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Snell’s Law

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**Northern Sh Shot-gather**

Seismic Data

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**Southern P- Shot-gather**

Seismic Data

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**At critical angle of incidence, **

angle of refraction = 90 degrees=angle of reflection P` critical angle V1,rho1 P`P’ V2,rho2

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**Pre- and Post-critical Rays**

x z V1 Critical distance V2> V1 V2 Direct wave Pre-critical reflections Head wave Post-critical reflections

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**One-layer Refracted Head Wave**

Xc =? Tc=? Critical distance=Xc x z r1 r1 r3 V1 r2 V2> V1 V2

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**One-layer Refracted Head Wave**

Xc =? Tc=? Critical distance=Xc x z r1 z0 r1 r3 V1 r2 V2> V1 V2 (9)

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**One-layer Refracted Head Wave**

Xc =? Tc=? Xc + Critical distance=Xc x z r1 z0 r1 r3 V1 r2 V2> V1 V2 (10)

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For an incident S wave S\ S\S/ S\S\

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**Example: Three Possible Critical Angles**

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