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Published byGerald Hipps
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Making CMP’s From chapter 16 “Elements of 3D Seismology” by Chris Liner
Outline Normal Moveout Stacking
Normal Moveout x T Hyperbola:
Normal Moveout x T “Overcorrected” Normal Moveout is too large Chosen velocity for NMO is too (a) large (b) small
Normal Moveout x T “Overcorrected” Normal Moveout is too large Chosen velocity for NMO is too small (a) large (b) small
Normal Moveout x T “Under corrected” Normal Moveout is too small Chosen velocity for NMO is (a) too large (b) too small
Normal Moveout x T “Under corrected” Normal Moveout is too small Chosen velocity for NMO is too large (a) too large (b) too small
Vinterval from Vrms Dix, 1955
Vrms V1 V2 V3 Vrms < Vinterval
Vinterval from Vrms
Primary seismic events x T
Multiples and Primaries x T M1 M2
Conventional NMO before stacking x T NMO correction V=V(depth) e.g., V=mz + B M1 M2 “Properly corrected” Normal Moveout is just right Chosen velocity for NMO is correct
Over-correction (e.g. 80% Vnmo) x T NMO correction V=V(depth) e.g., V=0.8(mz + B) M1 M2 x T M1 M2
f-k filtering before stacking (Ryu) x T NMO correction V=V(depth) e.g., V=0.8(mz + B) M1 M2 x T
Correct back to 100% NMO x T NMO correction V=V(depth) e.g., V=(mz + B) M1 M2 x T M1 M2
Outline Convolution and Deconvolution Normal Moveout Stacking
NMO stretching V1 V2 T0T0 “NMO Stretching”
NMO stretching V1V1 V2V2 T0T0 “NMO Stretching” V 1
NMO stretching V1V1 V2V2 V 1
NMO stretching V1V1 V2V2 V 1
stretching for T=2s,V1=V2=1500 m/s Green line assumes V1=V2 Blue line is for general case, where V1, V2 can be different and delT0=0.1s (this case: V1=V2) Matlab code
Stacking + + =
+ + = Stacking improves S/N ratio
+ = Semblance Analysis “Semblance” + X Twtt (s)
+ = Semblance Analysis + X Twtt (s) V3V3 V1V1 V2V2 V Peak energy
Time vs Depth Migration Insensitive to v(z) model Sensitive to v(z) model Time migration uses best fit hyperbola Depth migration uses best guess moveout.
11 paths & 21 events registered. 11 paths & 15 events registered.
F W Schroeder04 L 5 – Seismic Method Courtesy of ExxonMobil Lecture 5 Mitchum et al., 1977b AAPG©1977 reprinted with permission of the AAPG whose permission.
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