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Circumbinary Planets PLATO 2.0 WS Nº1 PLATO WP 112510 Photometric detection of circumbinary planets Hans Deeg (coordinator)Inst. Astrofísica Canarias,

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Presentation on theme: "Circumbinary Planets PLATO 2.0 WS Nº1 PLATO WP 112510 Photometric detection of circumbinary planets Hans Deeg (coordinator)Inst. Astrofísica Canarias,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Circumbinary Planets PLATO 2.0 WS Nº1 PLATO WP 112510 Photometric detection of circumbinary planets Hans Deeg (coordinator)Inst. Astrofísica Canarias, ES José Manuel AlmenaraLAM, FR Stefan DreizlerUniversity of Goettingen, DE Rudolf DvorakUniv. Vienna, AT Francesca Faedi Warwick University, GB Sascha Grziwa Univ. Köln, DE Nicolas IroUniv. Hamburg, DE Petr KabathESO fellow, Chile Peter Klagyivik Inst. Astrofísica Canarias, ES Maciej KonackiNicolaus Copernicus Astron. Ctr., Torun, PL Willy KleyUniv. Tübingen, DE Tsevi MazehTel Aviv University, IS Aviv OfirUniversity of Göttingen, DE Jean SchneiderObservatoire de Paris, FR status Nov. 2014

2 Circumbinary Planets PLATO 2.0 WS Nº2 Backer 1993: Timing of PSR B1620-26: Pulsar-WD binary plus low-mass object = planet? Only 10-12 yrs later accepted as CBP, 2.5M jup, P=100y (Sigurðsson+03, Backer+ 05, Rasio 05 etc) Star Wars 1977: Planet Tatooine MacCabe et al 2003: HST-NICMOS obs of Circumbinary disk of GG Definition: Planet(s) in orbit around both binary components (P-type orbit)

3 Known CBPs PLATO 2.0 WS Sources: Nasa exoplanet explorer, exoplanet.eu, and orig. lit. NASA Exoplanet Explorer, circumbinary flag =1

4 Distinct populations pending on discovery method PLATO 2.0 WS Eclipe Timing RV Pulsar Timing Direct Imaging P >~ 40k yr 100 yr - Transits

5 Stability of P-type planet orbits PLATO 2.0 WS a b : Binary separation a c : planet minimum stable semimaj. axes  =M 2 /M 1 +M 2 Dvorak+ 1989, Holman & Wiegert 1999, coplanar case: a c /a b ~ 2.3 for e bin =0, little dependency on μ P c /P b ~ 3.5 Non coplanar: a c varies by ±20% against coplanar case ? (on  -Cen, Wiegert & Holman 97, Chambers+ 02) M2M2 M1M1 abab acac unstable stable Holman & Wigert 99 H&W 99 Dvorak+ 89 P ° Possible regions of instabilities further out: at MMR's 3:1 up to (?) 9:1

6 Distinct populations pending on discovery method PLATO 2.0 WS Eclipe Timing RV Pulsar Timing Direct Imaging P >~ 40k yr 100 yr - Instable CBP orbits Transits

7 CBPs discovered by timing PLATO 2.0 WS PlanetBinary NameDisc. meth.Orb. period Semi-maj. ax.MassRadiusPeriodTot. MassV mag (AU)(Mjup)(Rjup)(d)(Msun) PSR B1620-26bPulsar Timing100y232.5±1 191.41.9521.3 DP Leob Eclipse Timing 28y8.196.05±0.5 0.10.7017.5 NY Virc Eclipse Timing 27y7.544.49/sini 0.10.6013.3 UZ Forb Eclipse Timing 16y5.96.3±1.5/sini 0.10.8418.2 NN Serc Eclipse Timing 15.3y5.35 7.33±0.31/sin i 0.10.6516.7 RR Caeb Eclipse Timing 11.9y5.34.2±0.4/sini 0.30.6214.4 NY Virb Eclipse Timing 8.2y3.39 2.78±0.19/sin i 0.10.6013.3 NN Serd Eclipse Timing 7.9y3.432.3±0.5/sini 0.10.6516.7 UZ Forc Eclipse Timing 5.2y2.87.7±1.2/sini 0.10.8418.2 Beuermann+ 2010 All timing discoveries: On evolved stars with compact component: Pulsars, ecl. binaries dM /WD; dM/sdB. (~2500 WD/MS EB’s, most from SDSS, Rebassa-Mansergas + 12) sdB pulsations could confirm ETVs (Lee+ 14, for NY Vir) Eclipse time variation (ETV) <- light-time or Rømer effect (Not TTV-like orbital dynamics effect): EB is closer or further from us pending on location of planet. NY Vir Lee+ 14

8 ETV detections PLATO 2.0 WS ETV detections: Post common envelope binaries, evolved from MS binaries with P ~ O(1) yr. Open questions: -Planets or other origins for ETVs? (Horner+ 14) -some 2-planet candidate-sys not stable ( HW Vir, QS Vir) -> there must be other source of ETVs - current orbit stable (NN Ser) -IF planet: -first generation? Formed with MS binary (e.g. Bear & Soker 14) -second generation? Formed from ejecta during CE phase (e.g. Horner+ 14; Schleicher & Dreizler 14 ) likely unstable likely stable NN Ser HW VirQS Vir from Horner+ 14

9 RV detections PLATO 2.0 WS TATOOINE Search (Konacki+ 2009) : No reported discovery Problem: RV amplitude of stellar binary components >> RV from planet PlanetBinary NameDisc. meth.Orb. periodSemi-maj. ax.MassRadiusPeriodTot. MassV mag (AU)(Mjup)(Rjup)(d)(Msun) HD 202206cRadial Velocity3.8y2.5422.43/sini 255.91.178.08 A comp: 1.15 M  B comp: 17 M Jup /sin i : IF BD -> c is CBP, else not ! One potential CBP (Correia+ 2004): No RV wobble detected from any other known CBP.

10 Deeg+ 1998 dF/F (mmag) Transits likely to occur on EBs if planet disks preferentially aligned with binary plane Unique transit signal, low False Alarm prob. Details of transit depend on EB phase. First transit-detection project ‘TEP’ in 1994 observ. of CM Dra (M4/M4 EB, Deeg+98, Doyle+2000, Deeg +08) Specific detection algorithms needed: (Doyle+ 2000, Ofir+ 2009, Kostov+ 2013) Removal of binary signal Detection of semi-periodic transits within ‘transit window ’ (Doyle+ 2000, Armstrong+ 13) CBP detection by transit PLATO 2.0 WS Kepler 16(AB)b Doyle + 2011 Kepler 16b x y x- elongation (R sol ) Binary phase Kepler38b (Orosz+ 12)

11 Transiting CBPs with ETVs from orb. dyn. effects PLATO 2.0 WS Kepler 34Kepler 35 Kepler 16 (Doyle +11) (Welsh +11)

12 CBP transit detections PLATO 2.0 WS PlanetBinary NameDisc. meth.Orb. periodSemi-maj. ax.MassRadiusPeriodTot. MassV mag (AU)(Mjup)(Rjup)(d)(Msun) Kepler-47cTransit303.1d0.991< 280.417.41.4115.5 Kepler-34bTransit288.8d1.08960.22±0.010.7627.82.0715 Kepler-3151bTransit240.5d0.7877< 0.050.5527.31.1313.5 Kepler-16bTransit228.8d0.70480.333±0.0160.7541.10.8512.0 Kepler-64 (PH1)bTransit138.3d0.652< 0.530.5520.01.9413.5 Kepler-35bTransit131.5d0.603470.127±0.020.7320.71.7016.0 Kepler-38bTransit105.6d0.4632< 0.380.3818.81.2014.3 Kepler-413bTransit66.3d0.35530.21±0.070.3910.11.3615.6 Kepler-47bTransit49.5d0.2962< 20.277.41.4115.5 Features: Periods of (inner) planets close to stability limit. All planets around binaries with > 7d period. Planets are all Uranus – Saturn like

13 CBP orbits PLATO 2.0 WS Winn&Fabrycky 2014

14 Period distribution of Kepler EBs, sys with CBPs PLATO 2.0 WS Source: Kepler EB catalog, V3beta Nov’14 http://keplerebs.villanova.edu/ K47 K413 K35 K64 K47 K34 K3151 K16 + 235 EBs with P>50d morph > 0.5 (contact, semi-det.) morph ≤ 0.5 (detached)

15 Radius - period relation of the inner CBPs PLATO 2.0 Source: Exoplanet.eu

16 Insolation of CBPs and habiltity PLATO 2.0 WS Welsh + 2012 K34b K35b Short-term (yr) Long-term (yr) Welsh+ 2013 Kep-64b

17 CBP transits may come and go: Mutually inclined orbits PLATO 2.0 WS Martin & Triaud 2014

18 PLATO 2.0 WS Kepler 3151b ( KIC 9632899 b) Welsh+ 2014: Mutual inclination 2.3deg: -> precession 103yr period -> transits only 8.4% ± 0.2% of the time -> 12x more such systems than currently are transiting Kepler 413b (Kostov+14) P prec ~11yr Last transit Oct. 2012, next May 2020 Welsh+ 2014

19 An interesting perspective: Martin & Triaud (2014): CBP transiting non-eclipsing binaries (NEB) PLATO 2.0 WS transitability : present of transits may potentially occur

20 CBP on non-eclising binaries PLATO 2.0 WS Martin & Triaud 2014 : Potential of transits pending on binary inclination

21 CBP on non-eclising binaries PLATO 2.0 WS Martin & Triaud 2014 High probabilities to detect some -if waiting long enough -if strongly inclined systems exist Martin & Triaud 2014

22 Eclipse Echos PLATO 2.0 WS Nº22 eclipse in reflected light from planet Detection of binary eclipses in planet’s reflected light. Deeg & Doyle 2011 ‘Works’ on eclipsing or non-eclipsing binaries

23 Tasks of the PLATO CBP working group (WP 112510) PLATO 2.0 WS Sample definition: definition of expected sample for circumbinary planet searches (e.g. sample size and characteristics). This needs to be performed in light of capabilities of the available detection methods. It consists in an initial estimate for the sample, which will be refined and updated alongside the evolution and eventual freezing of PLATO mission specs. Detection methods: Initially: revision of existing methods and algorithms. This includes: evaluation of their sensitivity, requirements onto PLATO data; need for auxiliary data or parameters (e.g. stellar masses); potential results ('discovery space'). Selection of one or two methods and their development towards implementation in PLATO data analysis protocol. Testing of these methods with simulated data and definition of their performance. Feedback to PLATO science coordination about design aspects that may allow an optimization of the mission towards the WP objectives Definition of auxiliary data that will be needed: revising their availability in literature or databases or defining the observations required from other instruments (ground or space). Pre-launch catalogue of EBs needed? Some Algorithms (e.g. CB-BLS) need stellar mass-ratio.

24 PLATO CBP detection PLATO 2.0 WS ~2600 EBs out of Kepler sample of ~160k stars -> ~1.5% are EBs (Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalogue V3 (Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalogue V3 (Villanova U.; Kirk+ in prep) 10 CBP detected, all by transits, rather long periods 50-303d Absence of CBP on shorter-periodic binaries? Likely but not proven Several detection efforts to find shallow-transit CBPs still ongoing (Also in CoRoT data, Klagyivik & Deeg, in prep) PLATO: Long Duration fields, 2-3 yrs: ~ 267k stars 80ppm/√h First order, multiply Kepler detection rates by 1.66 -> 15-20 ‘Kepler-like’ CBP Step & Stare, 2-5 months: 10 6 stars Reduced detection capability for longer-periodic (p>0.2yr) CBPs. Assuming that ½ of known Kepler CBP detected in such data: -> 20-40 CBP

25 Issues for PLATO from CBP detection PLATO 2.0 WS PLATO Input catalogue for Long Fields: Should contain all binaries (eclips. / non-eclips) with P ≤ 1yr (Halbwachs+ 2003: 13.5% of MS stars, 1d < P < 10yr) GAIA RV’s -> detect binaries Pre-launch photometric monitoring -> EBs (needed?) The case of non-eclipsing binaries: -> potential to be determined ETV detections? 50s) useful? (Deeg & Tingley, in prep: No timing-precision gain as long as ≥2 pts in in/egress) Both cases: dependent on duration of long monitoring phase, 2 x 3yr 1 x 6yr CBP detection algorithm for PDC independent work on L1 data

26 PLATO 2.0 WS Nº26 Thank you ¡Gracias!

27 PLATO 2.0 WS

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