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© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 First Aid.

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Presentation on theme: "© Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 First Aid."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 First Aid

2 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Snake Bite  Paired fang marks, but often only a single mark or a scratch mark may be present  Signs and symptoms will depend on the type of snake and venom  Signs and symptoms may not appear for hours Treatment  DRS ABCD & Call 000  Lay the casualty down and keep completely still  Apply a pressure immobilisation bandage to the affected limb  Splint the affected limb & Immobilise the casualty completely

3 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 DO NOT!  Wash the bite site  Try to catch and identify the snake  Cut the bite site  Suck the venom out  Move the casualty unless in danger  Apply a tourniquet Snake Bite

4 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Funnel Web Spider & Mouse Spider Treatment  DRS ABCD & Call 000  Lay the casualty down and keep completely still  Apply a pressure immobilisation bandage to the affected limb  Splint the affected limb & Immobilise the casualty completely

5 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Red Back & White Tailed Spider Treatment  DRS ABCD  Apply cold pack  Watch for allergic reaction  Seek medical advice

6 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Bee & Wasp Sting Potential Signs & Symptoms  Immediate pain  Local swelling and redness Treatment  Remove Sting (bee)  Apply ice pack for the pain

7 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Potential Signs & Symptoms  Pain and burning at the site  Swelling Treatment  Rinse ants off with running water  Wash with soap and water or disinfectant  Apply ice packs for the pain Fire Ants

8 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Potential Signs & Symptoms  Local irritation  Lethargy  Muscle weakness  Unsteadiness in walking  Double vision  Difficulty in swallowing and breathing Treatment  DRS ABCD  Tweezers either side of the head and pull straight out  Apply disinfectant Paralysis Ticks

9 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Treatment  DRS ABCD & Call 000  Lay the casualty down and keep completely still  Apply a pressure immobilisation bandage to the affected limb  Splint the affected limb & Immobilise the casualty completely Blue Ringed Octopus & Cone Shell

10 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Carefully remove tentacles but do not rub  Apply liberal amounts of vinegar to the area  DO NOT use a pressure immobilisation bandage  Be prepared to start CPR Box Jelly Fish & Irukandji Jelly Fish

11 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Potential Signs & Symptoms  Blue tentacles stuck to the body  Red welts on the skin  Pain for some hours  Pain in the groin and armpits Treatment  DRS ABCD & reassure patient  Remove tentacles, do not rub  Immerse the affected area in hot water, as hot as the casualty can tolerate  If hot water is not available, apply an ice pack Blue Bottle Jelly Fish

12 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Potential Signs & Symptoms  Extreme pain  Bleeding, swelling and discolouration at the site  Panic, irrational behaviour Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Immerse the affected area in hot water, as hot as the casualty can tolerate Fish Stings

13 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Diabetes What is it? Type 1 & Type 2  Hypoglycaemia – Too little blood sugar  Hyperglycaemia – Too much blood sugar

14 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Diabetes Hypoglycaemia Potential Signs & Symptoms  Quick onset of symptoms  Sweating  Pale, clammy skin  Weakness, tiredness  Trembling  Confusion & aggression  Vomiting

15 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Hypoglycaemia Treatment  DRS ABCD  Give a sugary drink  If no improvement after 5 mins give more  Call 000 if no improvement  If casualty is unconscious do not give them anything to eat or drink, follow DRS ABCD Diabetes

16 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Seizures Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Provide a safe environment  Place padding around the person if safe to do so  Put person into the recovery position once the seizure stops or diminishes  Cover with a blanket if loss of bladder control  Get bystanders to move away  Do not restrain the person (unless essential to prevent injury)  Do not put anything in their mouth (including fingers)  Do not hold on to their head  Record start/finish time of seizure  Reassure until fully recovered

17 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Febrile Convulsions

18 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Heart Attack

19 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Potential Signs & Symptoms  Pain or discomfort in the chest  Pain described as crushing or squeezing  Pain may radiate to the left arm, jaw, shoulder, back and neck  Shortness of breath  Nausea / vomiting  Sweating  Pale/grey clammy skin  Feeling of impending death  Feeling of needing to use the toilet Heart Attack

20 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Get the casualty to stop and rest  Sit the casualty upright with knees supported  Assist with medication  Loosen tight and restrictive clothing  Reassure  Be prepared to start CPR Heart Attack

21 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Stroke

22 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Potential Signs & Symptoms  Flushed face  Loss of movement and feeling down one side of the body  Severe headache  Difficulty swallowing  Slurred speech  Altered level of consciousness  Pupils may differ in size  Pounding, rapid pulse  Facial droop  Look and feel ill  Nausea / vomiting Stroke

23 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Stroke

24 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Reassure the casualty  Loosen tight clothing  Maintain body temperature  Rest in semi reclined position (if able to maintain airway)  Roll in to recovery position if unconscious or unable to maintain airway  Ensure airway is open and clear  Nil by mouth Stroke

25 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0  Ingested (Swallowed)  Inhaled (Breathed In)  Absorbed (Through the Skin)  Injected (Pierced Skin) Poisoning

26 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Potential Signs & Symptoms Ingested  Looking & feeling unwell  Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea  Abdominal and / or chest pain  Altered conscious state  Headache  Breathing difficulties  Seizures Inhaled  Pale or bluish skin to indicate lack of oxygen  Breathing difficulties  Altered conscious state  Possible visible burns to face and neck Injected  Possible visible injection site  Red / discoloured skin  Other signs and symptoms will depend on the injected poison Absorbed  Red or burnt skin  Other poisoning sign & symptoms Poisoning

27 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Poisoning Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000 if required  Treat life threatening conditions  Do not make the casualty vomit  If vomiting occurs, keep to show emergency services If CPR is required, ensure protection is taken to ensure you do not become contaminated (i.e Mouth to mask technique)

28 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V Poisons Information Centre

29 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Drug & Alcohol Abuse Common Drugs Amphetamines Also known as speed, goey, whiz, crystal, meth, base, paste, ice, shabu. Alcohol Cannabis Also known as marijuana, grass, pot, ganja, mull, hash, dope, yarndi, skunk, hydro. Cocaine Also known as coke and sometimes available as freebase or crack. Ecstasy Also known as E, pills. Hallucinogens Includes Magic Mushrooms and LSD (also known as trips, acid, tabs, wangers, microdots). Heroin Also known as hammer, H, shit, smack, horse, harry, white, scag, junk, slow, rock. Steroids (Anabolic Androgenic Steroids) Volatile Substances (Solvents, Inhalants) Includes a wide range of different substances such as petrol, spray paints, some glues, laughing gas (nitrous oxide), butane and other chemicals.

30 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Drug & Alcohol Abuse Treatment of Suspected Drug Use/Overdose  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Be aware of your own safety including the possibility of contaminated needles. Do not put yourself in danger  Manage life threatening conditions  Do not leave the casualty alone unless you are in danger  Roll casualty into recovery position if they have a reduced level of consciousness or are unconscious If CPR is required, ensure protection is taken (i.e Mouth to mask technique or continual chest compressions only)

31 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Needle Stick Injury Treatment of Needle Stick Injury  Wash the area with soap and water  If water is not available use hand wipes and alcohol-bases liquid or gel  An antiseptic such as povidine-iodine may also be applied  Cover with a dressing  Immediately seek medical attention

32 Questions & Break © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0

33 Secondary Survey © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0  Top to toe examination of the casualty  Monitor vital signs  Ask bystanders for information  Look for medical alert devices  Take a good history from the casualty – Allergies – Medication – Previous relevant medical history – Last food and/or drink – Events leading to the incident

34 Shock © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Shock is a loss of effective circulation resulting in impaired tissue oxygen, and nutrient delivery and causes life threatening organ failure.  Severe bleeding  Major or multiple fractures or major trauma  Severe burns or scalds  Severe diarrhoea and vomiting  Severe sweating and dehydration

35 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Potential Signs & Symptoms  Pale, cool, clammy skin  Irritability / restlessness / anxiety  Irrational behaviour & confusion  Drowsiness  Muscle weakness  Rapid, shallow breathing  Rapid weak pulse  Nausea / vomiting  Thirst  Feeling cold  Reduced level of consciousness  Collapse or unconsciousness Shock

36 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Shock Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Lay casualty down  Render the necessary first aid treatment  Elevate the legs if injuries permit  Provide reassurance  Maintain body temperature  Loosen tight and restrictive clothing  Ensure good oxygen flow  Nil by mouth

37 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 External Bleeding Treatment Pressure, Elevation, Rest, Treat for Shock  Wear personal protective equipment  Apply direct pressure to wound  Elevate above the level of the heart  Rest and reassure the casualty  Treat for shock if required  Nil by mouth Remember to call 000 for life threatening bleeding

38 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 External Bleeding

39 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 External Bleeding

40 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Embedded Objects

41 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Amputation

42 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Constrictive Bandage (Tourniquet) As a last resort and only when other methods of controlling bleeding have failed. life-threatening bleeding e.g., traumatic amputation of a limb or major injuries with massive blood loss.  5cm wide  Note time applied on bandage  Not to be removed once applied  Do not apply directly to the wound or over a joint  Do not cover constrictive bandage with any other bandages or clothes

43 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Minor Wounds  Use swabs and sterile saline to clean the wound  Cover with a non-adherent dressing  Watch for signs of infection  Seek medical advice if required

44 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Nose Bleeds  Pinch the fleshy part of the nose  Get the casualty to lean forward  Ask the casualty to breath through their mouth  Maintain pressure for 10 minutes  Apply a cool compress to the back of the neck and the forehead  If bleeding persists apply pressure for a further 10 minutes  If the bleeding is still not controlled call help

45 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Traumatic Abdominal Injuries

46 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Fainting

47 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Crush Injury  Car accidents  Falling masonry  Mine shaft collapse  Trench cave-in

48 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  If safe and physically possible, all crushing forces should be removed as soon as possible after the injury.  If the crushing force has been in place for 30 min or longer (or the first aider is unsure of time) the crushing force should not be removed  Control any external bleeding  Reassure and monitor the casualty Crush Injury

49 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Internal Bleeding

50 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Potential Signs & Symptoms  Pain and tenderness over or around the area  Rigidity, swelling and distension  Discoloration of the skin in the affected area  Shock  The appearance of blood from a body opening  History of an injury Internal Bleeding

51 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Internal Bleeding Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Control any external bleeding  Treat for shock  Provide reassurance  Nil by mouth  Place casualty in appropriate position determined by injuries  Keep any body fluids to show ambulance crew

52 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Using Bandages – Practical

53 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0  Check circulation once bandage is applied and continue to monitor  Continue the pressure and elevation If bleeding persists  Apply further, firmer bandages over the first to control heavy bleeding  It may be necessary to remove the first bandage to check the bleeding point if major bleeding continues Bandages – Important Points

54 Questions & Break © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0

55 Burns Superficial first degree Partial thickness second degree Full thickness third degree

56 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Burns Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Cool burn with cool running water for at least 20min  Where possible remove clothing and jewellery close to the burn site (as long as they are not stuck to the skin)  Cover the burn with a non stick dressing (cling wrap)  Where possible elevate burns to help reduce swelling  Treat for shock

57 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Do Not!  Remove clothing or jewellery that sticks to the skin  Use lotions, ointments or creams other than hydrogel  Use ice or ice water  Burst blisters  Use dressings that may stick to the burn site Burns

58 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Chemical Burns  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Avoid contact with any chemical or contaminated material  Consult Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)  Remove contaminated clothing  Brush powdered chemicals from skin  Rinse with cool running water for at least 20 min  Ensure that the chemical does not spread further

59 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Electrical Burns  Ensure the casualty is disconnected from the electrical source  Remember to look for and treat exit burns  Be aware of irregular heart rhythms

60 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Burns – Urgent Treatment  Children, infants and the elderly highly susceptible to shock and infection  Burns to special areas. Hands, face, feet, genitalia, major joints  Burns that circle limbs, chest or throat  Burns to the mouth with associated inhalation injuries

61 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Heat Exhaustion Potential Signs & Symptoms  Pale, cool, clammy skin  Rapid breathing  Profuse sweating  Cramps  Thirst  Nausea/vomiting  Headache  Lethargy

62 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Heat Exhaustion Treatment  DRS ABCD  Complete rest in a cool environment  Lay the casualty down and elevate legs  Remove excess clothing  Cool by fanning  Sponge with cool water  Give sips of cool water

63 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Heat Stroke Potential Signs & Symptoms  Flushed, hot, dry skin  Sweating has ceased  Rapid, weak pulse  Irrational, aggressive and confused  Fatigue  Visual disturbances  Headache  Nausea/vomiting  Seizures  Coma, cardiac arrest

64 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Heat Stroke Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000 (heat stroke is an emergency)  Complete rest in a cool environment  Remove excess clothing  Lay the casualty down and elevate legs  Give sips of cool water  Cover the casualty in a wet sheet and fan air over them  Apply ice packs to the groins, armpits and back of the neck

65 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Drowning  DRS ABCD – Check airway in the recovery position  Call 000  Do not attempt a rescue beyond your capabilities  Treat for hypothermia  Suspect and treat for spinal injuries

66 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Near Drowning There must be careful observation of immersion victims because of possible deterioration after an apparently successful rescue. Complications following immersion, even those that appear to be well following resuscitation. For this reason any immersion victim must always be assessed in hospital.

67 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Eye - Minor Foreign Object Treatment  Tilt head towards injured eye  Gently flush the affected eye with Sterile saline or clean water  Cover eye to restrict movement  Seek medical attention

68 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Eye – Major Embedded Object

69 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Treatment  Irrigate the ear using sterile saline, clean water or warm vegetable oil may free small objects  If unsuccessful, pad over injured ear and seek medical attention Ear – Foreign Object

70 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Head Injuries Potential Signs & Symptoms  Loss of memory  Blurred vision  Slurred speech  Aggressive / confused  Seizures  Reduced level of consciousness or drowsiness  Wound to head  Changes in the shape and size of pupils  Headache  Nausea/vomiting  Blood/clear fluid escaping from ears, nose or mouth

71 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Head Injuries Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  If unconscious place casualty in recovery position (if fluid leaking from one ear, place casualty on the side of leakage to allow to drain)  If conscious rest in a semi reclined position  Monitor airway, breathing  Monitor and record conscious level  Control external bleeding  Suspect and treat for spinal injuries

72 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Spinal Injuries First Aiders must be suspicious of spinal injuries in accidents where velocity is involved, where a severe head and/or chest injury is present or where a casualty has multiple injuries Look at the history of the accident!

73 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Spinal Injuries Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  If conscious encourage the casualty not to move  Pack supportive material around the casualty  Hold on to casualties head to prevent movement  If unconscious place casualty in recovery position using the spinal log roll if possible

74 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Spinal Log Roll – Practical

75 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Sprains & Strains Potential Signs & Symptoms  Pain  Tenderness and discomfort when weight bearing  Swelling  Bruising and discoloration

76 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Sprains & Strains Treatment R.I.C.E.R  Rest – get the casualty to stop and rest. Reduce movement  Ice – Apply an ice pack for the pain and swelling  Compression – Apply a compression bandage  Elevation – Elevate the area to restrict blood flow and reduce swelling and pain  Refer – Refer the casualty to appropriate medical professional

77 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Potential Signs & Symptoms Pain, deformity, reduced mobility, bruising, swelling Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Immobilise & support in the most comfortable position  Treat for shock DO NOT REPLACE A DISLOCATION Dislocations

78 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Dislocations

79 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Dislocations

80 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Dislocations

81 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Dislocations

82 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Dislocations

83 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Fractures Potential Signs & Symptoms Pain, deformity, bruising, swelling, reduced mobility, crepitus, tenderness, bleeding (if open fracture) Treatment  DRS ABCD  Call 000  Control bleeding  Support & Immobilise in the most comfortable position  Treat for shock If you have any doubt as to whether an injury is a fracture, always treat as a fracture and seek medical attention.

84 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Closed Fracture – Arm

85 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Closed Fracture – Collar Bone

86 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Complicated Fracture – Femur

87 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Open Fracture – Leg

88 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0  Jaw  Collar bone  Upper arm  Lower arm  Wrist  Fingers  Ribs  Pelvis  Legs  Ankle  Toes Fractures

89 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 First Aid Kits

90 © Copyright Paradise First Aid Pty Ltd 01/05/2012 V1.0 Thank You! Any Questions?


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