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Availability and Performance in Wide-Area Service Composition Bhaskaran Raman EECS, U.C.Berkeley July 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "Availability and Performance in Wide-Area Service Composition Bhaskaran Raman EECS, U.C.Berkeley July 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 Availability and Performance in Wide-Area Service Composition Bhaskaran Raman EECS, U.C.Berkeley July 2002

2 Problem Statement 10% of paths have only 95% availability

3 Problem Statement (Continued) Poor availability of wide-area (inter-domain) Internet paths BGP recovery can take several 10s of seconds

4 Why does it matter? Streaming applications –Real-time Session-oriented applications –Client sessions lasting several minutes to hours Composed applications

5 Service Composition: Motivation Provider Q Texttospeech Provider R Cellular Phone repository Provider A Video-on-demand server Provider B Thin Client Transcoder Service-Level Path Other examples: ICEBERG, IETF OPES’00

6 Solution Approach: Alternate Services and Alternate Paths

7 Goals, Assumptions and Non-goals Goals –Availability: Detect and handle failures quickly –Performance: Choose set of service instances –Scalability: Internet-scale operation Operational model: –Service providers deploy different services at various network locations –Next generation portals compose services –Code is NOT mobile (mutually untrusting service providers) We do not address service interface issue Assume that service instances have no persistent state –Not very restrictive [OPES’00]

8 Related Work Other efforts have addressed: –Semantics and interface definitions OPES (IETF), COTS (Stanford) –Fault tolerant composition within a single cluster TACC (Berkeley) –Performance constrained choice of service, but not for composed services SPAND (Berkeley), Harvest (Colorado), Tapestry/CAN (Berkeley), RON (MIT) None address wide-area network performance or failure issues for long-lived composed sessions

9 Outline Architecture for robust service-composition –Failure detection in wide-area Internet paths Evaluation of effectiveness/overheads –Scaling –Algorithms for load-balancing –Wide-area experiments demonstrating availability Text-to-speech composed application

10 Requirements to achieve goals Failure detection/liveness tracking –Server, Network failures Performance information collection –Load, Network characteristics Service location Global information is required –Hop-by-hop approach will not work

11 Design challenges Scalability and Global information –Information about all service instances, and network paths in- between should be known Quick failure detection and recovery –Internet dynamics  intermittent congestion

12 Failure detection: trade-off What is a “failure” on an Internet path? –Outage periods happen for varying durations Monitoring for liveness of path using keep-alive heartbeat Time Failure: detected by timeout Timeout period Time False-positive: failure detected incorrectly  unnecessary overhead Timeout period There’s a trade-off between time-to-detection and rate of false-positives

13 Is “quick” failure detection possible? Study outage periods using traces –12 pairs of hosts Berkeley, Stanford, UIUC, CMU, TU-Berlin, UNSW Some trans-oceanic links, some within US (including Internet2 links) –Periodic UDP heart-beat, every 300 ms –Measure “gaps” between receive-times: outage periods –Plot CDF of gap periods

14 CDF of gap durations Ideal case for failure detection

15 CDF of gap distributions (continued) Failure detection close to ideal case For a timeout of about 1.8-2sec –False-positive rate is about 50% Is this bad? –Depends on: Effect on application Effect on system stability, absolute rate of occurrence

16 Rate of occurrence of outages Timeout for failure detection

17 Towards an Architecture Service execution platforms –For providers to deploy services –First-party, or third-party service platforms Overlay network of such execution platforms –Collect performance information –Exploit redundancy in Internet paths

18 Architecture Internet Service cluster: compute cluster capable of running services Peering: exchange perf. info. Destination Source Composed services Hardware platform Peering relations, Overlay network Service clusters Logical platform Application plane Overlay size: how many nodes? –Akamai: O(10,000) nodes Cluster  process/machine failures handled within

19 Key Design Points Overlay size: –Could grow much slower than #services, or #clients –How many nodes? A comparison: Akamai cache servers O(10,000) nodes for Internet-wide operation Overlay network is virtual-circuit based: –“Switching-state” at each node E.g. Source/Destination of RTP stream, in transcoder –Failure information need not propagate for recovery Problem of service-location separated from that of performance and liveness Cluster  process/machine failures handled within

20 Software Architecture Finding Overlay Entry/ExitLocation of Service Replicas Service-Level Path Creation, Maintenance, Recovery Link-State Propagation At-least -once UDP Perf. Meas. Liveness Detection Peer-Peer Layer Link-State Layer Service-Composition Layer Functionalities at the Cluster-Manager

21 Layers of Functionality Why Link-State? –Need full graph information –Also, quick propagation of failure information –Link-state flood overheads? Service-Composition layer: –Algorithm for service-composition Modified version of Dijkstra’s –To accommodate for constraints in service-level path Additive metric (latency) Load-balancing metric –Computational overheads? –Signaling for path creation, recovery Downstream to upstream

22 Link-State Overheads Link-state floods: –Twice for each failure –For a 1,000-node graph Estimate #edges = 10,000 –Failures (>1.8 sec outage): O(once an hour) in the worst case –Only about 6 floods/second in the entire network! Graph computation: –O(k*E*log(N)) computation time; k = #services composed –For 6,510-node network, this takes 50ms –Huge overhead, but: path caching helps –Memory: a few MB

23 Evaluation: Scaling Scaling bottleneck: –Simultaneous recovery of all client sessions on a failed overlay link Parameter –Load – number of client sessions with a single overlay node as exit node Metric –Average time-to-recovery of all paths failed and recovered

24 Evaluation: Emulation Testbed Idea: Use real implementation, emulate the wide-area network behavior (NistNET) Opportunity: Millennium cluster App Lib Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Node 4 Rule for 1  2 Rule for 1  3 Rule for 3  4 Rule for 4  3 Emulator

25 Scaling Evaluation Setup 20-node overlay network –Created over 6,510 node physical network –Physical network generated using GT-ITM Latency variation: according to [Acharya & Saltz 1995] Load per cluster-manager (CM) –Vary from 25 to 500 Paths setup using latency metric 12 different runs –Deterministic failure of link with maximum #client paths –Worst-case in single-link failure

26 Average Time-to-Recovery vs. Load

27 CDF of recovery times of all failed paths

28 Path creation: load-balancing metric So far used a latency metric –In combination with modified Dijkstra’s algorithm –Not good for balancing load How to balance load across service instances? –During path creation and path recovery QoS literature: –Sum(1/available-bandwidth) for bandwidth balancing Applying this for server load balancing: –Metric: Sum(1/(max_load – curr_load)) –Study interaction with Link-state update interval Failure recovery

29 Load variation across replicas

30 Dealing with load variation Decreasing link-state update interval –More messages –Could lead to instability Use path-setup messages to update load –Do it all along the path Each node that sees the path setup message –Adds its load info to the message –Records all load info collected so far

31 Load variation with piggy-back

32 Load-balancing: effect on path length

33 Fixing the long- path effect Metric: Sum_services(1/(max_load-curr_load)) + Sum_noop(0.1/(max_load-curr_load))

34 Fixing the long- path effect

35 Wide-Area experiments: setup 8 nodes: –Berkeley, Stanford, UCSD, CMU –Cable modem (Berkeley) –DSL (San Francisco) –UNSW (Australia), TU-Berlin (Germany) Text-to-speech composed sessions –Half with destinations at Berkeley, CMU –Half with recovery algo enabled, other half disabled –4 paths in system at any time –Duration of session: 2min 30sec –Run for 4 days Metric: loss-rate measured in 5sec intervals

36 Loss-rate for a pair of paths

37 CDF of loss-rates of all paths failed

38 CDF of gaps seen at client

39 Improvement in Availability Availability % table (Client at Berkeley) Without recovery With recovery Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Availability % table (Client at CMU) Without recovery With recovery Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day Day

40 Split of recovery time Text-to-Speech application Two possible places of failure Leg-2 Leg-1 Texttoaudio Text Source End-Client Request-response protocol Data (text, or RTP audio) Keep-alive soft-state refresh Application soft-state (for restart on failure)

41 Split of Recovery Time (continued) Recovery time: –Failure detection time –Signaling time to setup alternate path –State restoration time Experiment using tts application, using emulation –Recovery time = 3,300ms –1,800ms failure detection time –700ms signaling –450ms for state restoration New tts engine has to re-process current sentence

42 Summary Wide-area Internet paths have poor availability –Availability issues in composed sessions Architecture based on overlay network of service clusters Failure detection feasible in ~ 2sec Software-arch scales with #clients WA experiments show improvement in availability


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