 7”x7” FOV MIRI capabilities

20 Herschel Galaxy Formation and Evolution: How & when did galaxies form, universal star formation history, relation to near-IR and sub- mm galaxies + Astro F

21 The European mission to map the Cosmic Microwave Background

22 Planck: science objectives Geometry of Universe & test of inflationary models Age of Universe, H o,  o, , & stellar evolution Primordial nucleosynthesis: abundance determinations chemical evolution of galaxies Physics beyond standard model Evolution of structure and nature of dark matter Dynamical estimates of  o Galaxy redshift surveys Achieved by imaging the whole sky at wavelengths near the peak of the spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Field (CMB), - with an instrument sensitivity  T/T~10 -6 - an angular resolution ~5’ - wide frequency coverage, and - excellent rejection of systematic effects.

23 CMB Clusters Thermal Doppler GalaxiesGalactic Free-free Synchrotron Dust Detector noise Imaging the sky emission at many frequencies Peeling back the layers Recovering the cosmological information

24 WMAP - Planck: Key differences WMAPPlanck P/L TechnologyDual telescope Passive cooling Single telescope Active cooling DetectorsHEMT LNAs (@90 K) HEMT LNAs (@20 K) Bolometers (@0.1 K) Freq. range22-94 GHz30-857 GHz Ang. resolution13.8 arcmin5 arcmin Sensitivity @ 90- 100 GHz 35 m K (0 o.3x0 o.3) 2.2 m K (0 o.3x0 o.3) Sensitivity to CMB (after avg. & fg. Subtr.) Min. 31 m K Typ. 35 m K Min. 3 m K Typ. 5 m K

25 LISA A mission to detect and observe gravitational waves ESA/NASA collaborative mission to be launched in 2012. Interferometric measurement of changes in distance between free-flying proof masses Frequency range 0.1 mHz to 10 mHz (inaccessible to ground-based detectors)

26 LISA Three s/c, equilateral triangle, 5 million km arm-length. Heliocentric orbit, trailing Earth by 20°, constellation inclined by 60° with respect to the ecliptic

27 LISA Science Goals Merging supermassive black holes Merging intermediate- mass/seed black holes Gravitational captures Galactic and verification binaries Cosmological backgrounds and bursts Determine the role of massive black holes in galaxy evolution Make precision tests of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity Determine the population of ultra-compact binaries in the Galaxy Probe the physics of the early universe

28 LISA PF Technology demonstrator for LISA –Drag-free and attitude control performance on the order of 10 -14 m/(s 2  Hz) –Feasibility of laser interferometry with a performance as close as possible to 10 -12 m/  Hz –Assess the longevity and reliability of the capacitive sensors, thrusters, lasers and optics in the space environment Two payloads –European LTP –US Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) Implementation Phase started in 2004 –Launch by the end of 2007 –180 days of operation in orbit around L1

29 Microscope A mission to test the Equivalence Principle to 10 -15 Low cost experiment (capacitive sensing) in a low-Earth (800 km), Sun-synchronous (near- polar) orbit CNES/ESA mission: ESA provides FEEP system: key technology for many future missions Project in Phase B since January 2004 Launch in late 2007  scope

30 ACES Operate a cold atom clock in μgravity Atomic Clock Ensemble –PHARAO, a cold atom (Cs) clock –SHM (Space Hydrogen Maser) –frequency/phase measurement system (on-board comparison) –microwave link (space/ground comparison) Under development for flight on the ISS (managed by D/MSM), planned for launch in 2007 and mission duration 18 months Ultra-stable time-scale comparisons. Test General Relativity (e.g. gravitational redshift, γ, drift of the fine structure constant, anisotropy of c)


32 GAIA: science objectives GAIA will map a billion stars in 3-d… …and thus provide: our Galaxy’s spatial and dynamic structure + formation history distance and velocity distributions of all stellar populations a rigorous framework for stellar structure and evolution theories details of a template galaxy for cosmological studies definitive distance standards out to the LMC fundamental physical quantities to unprecedented accuracies (e.g. γ to <10 - 5 ) support to developments such as VLT, JWST, etc a large-scale survey of extra-solar planets a large-scale survey of Solar System bodies rapid reaction alerts for supernovae and burst sources


34 Lobster An imaging all-sky X-ray monitor (ASM) led by George Fraser (Leicester University) who is responsible for the X-ray optics with GSFC building the detectors. 6 individual telescope modules. X-ray monitors are desirable because the X-ray sky is highly variable and unpredictable. Lobster-ISS is a factor 10 more sensitive than any other planned X-ray all-sky monitor (10 -12 erg cm -2 s -1 in one day). Results made available to community via the web within ~1 day. Catalog of 200,000 X-ray sources every 2 months. Following a successful accommodation study which showed that the required resources are compatible with those available at the CEPF, the Lobster “Phase A” study is close to completion.

35 Lobster-ISS Science X-ray flashes and gamma-ray bursts Active galactic nuclei Compact object binaries Stellar flares Discovery Coronal events Black hole binaries VLBA images of X-ray Nova CI Cam Prompt optical counterpart of GRB 990123 Gamma-ray bursts

36 Lobster Mounted on the CEPF

37 Rosita

38 Basically a re-flight on the ISS of the D national mission ABRIXAS which failed soon after launch due to a battery conditioning problem. First medium energy X-ray survey since HEAO-1 in 1977. Focuses X-rays from 7 small mirrors onto an XMM- Newton CCD detector array. 2.4 sq deg FOV Science goals include the study of absorbed AGN and the X-ray background, evolution of AGN and clusters and the diffuse X-ray background. 200,000 X-ray sources in 3 years. ROSITA

39 The Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) 2.5 m diameter cylinder with a length of 4 m and a mass of 1500 kg

40 Since EECR >10 20 eV are observed, sources cannot be more than z~0.01 away - inconsistent with distances to possible counterparts. EUSO – science goals To observe Ultra High-Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum

41 EUSO Extend the measurement of the Cosmic Radiation’s energy spectrum beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff (E GZK ≳ 5  10 19 eV) using the Earth’s atmosphere as a giant detector Obtain a detailed all-sky map of the arrival distribution for the EECRs searching for their origin and nature. Observation of a possible flux of High Energy Cosmic Neutrinos and opening of the field of High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy Influence of dark matter distribution (in the galactic halo) and propagation effects on the statistics of high-energy cosmic rays Following a successful accommodation study, EUSO is now closing “Phase A” study.

42 EUSO: comparison with EECR Instruments

43 The Future (a result of the current call for themes)

44 Hyper Four cold atom interferometers Operation –Mach-Zehnder mode (rotations and accelerations) –Ramsey-Bordé mode (frequencies) Science applications Lense-Thirring effect, fine structure constant, matter- wave decoherence, EP test (Rb, Cs) Study at Assessment level by the CDF Team at ESTEC and industrial study at Phase A level. Technology Reference Mission in the field of cold atom interferometry

45 X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy

46 Study of the formation and evolution of the first massive black holes. Study of the large scale structure of the Universe and in particular any hot filamentary component. Study of the first small groups of galaxies and their evolution to today’s massive clusters. Study of the formation of the first metals in the hot inter-galactic medium. What will be the main topics for high energy astronomy at the end of the decade? XEUS Scientific Objectives

47 XEUS Science Highlights Simulated Deep XEUS image of the first black holes and a spectrum of a composite starburst-AGN at z=8. This shows that with a deep field exposure, the spectra of sources could be obtained and their Fe-K lines detected Cosmological models predict that ~ 10 13 M o galaxy groups at redshifts of 2-3 are the first massive large scale structures Simulated XEUS image and spectrum of a 10 43 erg s -1 galaxy group at z=2 First Black Holes: Universe composition:

48 Sensitivity: 4 x 10 -18 erg cm -2 s -1 Angular resolution: <5" Spectral resolution: 2 eV @ 1 keV Bandpass: 0.05 - 30 keV Study of first galaxy groups and evolution into today’s clusters Absorption line spectroscopy of hot filamentary material Spectra of first accreting black holes Mirror effective area: 30 m 2 @ 1 keV, 3 m 2 @ 8 keV Lightweight high resolution optics (5", goal 2") with 50m focal length Imaging wide field semiconductor and cryogenic high ΔE instruments XEUS Requirements

49 XEUS – Mirror Spacecraft Design of the MSC based on that of ESA’s Automatic Transfer Vehicle (ATV). 12 tonne mass, 4.5 m diameter.

50 XEUS – Detector Spacecraft Baseline is 6 ton mass, 10 kW solar panels.

51 X-ray Superconducting Tunnel Junction Arrays - A lot of development is still necessary to transform single pixel results obtained in the laboratory into a useful large-format X-ray imaging- spectrometer. - Developments should not only focus on the detector technology but also the readout system. 366  m = 8.8” 440  m = 10.5” 10x12 pixels ; 93 arcsec 2

52 XMM-Newton nickel optics: 350 kg for 70 cm diameter, 900 kg m -2 Glass MCP X-ray optics (currently 15-20") MCP optics: 29g for 0.6 cm diameter, 10 kg m -2 XMM-Newton size: 4 kg XEUS Revised Mission Scenario Credit: M. Bavdaz

53 Such a lightweight, high performance, optic would allow a completely new XEUS Mission scenario. It would be possible to have: 1.Autonomous deployment (no ISS visit necessary) 2.Direct injection of MSC to L2 possible with a modest rocket such as a Soyuz-Fregat 3.At L2 the DSC can be much smaller due to less fuel need and simpler AOCS 4.Simpler optical baffle and thermal control and design New mission concept is still very preliminary, expect to start industrial study shortly to demonstrate overall feasibility. XEUS Revised Mission Scenario

54 PERXEUS launched in 2015 on a Soyuz- Fregat to L2 with 2-5“ HEW optics with a 1-2 keV area of 12 m 2. CHRONOS launched on an Ariane V with <1“ HEW optics with an area of 60 m 2, some years later. A long-term goal to help define the mirror technology programme. Need to evaluate whether the original science goals are still fully met (12 m 2 compared to 30 m 2 ) Perxeus MSC XEUS Revised Mission Scenario The XEUS programme now being investigated consists of:

55 PERXEUS: Deployed configuration including sunshields

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