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© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 1 I wish that we could calculate by steam. - attributed to Charles Babbage
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 2 Computer History ● Computers were developed to mechanize mathematical computations. ● Two definitions: – A computer is “one [a human] who computes; a reckoner; a calculator.” - Webster’s Dictionary, 1828 – A computer is “a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data.” - Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2000
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 3 ● 1833 ● Primary innovation: – The difference engine was single-purpose – The analytical engine was general-purpose ● Only the difference engine was built, recently.recently Charles Babbage (1791-1871) “Analytical Engine” images from http://www.computer.org/history/ Oct., 2004http://www.computer.org/history/ a recreation of the difference engine
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 4 ● Developed a set of “notes” on how to instruct the analytical engine ● Suggested the use of punched cards ● Known as the “first programmer” Ada Lovelace (1816-1852) “the first programmer” images from http://www.computer.org/history/ Oct., 2004http://www.computer.org/history/
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 5 The Universal Machine ● A computer is known as a universal machine. – It can compute anything that can be computed. ● Key ingredients in our universal machines: – Hardware: framework for “any computation”. – Software: describes a specific computation. a communication with the computer.
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 6 Mother board Computer Architecture RAM Hard disk CD Thumb drive DVD Network CPU
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 7 Computer Architecture
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 8 Processors (CPU) ● Manipulate data/instructions from memory ● Three primary characteristics: – word size: the number of bits handled as a unit (32 or 64 bits) – speed: the number of machine cycles per second (2 - 4 GHz) – cores: numbers of processors in computer (2, 4, or more) a single core can only do 1 thing at a time
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 9 Main Memory ● The processor manipulates data/instructions in Random Access Memory (RAM). ● Properties of main memory: – Random access – Relatively fast – Volatile: needs electricity to work ● Technology: – current computers have 1 - 4GB of RAM
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 Save early, save often! 10
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 11 Secondary Storage ● Mass, long-term storage ● Properties of secondary storage: – Slow – Non-volatile: no power required – Less expensive ● Technologies: – Magnetic: hard disk, tape – Optical: CD, DVD – Solid state: USB stick
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 12 Back ups! ● Both primary and secondary memory technologies are susceptible to faults. ● Back up RAM to hard disk with Ctrl-S (on Microsoft products) ● Back up hard disk periodically: – Use external drives. – Use on-line backup.
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 13 Memory Sizes ● Bit ● Byte ● Kilobyte (KB) ● Megabyte (MB) ● Gigabyte (GB) ● Terabyte (TB) ● Petabyte (PB)
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 Memory Sizes, CPU Speeds 14 RAM: You can use information quickly on books open on your table. CPU: gets books (applications) and files from the bookshelves Hard disk: holds files and applications. Bigger table = more RAM = more apps/files open at once Faster CPU = getting apps/files is faster Bigger hard disk = more apps/files can be stored
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 15 Moore’s “Law” ● Processing capacity for the price doubles every 18 months image from wikipedia, January 2009wikipedia
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 16 Input/Output Devices ● To be useful, the computer must usually be expanded by additional devices: – e.g., monitor, keyboard, mouse, camera, printer, scanner, microphone, touchpad, etc., etc., etc.
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 17 Computer Software ● Software is composed of sets of computer instructions that: – prescribe algorithms to be performed by the hardwarealgorithms – are encoded and stored in computer memory using programming languages programming languages ● Basic types of software: – Operating Systems – Applications
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 18 Algorithms ● An algorithm is a set of abstract instructions for performing a task. ● Use three basic types of instructions: – Sequence: execute instructions in a particular order – Selection: execute some instructions and not others, depending on conditions – Iteration: execute instructions over and over and over
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 19 Programming Languages ● Programming languages are used to encode algorithms in a computer’s language. ● Types of programming languages: – machine language (directly executed by the CPU) – high-level languages (translated to ML with compilers) 001110110100011100101011... Code for moving dataCode for data sourceand so forth… Speech = txtSpeak.Text If Speech = “count to 10" Then For i = 1 to 10 Peedy.Speak Speech Next i End If
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 20 Operating Systems ● Set of programs/utilities/libraries that manages the hardware and basic operations of the computer ● Common operating systems: – Microsoft Windows (e.g., XP, pocketPC) – Mac OS – Unix variants (e.g., Linux, Solaris) – PalmOS images from www.microsoft/apple/linux/palm.com/org Oct., 2004
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 21 OS Functions ● Loaded into memory when the computer is booted. It manages: – Programs – Memory – Files on secondary store – Peripherals I/O devices – Network connections images from www.microsoft/apple/linux/palm.com/org Oct., 2004
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 22 Software Applications ● Programs built on top of the OS that support basic user tasks ● Common Applications: – Word Processing – Spreadsheets – Databases – Electronic Mail – Presentation Software – Web Browsing / Development
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 23 Historical Perspective ● ENIAC – 200 bytes memory – 5,000 additions per second – Allegedly dimmed the Philadelphia lights when started – 30 tons images from www.computer.org/history/ & www.sony.com Oct., 2004www.computer.org/history/www.sony.com ● Sony Clie PEG-T665C – 144M memory (144 million bytes) – ~132,000,000 additions per second – runs on a 5.2v, rechargable, lithium polymer battery – 4.9 ounces
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, 2008 24 The Digital Divide ● Not everyone has equal access to information technology. ● “I now realize how true it is that God does not show favoritism, but accepts men from every nation who hear him and do what is right.” - Acts 10:34-35 What’s the Big Idea
© Keith Vander Linden, 2005 Jeremy D. Frens, I wish that we could calculate by steam. - attributed to Charles Babbage.
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