We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byTylor Hamer
Modified about 1 year ago
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, I wish that we could calculate by steam. - attributed to Charles Babbage
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Computer History ● Computers were developed to mechanize mathematical computations. ● Two definitions: – A computer is “one [a human] who computes; a reckoner; a calculator.” - Webster’s Dictionary, 1828 – A computer is “a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data.” - Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2000
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, ● 1833 ● Primary innovation: – The difference engine was single-purpose – The analytical engine was general-purpose ● Only the difference engine was built, recently.recently Charles Babbage ( ) “Analytical Engine” images from Oct., 2004http://www.computer.org/history/ a recreation of the difference engine
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, ● Developed a set of “notes” on how to instruct the analytical engine ● Suggested the use of punched cards ● Known as the “first programmer” Ada Lovelace ( ) “the first programmer” images from Oct., 2004http://www.computer.org/history/
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, The Universal Machine ● A computer is known as a universal machine. – It can compute anything that can be computed. ● Key ingredients in our universal machines: – Hardware: framework for “any computation”. – Software: describes a specific computation. a communication with the computer.
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Mother board Computer Architecture RAM Hard disk CD Thumb drive DVD Network CPU
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Computer Architecture
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Processors (CPU) ● Manipulate data/instructions from memory ● Three primary characteristics: – word size: the number of bits handled as a unit (32 or 64 bits) – speed: the number of machine cycles per second (2 - 4 GHz) – cores: numbers of processors in computer (2, 4, or more) a single core can only do 1 thing at a time
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Main Memory ● The processor manipulates data/instructions in Random Access Memory (RAM). ● Properties of main memory: – Random access – Relatively fast – Volatile: needs electricity to work ● Technology: – current computers have 1 - 4GB of RAM
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 Save early, save often! 10
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Secondary Storage ● Mass, long-term storage ● Properties of secondary storage: – Slow – Non-volatile: no power required – Less expensive ● Technologies: – Magnetic: hard disk, tape – Optical: CD, DVD – Solid state: USB stick
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Back ups! ● Both primary and secondary memory technologies are susceptible to faults. ● Back up RAM to hard disk with Ctrl-S (on Microsoft products) ● Back up hard disk periodically: – Use external drives. – Use on-line backup.
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Memory Sizes ● Bit ● Byte ● Kilobyte (KB) ● Megabyte (MB) ● Gigabyte (GB) ● Terabyte (TB) ● Petabyte (PB)
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 Memory Sizes, CPU Speeds 14 RAM: You can use information quickly on books open on your table. CPU: gets books (applications) and files from the bookshelves Hard disk: holds files and applications. Bigger table = more RAM = more apps/files open at once Faster CPU = getting apps/files is faster Bigger hard disk = more apps/files can be stored
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Moore’s “Law” ● Processing capacity for the price doubles every 18 months image from wikipedia, January 2009wikipedia
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Input/Output Devices ● To be useful, the computer must usually be expanded by additional devices: – e.g., monitor, keyboard, mouse, camera, printer, scanner, microphone, touchpad, etc., etc., etc.
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Computer Software ● Software is composed of sets of computer instructions that: – prescribe algorithms to be performed by the hardwarealgorithms – are encoded and stored in computer memory using programming languages programming languages ● Basic types of software: – Operating Systems – Applications
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Algorithms ● An algorithm is a set of abstract instructions for performing a task. ● Use three basic types of instructions: – Sequence: execute instructions in a particular order – Selection: execute some instructions and not others, depending on conditions – Iteration: execute instructions over and over and over
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Programming Languages ● Programming languages are used to encode algorithms in a computer’s language. ● Types of programming languages: – machine language (directly executed by the CPU) – high-level languages (translated to ML with compilers) Code for moving dataCode for data sourceand so forth… Speech = txtSpeak.Text If Speech = “count to 10" Then For i = 1 to 10 Peedy.Speak Speech Next i End If
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Operating Systems ● Set of programs/utilities/libraries that manages the hardware and basic operations of the computer ● Common operating systems: – Microsoft Windows (e.g., XP, pocketPC) – Mac OS – Unix variants (e.g., Linux, Solaris) – PalmOS images from Oct., 2004
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, OS Functions ● Loaded into memory when the computer is booted. It manages: – Programs – Memory – Files on secondary store – Peripherals I/O devices – Network connections images from Oct., 2004
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Software Applications ● Programs built on top of the OS that support basic user tasks ● Common Applications: – Word Processing – Spreadsheets – Databases – Electronic Mail – Presentation Software – Web Browsing / Development
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, Historical Perspective ● ENIAC – 200 bytes memory – 5,000 additions per second – Allegedly dimmed the Philadelphia lights when started – 30 tons images from & Oct., 2004www.computer.org/history/www.sony.com ● Sony Clie PEG-T665C – 144M memory (144 million bytes) – ~132,000,000 additions per second – runs on a 5.2v, rechargable, lithium polymer battery – 4.9 ounces
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, The Digital Divide ● Not everyone has equal access to information technology. ● “I now realize how true it is that God does not show favoritism, but accepts men from every nation who hear him and do what is right.” - Acts 10:34-35 What’s the Big Idea
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, I wish that we could calculate by steam. - attributed to Charles Babbage.
The Computer System CS 103: Computers and Application Software.
1B-* Parts of the Computer System Computer systems have four parts –Hardware –Software –Data –User.
1 Introduction to Computers Prof. Sokol Computer and Information Science Brooklyn College.
Introduction to Programming. Key terms CPU I/O Devices Main memory Secondary memory Operating system User interface Application GUI
Computer Systems. Bits Computers represent information as patterns of bits A bit (binary digit) is either 0 or 1 –binary “two states” true and false,
Introduction to Computers Essential Understanding of Computers and Computer Operations.
Computer Hardware. Early PC’s Early PC’s were quite simple and had limited memory processor speed and hard drive capacity. Software for the early PC’s.
® Microsoft Office 2010 Essential Computer Concepts.
Inside your computer. Hardware Review Motherboard Processor / CPU Bus Bios chip Memory Hard drive Video Card Sound Card Monitor/printer Ports.
1 THE COMPUTER. 2 Input Processing Output Storage 4 basic functions.
What is a Computer ? Computers are Electronic Machines that process (performs calculation and manipulation) Data under the control of Set of Instructions.
Essential Computer Concepts. XP New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition2 What Is a Computer? A computer is an electronic device.
Basic Computer Calera High School Dawn Bone. Hardware vs Software Hardware – the physical parts of the computer Software – the electronic instructions.
Introduction to Programming Dr Masitah Ghazali Programming Techniques I SCJ1013.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Plug-in B3 HARDWARE & SOFTWARE.
Answers. Your instructions were to define, describe and identify the computer vocabulary from the text provided, “Computers Inside and Out.” And some.
Computer Parts. Two Basic Parts Hardware & Software.
Beginning Snapshots Chapter 0. C++ An Introduction to Computing, 3rd ed. 2 Objectives Give an overview of computer science Show its breadth Provide context.
Introduction To Computer Programming – 1A Computer Parts, Words, and Definition Herriman High School.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS The personal computer was far from reality in Computer users were limited to specially trained operators and engineers.
Computer Confluence 7/e © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Using Computers CS French Chapter 1. Name some typical tasks a computer is used for. Editing documents Calculations Drawing Storing data Controlling machines.
An Overview of the Computer System lesson 1. This lesson includes the following sections: The Parts of a Computer System Looking Inside the Machine Software:
FIRST COURSE Essential Computer Concepts. New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition 2 Objectives Compare the types of computers Describe.
Why Program? Computer – programmable machine designed to follow instructions Program – instructions in computer memory to make it do something Programmer.
The Computer Systems By : Prabir Nandi Computer Instructor KV Lumding.
FIRST COURSE Essential Computer Concepts. XP New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows XP Edition2 Objectives Compare the types of computers.
Flash Cards Computer Technology. A device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output. Collection of unprocessed items, which.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Extended Prelude to Programming Concepts & Design, 3/e by Stewart Venit and.
Computer Basic Vocabulary Career Cluster. Computer - An electronic device used for processing data. The physical parts that make up a computer (the central.
The Four Parts of a Computer. Definition of a Computer A computer is an electronic device used to process data, converting the data into information that.
Computer & Communications Systems Software Development Unit 1.
Chapter 1 1. The computer system consists of: 1. Hardware: Physical Components, like the system unit,monitor,keyboard, mouse, camera, printer … etc.
Introduction Extended and Concise Prelude to Programming Concepts and Design Copyright © 2003 Scott/Jones, Inc.. All rights reserved. 1 Introduction.
COMPUTER SYSTEM A computer system is define as combination of components designed to process data and store files. A computer system consists of four major.
An Introduction to Computers August 12, 2008 Mrs. C. Furman.
Intro to Computers Computer Apps 1. What is a computer? Electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory unit, that.
Computer Basics By: Nicole Hayes. Purposes of Computers Business – Track inventory. – Calculate payroll. – Maintain databases. Personal – Surf the web.
1. What is a Computer? A COMPUTER is an electronic device that can: Receive information Perform processes Produce output Store info for future use. 2.
1 Programming in C. 2 The Abacus The abacus, a simple counting aid, may have been invented in Babylonia (now Iraq) in the fourth century B.C.
Chapter Two Hardware Basics: Inside the Box. ©1999 Addison Wesley Longman2.2 Chapter Outline What Computers Do A Bit About Bits The Computer’s Core: CPU.
COMPUTER BASICS Computer Technology. WHAT IS A COMPUTER? Electronic Accepts data and instructions Manipulates, processes, and displays the information.
Component 4: Introduction to Information and Computer Science Unit 1: Basic Computing Concepts, Including History Component 4/Unit 11 Health IT Workforce.
Computer Fundamentals. A Computer Is a System Input Processing Output Data is entered into the computer Becomes useful information The data is processed.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.