# Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 Geometric Objects and Transformations Dr. Giorgos A. Demetriou Dr. Stephania Loizidou Himona Computer Science.

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Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 Geometric Objects and Transformations Dr. Giorgos A. Demetriou Dr. Stephania Loizidou Himona Computer Science Frederick Institute of Technology

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 2 Objectives  Introduce the elements of geometry  Scalars  Vectors  Points  Develop mathematical operations among them in a coordinate-free manner  Define basic primitives  Line segments  Polygons

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 3 Basic Elements  Geometry is the study of the relationships among objects in an n-dimensional space  In computer graphics, we are interested in objects that exist in three dimensions  Want a minimum set of primitives from which we can build more sophisticated objects  We will need three basic elements  Scalars  Vectors  Points

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 4 Coordinate-Free Geometry  When we learned simple geometry, most of us started with a Cartesian approach  Points were at locations in space p=(x,y,z)  We derived results by algebraic manipulations involving these coordinates  This approach was nonphysical  Physically, points exist regardless of the location of an arbitrary coordinate system  Most geometric results are independent of the coordinate system  Euclidean geometry: two triangles are identical if two corresponding sides and the angle between them are identical

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 5 Scalars  Need three basic elements in geometry  Scalars, Vectors, Points  Scalars can be defined as members of sets which can be combined by two operations (addition and multiplication) obeying some fundamental axioms (associativity, commutivity, inverses)  Examples include the real and complex number under the ordinary rules with which we are familiar  Scalars alone have no geometric properties

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 6 Vectors  Physical definition: a vector is a quantity with two attributes  Direction  Magnitude  Examples include  Force  Velocity  Directed line segments  Most important example for graphics  Can map to other types v

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 7 Vector Operations  Every vector has an inverse  Same magnitude but points in opposite direction  Every vector can be multiplied by a scalar  There is a zero vector  Zero magnitude, undefined orientation  The sum of any two vectors is a vector  Use head-to-tail axiom v -v vv v u w

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 8 Linear Vector Spaces  Mathematical system for manipulating vectors  Operations  Scalar-vector multiplication u =  v  Vector-vector addition w = u + v  Expressions such as v=u+2w-3r Make sense in a vector space

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 9 Vectors Lack Position  These vectors are identical  Same length and magnitude  Vectors spaces insufficient for geometry  Need points

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 10 Points  Location in space  Operations allowed between points and vectors  Point-point subtraction yields a vector  Equivalent to point-vector addition P = v+Q v = P-QS

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 11 Affine Spaces  Point + a vector space  Operations  Vector-vector addition  Scalar-vector multiplication  Point-vector addition  Scalar-scalar operations  For any point define  1 P = P  0 P = 0 (zero vector)

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 12 Lines  Consider all points of the form  P(  ) = P 0 +  d  Set of all points that pass through P 0 in the direction of the vector d

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 13 Parametric Form  This form is known as the parametric form of the line  More robust and general than other forms  Extends to curves and surfaces  Two-dimensional forms  Explicit: y = mx +h  Implicit: ax + by +c = 0  Parametric: x(  ) =  x 0 + (1-  )x 1 y(  ) =  y 0 + (1-  )y 1

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 14 Rays and Line Segments  If  >= 0, then P(  ) is the ray leaving P 0 in the direction d If we use two points to define v, then P(  ) = Q +  (R-Q)=Q+  v =  R + (1-  )Q For 0<=  <=1 we get all the points on the line segment joining R and Q

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 15 Convexity  An object is convex iff for any two points in the object all points on the line segment between these points are also in the object P Q Q P

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 16 Affine Sums  Consider the “sum” P =  1 P 1 +  2 P 2 +…..+  n P n Can show by induction that this sum makes sense iff  1 +  2 +…..  n = 1 in which case we have the affine sum of the points P 1  P 2,…..P n  If, in addition,  i >=0, we have the convex hull of P 1  P 2,…..P n

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 17 Convex Hull  Smallest convex object containing P 1  P 2,…..P n  Formed by “shrink wrapping” points

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 18 Curves and Surfaces  Curves are one parameter entities of the form P(  ) where the function is nonlinear  Surfaces are formed from two-parameter functions P( ,  )  Linear functions give planes and polygons P(  ) P( ,  )

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 19 Planes  A plane be determined by a point and two vectors or by three points P( ,  )=R+  u+  v P( ,  )=R+  (Q-R)+  (P-Q)

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 20 Triangles convex sum of P and Q convex sum of S(  ) and R for 0<= ,  <=1, we get all points in triangle

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 21 Normals  Every plane has a vector n normal (perpendicular, orthogonal) to it  From point-two vector form P( ,  )=R+  u+  v, we know we can use the cross product to find n = u  v and the equivalent form (P(  )-P)  n=0 u v P

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 22 Linear Independence  A set of vectors v 1, v 2, …, v n is linearly independent if v 1 + v 2 +.. v n =0 iff  1 =  2 =…=0  If a set of vectors is linearly independent, we cannot represent one in terms of the others  If a set of vectors is linearly dependent, as least one can be written in terms of the others

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 23 Dimension  In a vector space, the maximum number of linearly independent vectors is fixed and is called the dimension of the space  In an n-dimensional space, any set of n linearly independent vectors form a basis for the space  Given a basis v 1, v 2,…., v n, any vector v can be written as v=  1 v 1 +  2 v 2 +….+  n v n where the {  i } are unique

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 24 Representation  Until now we have been able to work with geometric entities without using any frame of reference, such a coordinate system  Need a frame of reference to relate points and objects to our physical world.  For example, where is a point? Can’t answer without a reference system  World coordinates  Camera coordinates

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 25 Coordinate Systems  Consider a basis v 1, v 2,…., v n  A vector is written v=  1 v 1 +  2 v 2 +….+  n v n  The list of scalars {  1,  2, ….  n } is the representation of v with respect to the given basis  We can write the representation as a row or column array of scalars a=[  1  2 ….  n ] T =

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 26 Example  V=2v1+3v2-4v3  A=[2 3 –4]  Note that this representation is with respect to a particular basis  For example, in OpenGL we start by representing vectors using the world basis but later the system needs a representation in terms of the camera or eye basis

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 27 Coordinate Systems  Which is correct?  Both are because vectors have no fixed location v v

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 28 Frames  Coordinate System is insufficient to present points  If we work in an affine space we can add a single point, the origin, to the basis vectors to form a frame P0P0 v1v1 v2v2 v3v3

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 29 Frames (cont.)  Frame determined by (P 0, v 1, v 2, v 3 )  Within this frame, every vector can be written as v=  1 v 1 +  2 v 2 +….+  n v n  Every point can be written as P = P 0 +  1 v 1 +  2 v 2 +….+  n v n

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 30 Confusing Points and Vectors Consider the point and the vector P = P 0 +  1 v 1 +  2 v 2 +….+  n v n v=  1 v 1 +  2 v 2 +….+  n v n They appear to have the similar representations p=[  1  2  3 ] v=[  1  2  3 ] which confuse the point with the vector A vector has no position v p v can place anywhere fixed

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 31 A Single Representation If we define 0P = 0 and 1P =P then we can write v=  1 v 1 +  2 v 2 +  3 v 3 = [  1  2  3 0 ] [v 1 v 2 v 3 P 0 ] T P = P 0 +  1 v 1 +  2 v 2 +  3 v 3 = [  1  2  3 1 ] [v 1 v 2 v 3 P 0 ] T Thus we obtain the four-dimensional homogeneous coordinate representation v = [  1  2  3 0 ] T p = [  1  2  3 1 ] T

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 32 Homogeneous Coordinates  The general form of four dimensional homogeneous coordinates is p=[x y x w] T  We return to a three dimensional point (for w  0 ) by x  x/w y  y/w z  z/w  If w=0, the representation is that of a vector  Note that homogeneous coordinates replaces points in three dimensions by lines through the origin in four dimensions

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 33 Homogeneous Coordinates and Computer Graphics  Homogeneous coordinates are key to all computer graphics systems  All standard transformations (rotation, translation, scaling) can be implemented by matrix multiplications with 4 x 4 matrices  Hardware pipeline works with 4 dimensional representations  For orthographic viewing, we can maintain w=0 for vectors and w=1 for points  For perspective we need a perspective division

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 34 Change of Coordinate Systems  Consider two representations of a the same vector with respect to two different bases. The representations are v =  1 v 1 +  2 v 2 +  3 v 3 = [  1  2  3 ] [v 1 v 2 v 3 ] T =  1 u 1 +  2 u 2 +  3 u 3 = [  1  2  3 ] [u 1 u 2 u 3 ] T a=[  1  2  3 ] b=[  1  2  3 ] where

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 35 Representing second basis in terms of first  Each of the basis vectors, u1,u2, u3, are vectors that can be represented in terms of the first basis u 1 =  11 v 1 +  12 v 2 +  13 v 3 u 2 =  21 v 1 +  22 v 2 +  23 v 3 u 3 =  31 v 1 +  32 v 2 +  33 v 3 v

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 36 Matrix Form  The coefficients define a 3 x 3 matrix  The basis can be related by  See text for numerical examples a = M T b M =

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 37 Change of Frames  We can apply a similar process in homogeneous coordinates to the representations of both points and vectors  Consider two frames  Any point or vector can be represented in each (P 0, v 1, v 2, v 3 ) (Q 0, u 1, u 2, u 3 ) P0P0 v1v1 v2v2 v3v3 Q0Q0 u1u1 u2u2 u3u3

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 38 Representing One Frame in Terms of the Other u 1 =  11 v 1 +  12 v 2 +  13 v 3 u 2 =  21 v 1 +  22 v 2 +  23 v 3 u 3 =  31 v 1 +  32 v 2 +  33 v 3 Q 0 =  41 v 1 +  42 v 2 +  43 v 3 +  44 P 0  Extending what we did with change of bases defining a 4 x 4 matrix M =

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 39 Working with Representations  Within the two frames any point or vector has a representation of the same form a = [  1  2  3  4 ] in the first frame b = [  1  2  3  4 ] in the second frame  where  4   4  for points and  4   4  for vectors and  The matrix M is 4 x 4 and specifies an affine transformation in homogeneous coordinates a=M T b

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 40 Affine Transformations  Every linear transformation is equivalent to a change in frames  Every affine transformation preserves lines  However, an affine transformation has only 12 degrees of freedom because 4 of the elements in the matrix are fixed and are a subset of all possible 4 x 4 linear transformations

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 41 The World and Camera Frames  When we work with representations, we work with n-tuples or arrays of scalars  Changes in frame are then defined by 4 x 4 matrices  InOpenGL, the base frame that we start with is the world frame  Eventually we represent entities in the camera frame by changing the world representation using the model-view matrix  Initially these frames are the same ( M=I )

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 42 Moving the Camera If objects are on both sides of z=0, we must move camera frame M =

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 43 General Transformations  A transformation maps points to other points and/or vectors to other vectors Q=T(P) v=T(u)

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 44 Affine Transformations  Line preserving  Characteristic of many physically important transformations  Rigid body transformations: rotation, translation  Scaling, shear  Importance in graphics is that we need only transform endpoints of line segments and let implementation draw line segment between the transformed endpoints

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 45 Pipeline Implementation transformationrasterizer u v u v T T(u) T(v) T(u) T(v) vertices pixels frame buffer (from application program)

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 46 Notation  We will be working with both coordinate-free representations of transformations and representations within a particular frame  P,Q, R: points in an affine space  u, v, w : vectors in an affine space  , ,  : scalars  p, q, r : representations of points -array of 4 scalars in homogeneous coordinates  u, v, w : representations of points -array of 4 scalars in homogeneous coordinates

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 47 Translation  Move (translate, displace) a point to a new location  Displacement determined by a vector d  Three degrees of freedom  P’ = P+d P P’ d

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 48 How many ways? Although we can move a point to a new location in infinite ways, when we move many points there is usually only one way objecttranslation: every point displaced by same vector

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 49 Translation Using Representations  Using the homogeneous coordinate representation in some frame p=[ x y z 1] T p’=[x’ y’ z’ 1] T d=[dx dy dz 0] T  Hence p’ = p + d or x’=x+d x y’=y+d y z’=z+d z note that this expression is in four dimensions and expresses that point = vector + point

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 50 Translation Matrix  We can also express translation using a 4 x 4 matrix T in homogeneous coordinates p ’= Tp where  This form is better for implementation because all affine transformations can be expressed this way and multiple transformations can be concatenated together

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 51 Rotation (2D)  Consider rotation about the origin by  degrees  radius stays the same, angle increases by  x’=x cos  –y sin  y’ = x sin  + y cos  x = r cos  y = r sin  x = r cos (  y = r sin ( 

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 52 Rotation about the z axis  Rotation about z axis in three dimensions leaves all points with the same z  Equivalent to rotation in two dimensions in planes of constant z  or in homogeneous coordinates p ’= R z (  )p x’ = x cos  – y sin  y’ = x sin  + y cos  z’ = z

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 53 Rotation Matrix

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 54 Rotation about x and y axes  Same argument as for rotation about z axis  For rotation about x axis, x is unchanged  For rotation about y axis, y is unchanged

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 55 Scaling x’=s x x y’=s y x z’=s z x p’=Sp  Expand or contract along each axis (fixed point of origin)

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 56 Reflection corresponds to negative scale factors original s x = -1 s y = 1 s x = -1 s y = -1s x = 1 s y = -1

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 57 Inverses  Although we could compute inverse matrices by general formulas, we can use simple geometric observations  Translation: T -1 (d x, d y, d z ) = T (-d x, -d y, -d z )  Rotation: R -1 (  ) = R(-  )  Holds for any rotation matrix  Note that since cos(-  ) = cos(  ) and sin(-  )=-sin(  ) R -1 (  ) = R T (  )  Scaling: S -1 (s x, s y, s z ) = S(1/s x, 1/s y, 1/s z )

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 58 Concatenation  We can form arbitrary affine transformation matrices by multiplying together rotation, translation, and scaling matrices  Because the same transformation is applied to many vertices, the cost of forming a matrix M=ABCD is not significant compared to the cost of computing Mp for many vertices p  The difficult part is how to form a desired transformation from the specifications in the application

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 59 Order of Transformations  Note that matrix on the right is the first applied  Mathematically, the following are equivalent p’ = ABCp = A(B(Cp))  Note many references use column matrices to present points. In terms of column matrices p T ’ = p T C T B T A T

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 60  A rotation by θ about an arbitrary axis can be decomposed into the concatenation of rotations about the x, y, and z axes  Note that rotations do not commute  We can use rotations in another order but with different angles General Rotation About the Origin  x z y v R(  ) = R z (  z ) R y (  y ) R x (  x )  x  y  z are called the Euler angles

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 61 Rotation About a Fixed Point other than the Origin  Steps 1.Move fixed point to origin 2.Rotate 3.Move fixed point back M = T(-p f ) R(  ) T(p f )

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 62 Instancing  In modeling, we often start with a simple object centered at the origin, oriented with the axis, and at a standard size  We apply an instance transformation to its vertices to Scale Orient Locate

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 63 Shear  Helpful to add one more basic transformation  Equivalent to pulling faces in opposite directions

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 64 Shear Matrix Consider simple shear along x axis x’ = x + y cot  y’ = y z’ = z H(  ) =

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 65 OpenGL Matrices  In OpenGL matrices are part of the state  Three types  Model-View ( GL_MODEL_VIEW )  Projection ( GL_PROJECTION )  Texture ( GL_TEXTURE ) (ignore for now)  Single set of functions for manipulation  Select which to manipulated by  glMatrixMode(GL_MODEL_VIEW);  glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 66 Current Transformation Matrix (CTM)  Conceptually there is a 4 x 4 homogeneous coordinate matrix, the current transformation matrix (CTM) that is part of the state and is applied to all vertices that pass down the pipeline  The CTM is defined in the user program and loaded into a transformation unit CTMvertices p p’=Cp C

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 67 CTM operations  The CTM can be altered either by loading a new CTM or by postmutiplication Load an identity matrix: C  I Load an arbitrary matrix: C  M Load a translation matrix: C  T Load a rotation matrix: C  R Load a scaling matrix: C  S Postmultiply by an arbitrary matrix: C  CM Postmultiply by a translation matrix: C  CT Postmultiply by a rotation matrix: C  C R Postmultiply by a scaling matrix: C  C S

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 68 Rotation about a Fixed Point  Steps 1.Start with identity matrix: C  I 2.Move fixed point to origin: C  CT -1 3.Rotate: C  CR 4.Move fixed point back: C  CT  Result : C = T -1 RT  Each operation corresponds to one function call in the program.  Note that the last operation specified is the first executed in the program

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 69 CTM in OpenGL  OpenGL has a model-view and a projection matrix in the pipeline which are concatenated together to form the CTM  Can manipulate each by first setting the matrix mode

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 70 Rotation, Translation, Scaling glRotatef(theta, vx, vy, vz) glTranslatef(dx, dy, dz) glScalef( sx, sy, sz) glLoadIdentity() Load an identity matrix: Multiply on right: theta in degrees, ( vx, vy, vz ) define axis of rotation Each has a float (f) and double (d) format ( glScaled )

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 71 Example  Rotation about z axis by 30 degrees with a fixed point of (1.0, 2.0, 3.0)  Remember that last matrix specified in the program is the first applied glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); glLoadIdentity(); glTranslatef(1.0, 2.0, 3.0); glRotatef(30.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0); glTranslatef(-1.0, -2.0, -3.0);

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 72 Arbitrary Matrices  Can load and multiply by matrices defined in the application program  The matrix m is a one dimension array of 16 elements which are the components of the desired 4 x 4 matrix stored by columns  In glMultMatrixf, m multiplies the existing matrix on the right glLoadMatrixf(m) glMultMatrixf(m)

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 73 Matrix Stacks  In many situations we want to save transformation matrices for use later  Traversing hierarchical data structures (Chapter 9)  Avoiding state changes when executing display lists  OpenGL maintains stacks for each type of matrix  Access present type (as set by glMatrixMode) by glPushMatrix() glPopMatrix()

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 74 Reading Back Matrices  Can also access matrices (and other parts of the state) by enquiry (query) functions  For matrices, we use as glGetIntegerv glGetFloatv glGetBooleanv glGetDoublev glIsEnabled double m[16]; glGetFloatv(GL_MODELVIEW, m);

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 75 Using Transformations  Example: use idle function to rotate a cube and mouse function to change direction of rotation  Start with a program that draws a cube ( colorcube.c ) in a standard way  Centered at origin  Sides aligned with axes  Will discuss modeling in next lecture

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 76 main.c void main(int argc, char **argv) { glutInit(&argc, argv); glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_RGB | GLUT_DEPTH); glutInitWindowSize(500, 500); glutCreateWindow("colorcube"); glutReshapeFunc(myReshape); glutDisplayFunc(display); glutIdleFunc(spinCube); glutMouseFunc(mouse); glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST); glutMainLoop(); }

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 77 Idle and Mouse callbacks void spinCube() { theta[axis] += 2.0; if( theta[axis] > 360.0 ) theta[axis] -= 360.0; glutPostRedisplay(); } void mouse(int btn, int state, int x, int y) { if(btn==GLUT_LEFT_BUTTON && state == GLUT_DOWN) axis = 0; if(btn==GLUT_MIDDLE_BUTTON && state == GLUT_DOWN) axis = 1; if(btn==GLUT_RIGHT_BUTTON && state == GLUT_DOWN) axis = 2; }

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 78 Display callback void display() { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); glLoadIdentity(); glRotatef(theta[0], 1.0, 0.0, 0.0); glRotatef(theta[1], 0.0, 1.0, 0.0); glRotatef(theta[2], 0.0, 0.0, 1.0); colorcube(); glutSwapBuffers(); } Note that because of fixed from of callbacks, variables such as theta and axis must be defined as globals Camera information is in standard reshape callback

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 79 Using the Model-View Matrix  In OpenGL the model-view matrix is used to  Position the camera  Can be done by rotations and translations but is often easier to use gluLookAt (Chapter 5)  Build models of obejcts  The projection matrix is used to define the view volume and to select a camera lens  Although both are manipulated by the same functions, we have to be careful because incremental changes are always made by postmultiplication  For example, rotating model-view and projection matrices by the same matrix are not equivalent operations. Postmultiplication of the model-view matrix is equivalent to premultiplication of the projection matrix

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 80 Smooth Rotation  From a practical standpoint, we are often want to use transformations to move and reorient an object smoothly  Problem: find a sequence of model-view matrices M 0,M 1,…..,M n so that when they are applied successively to one or more objects we see a smooth transition  For orientating an object, we can use the fact that every rotation corresponds to part of a great circle on a sphere  Find the axis of rotation and angle  Virtual trackball (see text)

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 81 Incremental Rotation  Consider the two approaches  For a sequence of rotation matrices R 0,R 1,…..,R n, find the Euler angles for each and use R i = R iz R iy R ix  Not very efficient  Use the final positions to determine the axis and angle of rotation, then increment only the angle  Quaternions can be more efficient than either

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 82 Quaternions  Extension of imaginary numbers from two to three dimensions  Requires one real and three imaginary components i, j, k  Quaternions can express rotations on sphere smoothly and efficiently. Process:  Model-view matrix  quaternion  Carry out operations with quaternions  Quaternion  Model-view matrix q=q 0 +q 1 i+q 2 j+q 3 k

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 83 Interfaces  One of the major problems in interactive computer graphics is how to use two-dimensional devices such as a mouse to interface with three dimensional objects  Example: how to form an instance matrix?  Some alternatives  Virtual trackball  3D input devices such as the spaceball  Use areas of the screen  Distance from center controls angle, position, scale depending on mouse button depressed

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 84 Representing a Mesh  Consider a mesh  There are 8 nodes and 12 edges  5 interior polygons  6 interior (shared) edges  Each vertex has a location v i = (x i y i z i ) v1v1 v2v2 v7v7 v6v6 v8v8 v5v5 v4v4 v3v3 e1e1 e8e8 e3e3 e2e2 e 11 e6e6 e7e7 e 10 e5e5 e4e4 e9e9 e 12

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 85 Simple Representation  List all polygons by their geometric locations  Leads to OpenGL code such as  Inefficient and unstructured  Consider moving a vertex to a new locations glBegin(GL_POLYGON); glVertex3f(x1, x1, x1); glVertex3f(x6, x6, x6); glVertex3f(x7, x7, x7); glEnd();

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 86 Inward and Outward Facing Polygons  The order {v 1, v 6, v 7 } and {v 6, v 7, v 1 } are equivalent in that the same polygon will be rendered by OpenGL but the order {v 1, v 7, v 6 } is different  The first two describe outwardly facing polygons  Use the right-hand rule = counter-clockwise encirclement of outward-pointing normal  OpenGL treats inward and outward facing polygons differently

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 87 Geometry vs Topology  Generally it is a good idea to look for data structures that separate the geometry from the topology  Geometry: locations of the vertices  Topology: organization of the vertices and edges  Example: a polygon is an ordered list of vertices with an edge connecting successive pairs of vertices and the last to the first  Topology holds even if geometry changes

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 88 Vertex Lists  Put the geometry in an array  Use pointers from the vertices into this array  Introduce a polygon list x 1 y 1 z 1 x 2 y 2 z 2 x 3 y 3 z 3 x 4 y 4 z 4 x 5 y 5 z 5. x 6 y 6 z 6 x 7 y 7 z 7 x 8 y 8 z 8 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 v1v7v6v1v7v6 v8v5v6v8v5v6 topology geometry

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 89 Shared Edges  Vertex lists will draw filled polygons correctly but if we draw the polygon by its edges, shared edges are drawn twice  Can store mesh by edge list

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 90 Edge List v1v1 v2v2 v7v7 v6v6 v8v8 v5v5 v3v3 e1e1 e8e8 e3e3 e2e2 e 11 e6e6 e7e7 e 10 e5e5 e4e4 e9e9 e 12 e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7 e8 e9 x 1 y 1 z 1 x 2 y 2 z 2 x 3 y 3 z 3 x 4 y 4 z 4 x 5 y 5 z 5. x 6 y 6 z 6 x 7 y 7 z 7 x 8 y 8 z 8 v1 v6 Note polygons are not represented

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 91 Modeling a Cube GLfloat vertices[][3] = {{-1.0,-1.0,-1.0},{1.0,-1.0,-1.0}, {1.0,1.0,-1.0}, {-1.0,1.0,-1.0}, {-1.0,-1.0,1.0}, {1.0,-1.0,1.0}, {1.0,1.0,1.0}, {-1.0,1.0,1.0}}; GLfloat colors[][3] = {{0.0,0.0,0.0},{1.0,0.0,0.0}, {1.0,1.0,0.0}, {0.0,1.0,0.0}, {0.0,0.0,1.0}, {1.0,0.0,1.0}, {1.0,1.0,1.0}, {0.0,1.0,1.0}}; Model a color cube for rotating cube program Define global arrays for vertices and colors

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 92 Drawing a polygon from a list of indices Draw a quadrilateral from a list of indices into the array vertices and use color corresponding to first index void polygon(int a, int b, int c, int d) { glBegin(GL_POLYGON); glColor3fv(colors[a]); glVertex3fv(vertices[a]); glVertex3fv(vertices[b]); glVertex3fv(vertices[c]); glVertex3fv(vertices[d]); glEnd(); }

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 93 Draw cube from faces void colorcube( ) { polygon(0,3,2,1); polygon(2,3,7,6); polygon(0,4,7,3); polygon(1,2,6,5); polygon(4,5,6,7); polygon(0,1,5,4); } 0 56 2 4 7 1 3 Note that vertices are ordered so that we obtain correct outward facing normals

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 94 Efficiency  The weakness of our approach is that we are building the model in the application and must do many function calls to draw the cube  Drawing a cube by its faces in the most straight forward way requires  6 glBegin, 6 glEnd  6 glColor  24 glVertex  More if we use texture and lighting

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 95 Vertex Arrays  OpenGL provides a facility called vertex arrays that allow us to store array data in the implementation  Six types of arrays supported  Vertices  Colors  Color indices  Normals  Texture coordinates  Edge flags  We will need only colors and vertices

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 96 Initialization  Using the same color and vertex data, first we enable glEnableClientState(GL_COLOR_ARRAY); glEnableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY);  Identify location of arrays glVertexPointer(3, GL_FLOAT, 0, vertices); glColorPointer(3, GL_FLOAT, 0, colors); 3d arrays stored as floats data contiguous data array

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 97 Mapping indices to faces  Form an array of face indices  Each successive four indices describe a face of the cube  Draw through glDrawElements which replaces all glVertex and glColor calls in the display callback GLubyte cubeIndices[24] = {0,3,2,1,2,3,7,6 0,4,7,3,1,2,6,5,4,5,6,7,0,1,5,4};

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 98 Drawing the cube  Method 1:  Method 2: for(i=0; i<6; i++) glDrawElements(GL_POLYGON, 4, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, &cubeIndices[4*i]); format of index data start of index data what to draw number of indices glDrawElements(GL_QUADS, 24, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, cubeIndices); Draws cube with 1 function call!!

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 99 Physical Trackball  The trackball is an “upside down” mouse  If there is little friction between the ball and the rollers, we can give the ball a push and it will keep rolling yielding continuous changes  Two possible modes of operation  Continuous pushing or tracking hand motion  Spinning

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 100 A Trackball from a Mouse  Problem: we want to get the two behavior modes from a mouse  We would also like the mouse to emulate a frictionless (ideal) trackball  Solve in two steps  Map trackball position to mouse position  Use GLUT to obtain the proper modes

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 101 Trackball Frame origin at center of ball

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 102 Projection of Trackball Position  We can relate position on trackball to position on a normalized mouse pad by projecting orthogonally onto pad

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 103 Reversing Projection  Because both the pad and the upper hemisphere of the ball are two-dimensional surfaces, we can reverse the projection  A point (x,z) on the mouse pad corresponds to the point (x,y,z) on the upper hemisphere where y = if r  |x|  0, r  |z|  0

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 104 Computing Rotations  Suppose that we have two points that were obtained from the mouse.  We can project them up to the hemisphere to points p 1 and p 2  These points determine a great circle on the sphere  We can rotate from p 1 to p  by finding the proper axis of rotation and the angle between the points

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 105 Using the cross product  The axis of rotation is given by the normal to the plane determined by the origin, p 1, and p 2 n = p 1  p 1

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 106 Obtaining the angle  The angle between p 1 and p 2 is given by  If we move the mouse slowly or sample its position frequently, then  will be small and we can use the approximation | sin  | = sin 

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 107 Implementing with GLUT  We will use the idle, motion, and mouse callbacks to implement the virtual trackball  Define actions in terms of three booleans  trackingMouse : if true update trackball position  redrawContinue : if true, idle function posts a redisplay  trackballMove : if true, update rotation matrix

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 108 Example  In this example, we use the virtual trackball to rotate the color cube we modeled earlier  The code for the colorcube function is omitted because it is unchanged from the earlier examples

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 109 Initialization #define bool int /* if system does not support bool type */ #define false 0 #define true 1 #define M_PI 3.14159 /* if not in math.h */ int winWidth, winHeight; float angle = 0.0, axis[3], trans[3]; bool trackingMouse = false; bool redrawContinue = false; bool trackballMove = false; float lastPos[3] = {0.0, 0.0, 0.0}; int curx, cury; int startX, startY;

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 110 The Projection Step voidtrackball_ptov(int x, int y, int width, int height, float v[3]) { float d, a; /* project x,y onto a hemisphere centered within width, height, note z is up here*/ v[0] = (2.0*x - width) / width; v[1] = (height - 2.0F*y) / height; d = sqrt(v[0]*v[0] + v[1]*v[1]); v[2] = cos((M_PI/2.0) * ((d < 1.0) ? d : 1.0)); a = 1.0 / sqrt(v[0]*v[0] + v[1]*v[1] + v[2]*v[2]); v[0] *= a; v[1] *= a; v[2] *= a; }

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 111 glutMotionFunc (1) voidmouseMotion(int x, int y) { float curPos[3], dx, dy, dz; /* compute position on hemisphere */ trackball_ptov(x, y, winWidth, winHeight, curPos); if(trackingMouse) { /* compute the change in position on the hemisphere */ dx = curPos[0] - lastPos[0]; dy = curPos[1] - lastPos[1]; dz = curPos[2] - lastPos[2];

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 112 glutMotionFunc (2) if (dx || dy || dz) { /* compute theta and cross product */ angle = 90.0 * sqrt(dx*dx + dy*dy + dz*dz); axis[0] = lastPos[1]*curPos[2] – lastPos[2]*curPos[1]; axis[1] = lastPos[2]*curPos[0] – lastPos[0]*curPos[2]; axis[2] = lastPos[0]*curPos[1] – lastPos[1]*curPos[0]; /* update position */ lastPos[0] = curPos[0]; lastPos[1] = curPos[1]; lastPos[2] = curPos[2]; } glutPostRedisplay(); }

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 113 Idle and Display Callbacks void spinCube() { if (redrawContinue) glutPostRedisplay(); } void display() { glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT|GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); if (trackballMove) { glRotatef(angle, axis[0], axis[1], axis[2]); } colorcube(); glutSwapBuffers(); }

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 114 Mouse Callback void mouseButton(int button, int state, int x, int y) { if(button==GLUT_RIGHT_BUTTON) exit(0); /* holding down left button allows user to rotate cube */ if(button==GLUT_LEFT_BUTTON) switch(state) { case GLUT_DOWN: y=winHeight-y; startMotion( x,y); break; case GLUT_UP: stopMotion( x,y); break; }

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 115 Start Function void startMotion(int x, int y) { trackingMouse = true; redrawContinue = false; startX = x; startY = y; curx = x; cury = y; trackball_ptov(x, y, winWidth, winHeight, lastPos); trackballMove=true; }

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 116 Stop Function void stopMotion(int x, int y) { trackingMouse = false; /* check if position has changed */ if (startX != x || startY != y) redrawContinue = true; else { angle = 0.0; redrawContinue = false; trackballMove = false; }

Demetriou/Loizidou – ACSC330 – Chapter 4 117 Quaternions  Because the rotations are on the surface of a sphere, quaternions provide an interesting and more efficient way to implement the trackball  See code in some of the standard demos included with Mesa

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