6 50 mm Escherichia Coli, ≈4.6 Mb VEVRLREDPETFLVQLYQHCPPLARIDSVEREPFIWSQLPTEFTIRQSTGGTMNTQIVP FT DAATCPACLAEMNTPGERRYRYPFINCTHCGPRFTIIRAMPYDRPFTVMAAFPLCPACD FT KEYRDPLDRRFHAQPVACPECGPHLEWVSHGEHAEQEAALQAAIAQLKMGKIVAIKGIG FT GFHLACDARNSNAVATLRARKHRPAKPLAVMLPVADGLPDAARQLLTTPAAPIVLVDKK FT YVPELCDDIAPDLNEVGVMLPANPLQHLLLQELQCPLVMTSGNLSGKPPAISNEQALAD FT LQGIADGFLIHNRDIVQRMDDSVVRESGEMLRRSRGYVPDALALPPGFKNVPPVLCLGA FT DLKNTFCLVRGEQAVLSQHLGDLSDDGIQMQWREALRLMQNIYDFTPQYVVHDAHPGYV FT SSQWAREMNLPTQTVLHHHAHAAACLAEHQWPLDGGDVIALTLDGIGMGENGALWGGEC FT LRVNYRECEHLGGLPAVALPGGDLAAKQPWRNLLAQCLRFVPEWQNYSETASVQQQNWS FT VLARAIERGINAPLASSCGRFFDAVAAALGCAPATLSYEGEAACALEALAASCHGVTHP FT VTMPRVDNQLDLATFWQQWLNWQAPVNQRAWAFHDALAQGFAALMREQATMRGITTLVFEscherichia Coli, ≈4.6 Mb
8 DNADouble helixStores genetic code as a linear sequence of bases≈ 20 Å in diameterHuman genome ≈ 3.3 x 109 bp≈ 25,000 genes
9 Biological length scale Chemical bond 1 Å (10-10 m)Amino acid 10 Å (10-9 m)Globular protein 100 Å (10-8 m)Virus 1000 Å (10-7 m)Cell nucleus 1 mm (10-6 m)Bacterial cell 5 mm (10-5 m)Chromosome DNA 10 cm (10-1 m)Biological length scale
10 Biological length scale If 20 Å 1 cm then ...1 m 5000 km ...Nucleus 15 m2 roomBiological length scale
11 A "minimal" organism Hutchinson et al. Science 286, 1999, 2165 "We are wondering if we can come up with a molecular definition of life""The goal is to fundamentally understand the components of the most basic living cell"Craig Venter, founder of Celera Genomics, IBEA and several other gene tech companiesHutchinson et al. Science 286, 1999, 2165
12 Modelling the budding yeast cell cycle (Tyson & Novak) K.C. Chen et al. Mol. Biol. Cell Cycle 11 (2000) 369Modelling the budding yeast cell cycle (Tyson & Novak)
17 1865 Gregor Mendel publishes his work on plant breeding with the notion of "genes" carrying transmissible characteristics1869 "Nuclein" is isolated by Johann Friedrich Miescher à Tübingenin the laboratory of Hoppe-Seyler1892 Meischer writes to his uncle "large biological molecules composedof small repeated chemical pieces could express a rich language inthe same way as the letters of our alphabet"1920 Recognition of the chemical difference between DNA and RNAPhoebus Levene proposes the "tetranucleotide hypothesis"1938 William Astbury obtains the first diffraction patters of DNA fibresHistory of DNA
18 1944 Oswald Avery (Rockefeller Institute) proves that DNA carries the genetic message by transforming bacteriaHistory of DNA
19 1950 Erwin Chargaff discovers A/G = T/C History of DNA
20 1953 Watson and Crick propose the double helix as the structure of DNA based on the work of Erwin Chargaff, Jerry Donohue, Rosy Franklinand John KendrewHistory of DNA
28 It has not escaped our notice … It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material.It has not escaped our notice …
70 Peptide Nucleic acid(PNA) Achiral, peptide-like backboneBackbone is uncharged High thermal stabilityHigh-specificity hybridization with DNAResistant to enzymatic degradationCan displace DNA strand of duplexPyrimidine PNA strands can form 2:1 triplexes with ssDNABiotechnological applicationsPeptide Nucleic acid(PNA)
74 H OH is not the only change in passing from DNA to RNA ....
75 Principles of Nucleic Acid Structure, W. Saenger, 1984 Springer-Verlag Nucleic Acid Structure, Ed. S. Neidle, 1999 Oxford University PressDNA Structure and Function, R.R. Sinden, 1994 Academic PressBiochemistry, D. Voet and J.G. Voet, 1998 DeBoeckThe Eighth Day of Creation, H.F. Judson, 1996 Cold Spring Harbour PressBooks on DNA
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