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Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure

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Presentation on theme: "Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure"— Presentation transcript:

1 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure

2 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure

3 Elements – different types of atom
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Elements are the simplest substances. There are about 100 different elements. Each element is made up of very tiny particles called atoms, and each element is made up of just one particular type of atom, which is different to the atoms in any other element. Gold is an element made up of only gold atoms. Photo credit (top): Marja Flick-Buijs Gold wedding rings. Photo credit (bottom): Gaston Thauvin Charcoal used for drawing. Carbon is an element made up of only carbon atoms.

4 Atoms – the building blocks
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure John Dalton had the first ideas about the existence of atoms over 200 years ago. However, it is only relatively recently that special microscopes (called electron microscopes) been invented that can actually ‘see’ atoms. This image is highly magnified. What could it be showing? Photo credit: Graham J Hills/Science Photo Library. Teacher notes The image is a false-colour high-resolution transmission electron micrograph (HREM) of the atomic lattice of a thin gold crystal. Magnified 16 million times at 35mm size, each yellow blob represents an individual gold atom. The micrograph has been enhanced by optical image- processing techniques. The centre to centre spacing of the atoms is 2.04 angstroms ( nanometres); this represents the practical limit of resolution of the modern electron microscope. The yellow blobs are individual gold atoms, as seen through an electron microscope.

5 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
How small is an atom? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Atoms are very small – they are about cm wide. Think about the thickness of a crisp. The number of atoms you would need to stack up to make the thickness of a crisp, is approximately the same number of crisps you would need to stack up to make the height of Mount Everest! That’s roughly 7 million crisps!

6 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
What are atoms made of? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This interactive zoom activity shows students the structure of diamond down to the nuclear level. It also shows the relative sizes of each stage.

7 What particles are atoms made of?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure For some time, people thought that atoms were the smallest particles and could not be broken into anything smaller. Scientists now know that atoms are actually made from even smaller particles. There are three types: proton neutron electron How are these particles arranged inside the atom?

8 What is the structure of an atom?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Protons, neutrons and electrons are not evenly distributed in an atom. The protons and neutrons exist in a dense core at the centre of the atom. This is called the nucleus. The electrons are spread out around the edge of the atom. They orbit the nucleus in layers called shells.

9 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
Labelling the atom Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This drag and drop activity provides the opportunity for informal assessment of students’ understanding of the structure of the atom.

10 How was atomic structure discovered?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This timeline can be used to introduce the important discoveries about the structure of the atom and to help convey a sense of the timescale involved.

11 Mass and electrical charge
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure There are two properties of protons, neutrons and electrons that are especially important: mass electrical charge. Particle Mass Charge proton 1 +1 neutron 1 electron almost 0 -1 The atoms of an element contain equal numbers of protons and electrons and so have no overall charge.

12 Properties of the particles of the atom
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This drag and drop activity provides the opportunity for informal assessment of students’ understanding of the properties of protons, neutrons and electrons. Appropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this activity to increase class participation.

13 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure

14 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
How many protons? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure The atoms of any particular element always contain the same number of protons. For example: hydrogen atoms always contain 1 proton carbon atoms always contain 6 protons magnesium atoms always contain 12 protons. The number of protons in an atom is known as the atomic number or proton number. It is the smaller of the two numbers shown in most periodic tables.

15 What is the atomic number?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure What are the atomic numbers of these elements? sodium 11 iron 26 tin 50 fluorine 9

16 More about atomic number
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Each element has a definite and fixed number of protons. If the number of protons changes, then the atom becomes a different element. Changes in the number of particles in the nucleus (protons or neutrons) are very rare. They only take place in nuclear processes such as: radioactive decay nuclear bombs nuclear reactors.

17 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
What is mass number? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Electrons have a mass of almost zero, which means that the mass of each atom results almost entirely from the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom’s nucleus is the mass number. It is the larger of the two numbers shown in most periodic tables. Atoms Protons Neutrons Mass number hydrogen 1 1 lithium 3 4 7 aluminium 13 14 27

18 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
What’s the mass number? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons What is the mass number of these atoms? cobalt copper helium Neutrons Protons Atoms Mass number iodine germanium 2 2 4 29 35 64 27 32 59 53 74 127 32 41 73

19 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
How many neutrons? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure number of neutrons = mass number - number of protons = mass number - atomic number How many neutrons are there in these atoms? strontium fluorine helium Atomic number Mass number Atoms Neutrons zirconium uranium 4 2 2 19 9 10 88 38 50 91 40 51 238 92 146

20 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
Building a nucleus Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This activity could be used to check students’ understanding of atomic and mass number and how these relate to the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

21 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
How many electrons? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Atoms have no overall electrical charge and are neutral. This means atoms must have an equal number of positive protons and negative electrons. The number of electrons is therefore the same as the atomic number. Electrons Protons Neutrons helium copper iodine Atoms 2 2 2 29 35 29 53 74 53 Atomic number is the number of protons rather than the number of electrons, because atoms can lose or gain electrons but do not normally lose or gain protons.

22 What are the missing numbers?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This completing activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on atomic structure and atomic and mass number. Students could be asked to write down the missing numbers in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.

23 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
Atoms: true of false? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This true-or-false activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on atomic structure, or at the start of the lesson to gauge students’ existing knowledge of the subject matter. Coloured traffic light cards (red = false, yellow = don’t know, green = true) could be used to make this a whole-class exercise.

24 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure

25 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
How are atoms arranged? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Where are the electrons found in the atom? Teacher notes This illustration contains a representation of the structure of the atom, and focuses on the point that most of the atom is empty space, with a small dense nucleus in the centre and electrons orbiting the outside.

26 How are electrons arranged?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Electrons are not evenly spread but exist in layers called shells. (The shells can also be called energy levels). The arrangement of electrons in these shells is often called the electron configuration. 1st shell 2nd shell 3rd shell Note that this diagram is not drawn to scale – the atom is mostly empty space. If the electrons are the size shown, the nucleus would be too small to see.

27 How many electrons per shell?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Each shell has a maximum number of electrons that it can hold. Electrons will fill the shells nearest the nucleus first. 1st shell holds a maximum of 2 electrons 2nd shell holds a maximum of 8 electrons 3rd shell holds a maximum of 8 electrons This electron arrangement is written as 2,8,8.

28 Calculate electron configurations
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This activity could be used to check students’ understanding of electron arrangement and how to use the atomic number to work out the number of electrons in an element.

29 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
Which element? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This activity could be used to check students’ understanding of the relationship between atomic and mass number and an element’s electrons, protons and neutrons.

30 Summary: the atom so far
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure The nucleus is: made up of protons and neutrons positively charged because of the protons dense – it contains nearly all the mass of the atom in a tiny space. Electrons are: very small and light, and negatively charged able to be lost or gained in chemical reactions found thinly spread around the outside of the nucleus, orbiting in layers called shells.

31 Summary: the atom so far
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This drag and drop activity provides the opportunity for informal assessment of students’ understanding of the differences between the nucleus and electrons. Appropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this activity to increase class participation.

32 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure

33 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
What is an isotope? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Elements are made up of one type of atom, but there can be slightly different forms of the atoms in an element. Although atoms of the same element always have the same number of protons, they may have different numbers of neutrons. Atoms that differ in this way are called isotopes. For example, two isotopes of carbon: mass number is different atomic number is the same

34 What are the isotopes of carbon?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Most naturally-occurring carbon exists as carbon-12, about 1% is carbon-13 and a much smaller amount is carbon-14. 6 protons 6 electrons 6 neutrons 6 protons 6 electrons 7 neutrons 6 protons 6 electrons 8 neutrons

35 Properties of isotopes
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure The isotopes of an element are virtually identical in their chemical reactions. This is because they have the same number of protons and the same number of electrons. The uncharged neutrons make little difference to chemical properties but do affect physical properties such as melting point and density. Natural samples of elements are often a mixture of isotopes.

36 What are the isotopes of hydrogen?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Hydrogen-1 makes up the vast majority of the naturally-occurring element but two other isotopes exist. 1 proton 0 neutrons 1 electron hydrogen 1 proton 1 neutrons 1 electron deuterium 1 proton 2 neutrons 1 electron tritium

37 What are the isotopes of chlorine?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure About 75% of naturally-occurring chlorine is chlorine-35 and 25% is chlorine-37. 17 protons 18 neutrons 17 electrons 17 protons 20 neutrons 17 electrons

38 What are the isotopes of oxygen?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Almost all of naturally-occurring oxygen is oxygen-16, but about 0.2% is oxygen-18. What are the particle numbers in each isotope below? oxygen-16 8 protons 8 neutrons 8 electrons oxygen-18 8 protons 10 neutrons 8 electrons

39 Isotopes – true of false?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This true-or-false activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on isotopes, or at the start of the lesson to gauge students’ existing knowledge of the subject matter. Coloured traffic light cards (red = false, yellow = don’t know, green = true) could be used to make this a whole-class exercise.

40 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure

41 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
Glossary (1/2) Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure atom – The smallest particle that can exist on its own. atomic number – The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, also known as the proton number. electron – Negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom. element – A substance made up of only one type of atom. isotopes – Different atoms of the same element. They have the same number of protons and electrons, but a different number of neutrons.

42 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
Glossary (2/2) Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure nucleus – The dense, positively charged centre of an atom, made up of protons and neutrons. neutron – A neutral particle, with a mass of 1. It is found in the nucleus of an atom. mass number – The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. proton – A positively particle, with a mass of 1. It is found in the nucleus of an atom.

43 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
Anagrams Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure

44 Summary of atomic structure
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This completing sentences activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on atomic structure. Students could be asked to write down the missing words in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.

45 Atomic structure – word check
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This matching activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on words associated with atomic structure. Students could be asked to complete the questions in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.

46 Atomic structure – word search
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure

47 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure
Multiple-choice quiz Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Atomic Structure Teacher notes This multiple-choice quiz could be used as a plenary activity to assess students’ understanding of atomic structure. The questions can be skipped through without answering by clicking “next”. Students could be asked to complete the questions in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.


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