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Outline This Presentation contains slides appropriate for all the sections of the activity. – White slides are included (but hidden from the Slideshow)

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Presentation on theme: "Outline This Presentation contains slides appropriate for all the sections of the activity. – White slides are included (but hidden from the Slideshow)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Outline This Presentation contains slides appropriate for all the sections of the activity. – White slides are included (but hidden from the Slideshow) as bookmarks. – You will need to show or hide slides according to which sections you are using. – Note that some slides include animations – it is recommended that you view the Slideshow itself before presenting it. Multiwavelength Astronomy

2 Multi-wavelength Astronomy

3 Introduction Slides Multiwavelength Astronomy

4 Electromagnetic radiation We describe EM radiation by: –Frequency –Wavelength Light travels at: –300,000,000 m/s Wavelength

5 Multiwavelength Astronomy The Electromagnetic Spectrum The EM spectrum is (arbitrarily) split up:

6 Black Body Radiation (A-level Only) Multiwavelength Astronomy

7 “Black Body” radiation A black body is a perfect emitter and absorber of radiation –It emits and absorbs radiation with a particular “spectrum” –The shape of the spectrum is always the same, but the peak wavelength changes with temperature. –But not all objects are black bodies. –Atoms, molecules and electrons emit radiation with a different spectrum – this is called “non-thermal radiation”

8 Multiwavelength Astronomy Black Body Temperature The wavelength with most emission is related to the black body temperature Max. wavelength (m) x Temperature (K) = Wien’s Displacement Constant max x T = 0.0029 K.m T = 0.0029 / max

9 Spectral Regimes Fill in the wavelength summary table (Note that slides have animations) Multiwavelength Astronomy

10 The Spectral regimes Fill in the Wavelength Summary Table You will need this later.

11 Multiwavelength Astronomy Day-to-day: –The Sun (6000 K) –Glowing coal (1000 K) Astronomy –Stars –Nebulae (reflected, emission, absorption) f=375-750 THz T=3,500-7,000 K Visible =400-800 nm

12 Multiwavelength Astronomy Day-to-day: –UV lights –The Sun (thermal radiation) Astronomy: –Hot, young stars f=0.75-30 PHz T=7,000-300,000 K Ultraviolet =10-400 nm

13 Multiwavelength Astronomy Day-to-day: –X-ray machines Astronomy: –Supernovae –X-ray binary stars –Very hot gas f=30-1500 PHz T=300,000-15,000,000 K X-ray =0.02-10 nm

14 Multiwavelength Astronomy Day-to-day –Nuclear Power stations –Nuclear explosions Astronomy: –Gamma-ray bursts –Extremely hot gas f>1500 PHz T>15,000,000 K Gamma-ray <20 pm

15 Multiwavelength Astronomy Day-to-day: –Hot things –Night-vision goggles Astronomy: –Cooler stars –Dust is transparent! f=100-375 THz T=1,000-3,500 K Near-Infrared =0.8-3  m

16 Multiwavelength Astronomy Mid-infrared (MIR) ( =3-30  m ; f=10-100 THz ; T=100-1000 K) Day-to-day: –Us! –Thermal cameras Astronomy: –Warm dust –Proto-planetary disks (warm dust!)

17 Multiwavelength Astronomy Far-Infrared (FIR) ( =30-300 microns ; f=1-10 THz ; T=10-100 K) Day-to-day: –Not much really –The atmosphere blocks it all Astronomy: –Cool dust

18 Multiwavelength Astronomy Sub-millimetre and millimetre ( =0.3-3 mm ; f=0.1-1 THz ; T=1-10 K) Day-to-day: –Airport security systems Astronomy: –Cold dust –The early Universe!

19 Multiwavelength Astronomy Microwave ( =3-30 mm ; f=10-100 GHz ; T=0.1-1 K) Day-to-day –Microwave ovens –Some communications Astronomy: –Energetic electrons in magnetic fields –The early Universe

20 Multiwavelength Astronomy Radio ( >30 mm ; f<10 GHz ; T<0.1 K) Day-to-day: –TV, Radio, communications, satellites, … –Wi-fi, RADAR, Bluetooth, … Astronomy –Electrons –Neutral hydrogen

21 Multiwavelength Astronomy Telescope sizes The best possible resolution a telescope can see depends on the size of the mirror and the wavelength of light it is measuring Resolution (deg) ~ 60 x Wavelength (m) Diameter of mirror (m)  ~ 60 x D 1 degree = 60 arcminutes ; 1 arcminute = 60 arcseconds 1 degree = 3600 arcseconds

22 Multiwavelength Astronomy Examples of telescopes Hubble Space Telescope –D=2.2 m ; =500 nm –  =2.3x10 -7 degrees = 0.8 milliarcsecond Lovell Telescope, Jodrell Bank –D=76 m ; =1 m –  =0.75 degrees Spitzer Space Telescope –D=0.7 m ; =100  m –  =1.4x10 -4 degrees = 0.5 arcseconds Herschel –D=3.5 m ; =100  m –  =2.9x10 -5 degrees = 0.1 arcseconds

23 Herschel (+ Planck) Intro Launch video requires the video file “HP_launch.wmv” (may need to be re-linked) Multiwavelength Astronomy

24 The Atmosphere The Earth’s atmosphere blocks radiation at some wavelengths –This is why many telescope are in space

25 Multiwavelength Astronomy Herschel and Planck

26 Multiwavelength Astronomy Herschel

27 Multiwavelength Astronomy

28 Planck 4x4x4m 2 tonnes on launch 2m mirror Cooled to 0.1K 2 instruments 300-10000 microns

29 Multiwavelength Astronomy Planck’s view of the sky

30 Multiwavelength Astronomy Herschel 8x4x4m 4 tonnes on launch 3.5m mirror 2500 litres of He Cooled to 0.3K 3 instruments 70-700 microns

31 Multiwavelength Astronomy Herschel’s view of the sky

32 Multiwavelength Astronomy Star formation

33 Multiwavelength Astronomy The Rosette Nebula

34 Multiwavelength Astronomy The Rosette Nebula © Robert Gendler

35 Wavelength Matching activity Distribute question sheet and images Suggested group size: 2-3 Multiwavelength Astronomy

36 Match up the wavelengths There are 12 objects provided with images in visible light You have to match up the other wavelengths for each object –Some are quite straightforward… –Others are not! There is a prize for the highest score!

37 Matching Activity: Answers Swap sheets Multiwavelength Astronomy

38 Answers Swap your answer sheet with another group

39 Multiwavelength Astronomy Crab Nebula Crab (VLT) U5 (UIT) X4 (Chandra) F7 (Herschel)R9 (NRAO)

40 Multiwavelength Astronomy Centaurus A Centaurus A (NOAO) X3 (Chandra) F8 (Herschel) M7 (Spitzer) R7 (NRAO)

41 Multiwavelength Astronomy Antennae Antennae (Hubble) X5 (Chandra) F1 (Herschel) M6 (Spitzer) R8 (VLA)

42 Multiwavelength Astronomy Cassiopeia A Cassiopeia A (Hubble) X6 (Chandra) F2 (Herschel) M2 (Spitzer) R11 (NRAO)

43 Multiwavelength Astronomy Large Magellanic Cloud LMC (AAO) U4 (Rocket) X1 (ROSAT) F3 (Herschel) R10 (RAIUB)

44 Multiwavelength Astronomy Triangulum Triangulum (INT) U1 (UIT) X8 (ROSAT) M4 (Spitzer)R2 (NRAO)

45 Multiwavelength Astronomy Orion Orion (Hubble) X2 (XMM) F9 (Planck) M3 (Spitzer) N1 (VISTA)

46 Multiwavelength Astronomy M81 M81 (Gendler) U2 (UIT) X12 (Chandra) F5 (Herschel)R1 (VLA)

47 Multiwavelength Astronomy M87 M87 (AAT) X9 (Chandra) F4 (Herschel) M5 (IRAS) R4 (NRAO)

48 Multiwavelength Astronomy Sombrero Sombrero (Hubble) X10 (Chandra) M1 (Spitzer) N2 (2MASS) R3 (VLA)

49 Multiwavelength Astronomy M82 M82 (Gendler) X11 (Chandra) F6 (Herschel) R5 (VLA/Merlin) M8 (Spitzer)

50 Multiwavelength Astronomy Andromeda Andromeda (Gendler) U3 (GALEX) X7 (XMM-Newton) F10 (Herschel)R6 (Effelsberg)

51 Chromoscope introduction Requires internet connection or stand- alone version of Chromoscope (see Multiwavelength Astronomy

52 Chromoscope –Allows zooming and panning around the sky –Fade between wavelengths

53 Further Investigation Take your assigned objects and investigate them further Fill in the question sheet Multiwavelength Astronomy

54 Poster Design Using what you have learned, design a poster. A poster template is available. Multiwavelength Astronomy

55 Summary Slide Multiwavelength Astronomy

56 What have we learned? To understand the Universe fully, we need to observe at multiple wavelengths The temperature of an object can affect the wavelength it emits most radiation at. Some wavelengths are blocked by the Earth’s atmosphere and must be observed from space

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