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Theme 7 Intellectual Property and Economic Development

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Presentation on theme: "Theme 7 Intellectual Property and Economic Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Theme 7 Intellectual Property and Economic Development
WIPO UNITO-LLM ITC-ILO Julio Raffo Economics & Statistics Division (WIPO-ESD) Geneva October 23, 2014

2 Outline Highlights of global IP trend IP and economic development
Economics of IP Q&A session

3 More and more patent applications every year
Trend in Patent applications, (source WIPO statistics database) Total patent applications filed worldwide is increasing

4 Not only patents: Trademarks x4 in 25 years!
Trend in Trademark applications, (source WIPO statistics database)

5 …and Industrial Designs x7!
Trend in Industrial Design applications, (source WIPO statistics database)

6 Higher concentration in few patent offices
If we look at the shares of patent applications filed between 1995 and 2010, we can note the following interesting points: 1. The share of patents filed in China in 1995 is 1.8% of the world total, in 2010, it is 19.8%

7 Few countries originate most patent filings
Main origins of PCT applications (2013) (source WIPO statistics database)

8 More on origin concentration
Patent applications through the Patent Cooperation Treaty is overwhelmingly come from USA, Japan, Germany, China and the Republic of Korea

9 Increasing IP use translates into…
Productivity? Technology transfer Innovation? Economic growth? Development? Start-ups? Creative outputs? We have evidence of some, but not all Competition? Trade? Licensing? Investments?

10 IP, Growth & Development: Theory
Basic economic incentive for IP protection should work everywhere … but initial conditions across countries vary Study of economic growth process suggests that technological innovation is key for long-term growth… + by fostering innovation and technology transfer, IP protection can stimulate economic growth – reduces imitation, increasing the catching-up cost Arguably: is imitation bad?

11 Note: issue of causality: unsure if countries have high income because they are innovative or that innovative countries tend to be in the high income bracket; story is likely to be a combination of the two.

12 Strength of IPR and income levels for 177 countries, 2005
Source: Park index and World Bank

13 What are we missing in the picture?
1. What is the causality? IP generates economic growth, or … later development stages require “more” IP? 2. Can the same policy work in different countries? Legal, economic and political framework Innovation ecosystem 3. Can we isolate the impact of IP on growth rate? National endowment of resources Quality of infrastructure Macroeconomic stability Business and investment climate Investments in education and health Openness to trade and foreign investment

14 Going back to the economic basics
IP is “simply” an economic policy instrument: What is its objective? Address problems arising from market failures… by providing the right incentives Is it neutral? Who wins and who loses? Who pays the bill?

15 Market failure #1 Information (and knowledge) good have traits of public good: Non-rivalry Non-excludability, to a certain extent Producing knowledge is costly Increasing returns to production Difficult to appropriate returns Uncertainty

16 Market failure #2 Markets may fail if there is asymmetric information between buyers and sellers of goods E.g.: markets for used cars or insurance Superior quality may give incentives to invest in reputation …if it reassures consumers that they purchase what they intend to purchase

17 IP instruments Stimulate innovative and creative activities
Patents, utility models, copyrights, industrial design, plant breeders’ rights Alternatives: trade secrets, R&D subsidies, tax exemptions or prizes Address asymmetry of information issue Trademark, geographical indication, collective marks Alternatives: consumer protection, sanitary controls, product customization

18 IP Trade-off Advantages Disadvantages
Market selection i.e. consumers pay not tax-payers Minimizes welfare distortion i.e. only market success Disadvantages Monopoly creation Bias against basic research i.e. only market oriented

19 Summarizing Use of IP protection is on the rise
Increasing use of IP protection Broader geographical use of IP protection Link between IP protection and economic development Impact varies according to countries’ innovative and absorptive capacities Increasing use of IP affects certain aspects of economic activities But these are not neutral

20 Thank you for listening

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