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CPTN Personal Training Certification The Art & Science of Personal Training (First Weekend) Instructor: Jeff Boris, B.PHE, CPT-CPTN.M.

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Presentation on theme: "CPTN Personal Training Certification The Art & Science of Personal Training (First Weekend) Instructor: Jeff Boris, B.PHE, CPT-CPTN.M."— Presentation transcript:

1 CPTN Personal Training Certification The Art & Science of Personal Training (First Weekend) Instructor: Jeff Boris, B.PHE, CPT-CPTN.M

2 ABOUT THE CPTN The Certified Professional Trainers Network, formerly known as the Canadian Personal Trainers Network, was launched in The CPTN integrates current research and practical applications for education, communication, professional development and marketing opportunities for Personal Trainers to maintain a leading edge on professional training developments. Develops and certifies trainers through the course entitled “The Art and Science of Personal Training Level 1: The Essentials” and the "Fast Track Course on Personal Training.” Launched Canada's first personal trainers Conference. Launched Canada's first National personal trainer certification (1994) Featured in Macleans, YOU, Your Health, Canadian Living, Canadian Fitness, Fitness Management, Confidante, Chatelaine, CITY-TV, CBC Marketplace, The Athlete, and The Toronto Star.MacleansCanadian LivingFitness ManagementChatelaineCITY-TVCBC MarketplaceThe Toronto Star Contributed to NFLAC's Specialist Guidelines for Personal Trainers as a committee member. International Recognition through IDEA Health and Fitness Association. It has a worldwide distribution in over 80 countries with over 19,000 members.IDEA Health and Fitness Association

3 Able to start own business as a personal trainer Access to Sport Insurance from other bodies National recognition of commitment to the highest standards of excellence International Recognition through IDEA fitness Listed on CPTN's web site as a Personal Trainer referral Earn CECs with professional Distance Education Courses Eligible to join CPTN's leadership team of Practical Assessors, Course Conductors and Mentors The CPTN Report Newsletters Monthly E-news and client handout via Access to Personal Trainer Job Listings Access to Fitness Training Facilities Listings Discounts on Educational Books and Multi-media Discounts on CTPN Conferences & Workshops Discounts on Products & Services through Suppliers CPTN CERTIFICATION BENEFITS

4 CPTN CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Must be an adult age 18 or older Current CPR (Basic Rescuer) and current Emergency First Aid Theory ExamPassing grade on 120 multiple choice Theory Exam of 75% or higher Practical ExamPassing grade on the Practical Exam of 75% or higher Documentation of a minimum of 20 personal training hours (Complete a Personal Trainer Log) OR a degree/diploma in the physical education/kinesiology field (copies of proof to be submitted to CPTN) Note: Note: Requirements are to be completed within 6 months from exam writing date. Certification Renewal CPTN certification status is due for renewal each year or every two years. In addition to having current CPR and First Aid, you require 7 CECs to renew for 1 year or 14 CECs to renew for 2 years. One hour of continuing education equals 1 CPTN CEC.

5 OTHER CPTN CERTIFICATIONS & COURSES POST-REHABILITATION CONDITIONING SPECIALIST PILATES MAT & BALLWORK SPECIALIST YOGA SPECIALIST CPTN/TBI (Tudor Bompa Institute) SPECIALTY CERTIFICATIONS (On-Line) Ice Hockey Conditioning Specialist Certification Junior Athletes Training Specialist Certification Periodization Planning Specialist Certification Strength and Conditioning Expert Certification Website:

6 WELCOME TO “THE ART & SCIENCE OF PERSONAL TRAINING” Evidence-based Information (From Current Knowledge to Emerging Theory) Evidence-based Information (From Current Knowledge to Emerging Theory) Experiential & Interactive Learning (Individual, Partner, Group) Experiential & Interactive Learning (Individual, Partner, Group) 1.Your Mind is Open: 1.Your Mind is Open: “We do not know what we do not know.” 2.Your Manual is a Reference: 2.Your Manual is a Reference: “Knowledge is in the manual, Wisdom is in the application.” 3.Your Outcome is Your Input: 3.Your Outcome is Your Input: “Contribution enhances everyone’s learning experience.”

7 WHY PERSONAL TRAINING? FIVE REASONS INTELLECTUAL DISTRIBUTION WELLNESS REVOLUTION BABY BOOMERS HEALTH CRISIS, LIFESTYLE EPIDEMIC TOP 10 PROFESSIONS, FASTEST GROWING SEGMENT OF FITNESS INDUSTRY

8 PERSONAL TRAINER The “SELF-CARE SPECIALIST” Natural Self-Care is… An Attitude of self-responsibility, taking personal responsibility for your health and being accountable for your actions. This includes a willingness to learn, improve yourself and do whatever it takes. Corrective Action giving the body what only you can give it, addressing root causes with approaches that are intelligently aligned with your body’s real and natural needs, to create a healthy environment conducive to longevity, peak performance and a better quality of life.

9 CONSULTING & INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.To understand the role of consulting in personal training 2.To understand the significance of developing versatility in interpersonal communication skills 3.To understand the theories, concepts, and strategies associated with consulting and interpersonal communication skills 4.To develop greater self-awareness of one’s role in personal training and develop a mission statement

10 “WHAT DO YOU DO?” “HOW DO YOU DO IT?” “WHY DO YOU DO IT?” WHO ARE YOU? Defining and marketing your role as a personal trainer.

11 “WHAT DO YOU DO?” “HOW DO YOU DO IT?” “WHY DO YOU DO IT?” WHO ARE YOU? JEFF BORIS, B.PHE, CPTN.CPT.M Holistic Fitness Trainer, Nutrition & Health Research Educator “There is an immense disconnect and unacceptable delay between scientific data and public awareness and prevention.” – Dr. Larry Silver, Clinical Professor at Georgetown Medical Centre, past president of Learning Disabilities Association of America

12 Health & Performance = Nutrition + Exercise - Toxins - Stress MY PHILOSOPHY & SERVICES Sports Goals Makeover/Physique Transformation Goals Quality of Life Goals AESTHETIC Boris Model of Self-Care  HEALTH FUNCTIONAL ℞℞ D NA

13 B.PHE My Background General Manager My First Personal Training Studio Personal Training Coordinator Senior Fitness Specialist Personal Training Program Manager R.A.C. Natural Health Products Specialist & Research Educator Education Coordinator “Professor of Personal Training” Professional Development Chair Course Conductor, Practical Assessor Holistic Fitness & Nutrition Health Research Education Professional Services Innovative Products Profitable Partnerships

14 A Few Highlights…

15 MY MISSION STATEMENT Educate, motivate, empower and inspire people from all walks of life to discover and realize their unlimited human potential for achieving health, happiness and success!

16 Who are YOU? Why are YOU here?? 1. DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL MISSION STATEMENT Why personal training? How does PTR serve your purpose/goals/mission/career? How is PTR in alignment with what’s important to you? Why should I hire you as my Personal Trainer? What’s great about you? (List of 10) 2. YOUR PERSONAL MISSION STATEMENT (2-3 sentences) 3. CREATING THE “PERFECT” PERSONAL TRAINING BUSINESS a)Who are your clients? b)What kind of environment do you work out of? c)What are your area(s) of specialization? d)What hours will you work? e)Will you complement your PTR services with something? What? f)How much will you earn? What are you worth?

17 PERSONAL TRAINER = LEADER ROLE-MODELLING 1.What are YOUR personal health & fitness goals? 2.What is YOUR minimal commitment to a healthy lifestyle? 3.What motivates YOU? ASSIGNMENT: Answer questions above. List your S.M.A.R.T. Goals

18 S.M.A.R.T. GOALS SMART Specific, Measurable, Action-oriented, Realistic, Trackable 2. What will affect PROGRAM ADHERENCE? 3. Develop a CONTINGENCY PLAN. 4. Develop a SELF-CONTRACT. 1. COLLECT BACKGROUND INFORMATION

19 STAGE OF THE CLIENT TRAINER RELATIONSHIP Rapport Building Investigative Planning Action

20 Consulting & Interpersonal Communication Skills “Trainers and clients work with each other over time in a consultative fashion which invites equitable input from both trainer and client.” –Encouragement from the trainer should be promoting client self sufficiency.

21 Effective Feedback A) It is specific B) It is contingent on performance C) It provides corrective information for the learner Styles Include: Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile

22 HUMAN RELATIONS MODELS 1.ABRAHAM MASLOW: Hierarchy of Needs Describe how understanding the relationship between upper level and lower level needs might enhance empathy for clients’ apparent disinterest or lack of focus/compliance. 2. CHRIS ARGYRIS: Interpretation & Choice Analyze a “typical” client-trainer or learner-expert encounter. How are issues of dominance and control played out in a training environment? 3. JACK GIBB: Open Communication vs. Defensive Communication Discuss how the content and manner of delivery can manifest defensive communication 4. MANAGERIAL vs. HUMAN RELATIONS and the IMPERSONAL- INTERPERSONAL CONTINUUM Provide examples of each characteristic on the Impersonal-Interpersonal Continuum

23 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY & PROGRAM DESIGN FOR CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.To understand the relationship between acute and chronic responses to CV exercise and central versus peripheral adaptations 2.To understand the formula for oxygen consumption and its relationship to central versus peripheral adaptations 3.To understand the relationship between various methods of monitoring intensity and their applications 4.To apply an understanding of the various energy systems in the design of CV exercise programs 5.To apply the fundamental principles of training to the O.F.I.T.T. prescription method of program design 6.To understand the application of O.F.I.T.T. in the CV training continuum (improvement vs. maintenance vs. over-training) 7.To explore controversies in CV program design

24 TWO MAJOR GOALS OF AEROBIC CONDITIONING (Essentials of Exercise Physiology. McArdle, Katch & Katch. 1994) CENTRAL VS. PERIPHERAL ADAPTATIONS

25 ACUTE RESPONSES VS. CHRONIC ADAPTATIONS Increased interior dimensions of heart Ventricular hypertrophy Exercise heart rate drops with maintained work intensity Depressed resting heart rate Increased cardiac output Increased capillarization and blood flow to muscles Increased # and density of mitochondria Enhanced O2 extraction Increased VO2 max Increased anaerobic threshold Increased use of fat as a fuel source Glycogen sparing Increased glycogen stores Increased sensitivity of cells to insulin Increase in heart rate Increase in stroke volume Increase in cardiac output Dilation of vessels Shunting of blood from visceral tissues Increased rate & depth of breathing Increased systolic pressure Central vs. Peripheral Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Adaptations

26 VO2 MAX The Acute Pathway to Chronic Adaptations CENTRAL FACTORS (O2 Delivery) PERIPHERAL FACTORS (O2 Extraction) Oxygen Loading: Oxygen Loading: Rate & Depth of Breathing (lungs), Hemoglobin (blood) Oxygen Delivery: Oxygen Delivery: Heart Rate & Stroke Volume (heart), Ejection Fraction, Cardiac Output (Q = HR x SV) Oxygen Extraction Oxygen Extraction (arterio-venous O2 diff.): Muscular Capillarization & Myoglobin Oxygen Utilization: Oxygen Utilization: Mitochondrial Density, Oxidative Enzymes, % Slow Twitch, Conversion of Fast Twitch Glycolytic (IIb) to Fast Twitch Oxidative (IIa) Absolute VO2 MAX = Q x O2 Extraction (a-v O2 diff.) = (HR x SV) x O2 Extraction Relative VO2 MAX = (HR x SV) x O2 Extraction / bodyweight

27 VO2 MAX Practice Questions 1. Your client weighs 70kg, has a resting HR of 60bpm, stroke volume is 70ml/beat, and O2 extraction is 6ml O2/100ml of blood. What is their resting VO2? 2. During maximal exercise the same client has a heart rate of 180bpm, a stroke volume of 115 ml/beat and an O2 extraction of 15ml O2/100ml of blood. What is their VO2 max? 3. Another client has a max HR of 177bpm and a cardiac output of 16, 992 ml/min. What is this client’s stroke volume? Absolute VO2 MAX = Q x O2 Extraction (a-v O2 diff.) = (HR x SV) x O2 Extraction Relative VO2 MAX = (HR x SV) x O2 Extraction / bodyweight

28 METS Practice Questions 1 MET = 3.5ml O2/kg/min 1.Your client has a maximal HR of 178bpm, a stroke volume of 103 ml/beat, an O2 extraction of 14ml O2/100ml of blood and weighs 64kg. What is their relative VO2 max? What is the VO2 equivalent in METS? Describe an activity that would fulfill this value. 2. What is the VO2 equivalent to 4 METS? Describe an activity that would fulfill this value.

29 MONITORING EXERCISE INTENSITY PARTNER EXERCISE: PARTNER EXERCISE: Calculate the Target Heart Rate for your Case Study Client. a)Calculate THR using standard MHR Formula THR = (220 – age) x Exercise Intensity % b) Calculate THR using the Karvonen Formula HRR = [(220 – age) – RHR] x Exercise Intensity % + RHR 1.Target Heart Rate 2.Talk Test 3.RPE (Rating of Perceived Exertion, Borg Scale)

30 ENERGY SYSTEMS 1.ATP-CP / PHOSPHAGEN SYSTEM (Anaerobic Alactic) 2.ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS (Anaerobic Lactic) 3.AEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS 4.FATTY ACID OXIDATION / OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

31 ATP-CP SYSTEM ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS

32 ANAEROBIC VS. AEEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS

33 FATTY ACID OXIDATION

34 Energy Source Summary

35 ENERGY OUTPUT vs. TIME/DURATION (5-10sec) (1-3min) (20min+)

36 (Essentials of Exercise Physiology. McArdle, Katch & Katch. 1994) CLASSIFICATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES BASED ON ENERGY SYSTEMS

37 ENERGY DELIVERY SYSTEMS & SPORTS SPECIFICITY ROWING (2000m race – 6min) 75% 75% Oxidative Phosphorylation (beta oxidation & aerobic glycolysis) 22% 22% Anaerobic Glycolysis 3% 3% ATP-CP System SOCCER (midfield player) & ICE HOCKEY 50% 50% Oxidative Phosphorylation 25% 25% Anaerobic Glycolysis 25% 25% ATP-CP System VOLLEYBALL 40% 40% Oxidative Phosphorylation 20% 20% Anaerobic Glycolysis 40% 40% ATP-CP System FOOTBALL 30% 30% Oxidative Phosphorylation (used during recovery between plays) 10% 10% Anaerobic Glycolysis 60% 60% ATP-CP System

38 O.F.I.T.T. Objective:Objective: Based on S.M.A.R.T. Goals Frequency:Frequency: Affected by Intensity & Duration Intensity:Intensity: Dictates specific physiologic & metabolic changes Time:Time: Duration which intensity level is maintained; Duration & Intensity inversely related (“You can train hard or you can train long, but you can’t do both”) Type:Type: Exercise/Equipment selection

39 O.F.I.T.T. General Guidelines for CV Training Objective?Objective? Frequency?Frequency? Intensity?Intensity? Time?Time? Type?Type? Improve or maintain the level of efficiency to deliver O2 and remove CO2; aerobic and/or anaerobic training At least 3x/week with 24-48hrs rest between sessions Dependent upon energy system to be trained for client’s goals Dependent upon intensity level prescribed; lower intensity conducted over longer time period (i.e. 30min +) can be accumulated intermittently or continuously Continuous vs. Discontinuous Training (i.e. Intervals); Both Aerobic & Anaerobic Systems must be trained

40 PARTNER EXERCISE: PARTNER EXERCISE: Using the case study assigned to you from the back of the manual determine 1) your client’s S.M.A.R.T. Goals, and 2) apply the O.F.I.T.T. principle to design their CV program. Be prepared to share with the rest of the class. Improvement & Maintenance 1. What is the minimum FREQUENCY, INTENSITY and DURATION/TIME required to maintain aerobic fitness (the central factors)? 2. What is the minimum FREQUENCY, INTENSITY, DURATION/TIME and EFFORT INTERVALS required to maintain anaerobic fitness (the peripheral factors)?

41 Objective: Enhance muscle’s ATP-CP energy capacity –5-10 second max output bursts followed by sec active recovery; Alternate between 2+ work intervals and 2+ recovery intervals –Adaptation occurs within 2-4 weeks. Detraining will take effect within 2 weeks. Note: high risk training; potential injuries associated with this type of training. Especially important to warm up and cool down. Benefits = sprinters/events lasting less than 20 sec. Specific Guidelines for ATP-CP System

42 Objective: Elevate Lactate Threshold Levels –Sub max levels of intensity will not stimulate adaptation. Need to train at level that will elicit lactic acid production. –Train 2-3x/week (ample time for recovery); 2-3 min effort intervals followed by 2-3 min recovery intervals; repeat 2-12x –2-3 min recovery is not enough time to deplete lactic acid from blood, therefore lactate threshold must elevate to accommodate the training stimulus. Note: complete LT training at least 2 weeks before competition Benefits: Everyone, but the highest injury rate. Specific Guidelines for Glycolytic System

43 Objective: Improve body’s ability to deliver O2 and remove CO2 through central factors –Sub-maximal training; 60-80% MHR, 20min + –Not necessarily “sport specific” –Most benefits are central adaptations involving the heart circulatory and respiratory systems. Note: the most appropriate introductory cardiovascular program to start with to build a good fitness base. Specific Guidelines for Oxidative System

44 ATP-CP INTERVAL TRAINING: 5-10 second max output bursts ( % HRR; RPE = 9-10) followed by sec active recovery; Alternate between 2+ work intervals and 2+ recovery intervals GLYCOLYTIC INTERVAL TRAINING: 2-3 min effort intervals (85-95% HRR; RPE = 7-8) followed by 2-3 min recovery intervals; repeat 2-12x Example 1: Example 1: 30sec (max intensity) / 30sec (active rest), repeat 4-12x Example 2: Example 2: 90sec (90% HRR) / 90sec (recovery), repeat 10x Example 3: Example 3: 60sec (85% HRR) / 120sec (70% HRR), repeat 7x Example 4: Example 4: 120sec (85% HRR) / 60sec (70% HRR), repeat 7x Example 5: Example 5: 3min (75-85% HRR) / 1min (60% HRR), repeat 11x SMALL GROUP EXERCISE: Sample Interval Training Programs Indicate the training objective for each sample program:

45 Over-training Indicated by a plateau or drop in performance over a period of several days; caused by too little recovery time between sessions A)TRACK RESTING HEART RATE B)TRACK TRAINING HEART RATE >10% over previous values = over-training

46 Improvement, Maintenance, Over-training, Detraining CENTRAL FACTORS Compared to the peripheral factors, the CENTRAL FACTORS of the CV System are (More or Less): PERIPHERAL FACTORS Compared to the central factors, the PERIPHERAL FACTORS of the CV System are (More or Less): easily improved easily maintained easily over-trained easily detrained easily improved easily maintained easily over-trained easily detrainedMoreLessLessMoreLessMoreMoreLess

47 ASSIGNMENT: The Great Debates 1. Which is better for fat loss…Longer Duration, Lower Intensity OR Shorter Duration, Higher Intensity? 2. Which is a better workout order…Cardio before or after Weights? CARDIO CONFUSION

48 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY & PROGRAM DESIGN FOR MUSCULAR FITNESS LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.To understand the neuromuscular responses and adaptations to resistance training 2.To understand muscle microstructure, and the role of actin and myosin in muscle actions 3.To apply an understanding of the relationship between different muscle fibre types and muscle fibre recruitment to the design of resistance training programs 4.To understand the relationship between the various energy systems and muscle fibre types 5.To understand the application of the fundamental principles of training to the design of resistance training programs 6.To understand the relationship between the different training objectives of Strength, Power, Endurance and Mass and the application of O.F.I.T.T. in the design of resistance training programs that meet these objectives 7.To understand the application of O.F.I.T.T. in the resistance training continuum (improvement vs. maintenance vs. over-training vs. detraining) 8.To explore controversies in the design of resistance training programs

49 MAJOR GOALS OF STRENGTH CONDITIONING STRENGTH ENDURANCE POWER MUSCLE MASS & TONE

50 NEUROMUSCULAR RESPONSES & ADAPTATIONS Connective tissues become thicker & stronger Mitochondrial density decreases due to the dilution effect of enlarged/added myofibrils Muscle glycogen stores increase Concentrations of ATP and Creatine Phosphate increase Recruitment of motor units increases, allowing for a greater force output Motor unit firing rate increases, allowing for a greater force output Increased threshold protection of Golgi Tendon Organs Regulation of blood pressure and HDL cholesterol Improved metabolic rate Increased bone mineral density Increased glucose tolerance & insulin sensitivity DOMS (Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness) 24-48hrs Chemicals released from micro-tearing of connective tissue and/or muscle fibres muscleDelayed due to: muscle fat skin (pain receptors) (pain receptors) Is DOMS a prerequisite for better progress? Central vs. Peripheral Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Adaptations HYPERTROPHY: HYPERTROPHY: due to increase in both size & number of myofibrils (actin & myosin) NOTE: NOTE: Strength gains in first 4 weeks due to increased neurological efficiency & recruitment, NOT hypertrophy

51 MUSCLE MACRO & MICRO STRUCTURES

52 MUSCLE CONTRACTION

53 The Sliding Filament Theory 1.Action Potential 2.Myosin Binding to Actin 3.The Power Stroke

54 TYPES OF MUSCLE ACTIONS ISOMETRIC: ISOMETRIC: Muscle contracts with no change in its length during force production. CONCENTRIC: CONCENTRIC: Positive muscle action whereby the muscle is shortened under its own force. ECCENTRIC: ECCENTRIC: Negative muscle action whereby the muscle resists while it is forced to lengthen. During which type of contractions can you lift a) the most weight, and b) the least amount of weight?

55 MOTOR UNITS 1. All-or-None Principle 2. Force of muscle contraction is dependent upon: a) Rate of motor neuron firing b) Number & Size of muscle fibres innervated

56 MOTOR UNITS PERIODIZATION OF REPS AND EXERCISES

57 SENSORY MECHANISMS Golgi Tendon Organ Muscle Spindle Monitors changes in muscle length. When spindle fibers are rapidly stretched, a stretch reflex is elicited, causing muscle to contract. Monitors changes in muscle tension. When tension developed in muscle becomes too great, further contraction is inhibited, and muscle relaxes.

58 MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES

59 CHARACTERISTICS & TRAINING PARAMETERS OF MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES Fibre Type Type I fibres Type II A fibres Type II B fibres Other Designations Slow Oxidative Fast Oxidative Glycolytic Fast Glycolytic Contraction time Slow Fast Very Fast Size of motor neuron Small Large Very Large Resistance to fatigue High Intermediate Low Activity Used for Aerobic Long term anaerobic Short term anaerobic Energy System FA Oxidation An/Aerobic Glycolysis ATP-CP Force production Low High Very High Mitochondrial density High High Low Capillary density High Intermediate Low Oxidative capacity High High Low Glycolytic capacity Low High High Major storage fuel Triglycerides CP, Glycogen CP, Glycogen Training Objective Endurance Mass, Strength Strength, Power Type of Adaptation Biochemical Structural Neural Intensity (%RM) <70% 85-70% 95-85% Repetitions Sets B=3-5, A=5-8 Rest Between Sets 20-90sec sec 2-5min Rep Speed slow/med/fast slow to med slow/med/fast

60 RECRUITMENT OF MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES Exercise Intensity (% of VO2max or %RM) Active Muscle Fibre (%)

61 REP SPEED RELATIVE TO ENERGY SYSTEMS & TRAINING OBJECTIVES MAX STRENGTH >105%RM (eccentric), slow = MAX STRENGTH MAX STRENGTH %RM (1-8 reps), slow to med. = MAX STRENGTH HYPERTROPHY 60-80%RM (8-15 reps), slow to med. = HYPERTROPHY POWER 50-80%RM (8-20 reps), fast = POWER ENDURANCE 15reps), slow to med. = ENDURANCE (5-10sec) (1-3min) (20min+) Fast = +1, -1 Med. = +2/+3, -2/-3 Slow = +4/-4 (or higher) 6 reps (+2, 1, -2, 0 ) = 30sec VS. 6 reps (+1, 0, -2, 0) = 18sec 10 reps (+1, 0, -2, 0) = 30sec VS. 10 reps (+3, 1, -3, 0) = 70sec

62 ENERGY DELIVERY SYSTEMS & SPORTS SPECIFICITY ROWING (2000m race – 6min) 75% 75% Oxidative Phosphorylation (beta oxidation & aerobic glycolysis) 22% 22% Anaerobic Glycolysis 3% 3% ATP-CP System SOCCER (midfield player) & ICE HOCKEY 50% 50% Oxidative Phosphorylation 25% 25% Anaerobic Glycolysis 25% 25% ATP-CP System VOLLEYBALL 40% 40% Oxidative Phosphorylation 20% 20% Anaerobic Glycolysis 40% 40% ATP-CP System FOOTBALL 30% 30% Oxidative Phosphorylation (used during recovery between plays) 10% 10% Anaerobic Glycolysis 60% 60% ATP-CP System

63 MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES, ENERGY DELIVERY SYSTEMS & SPORTS SPECIFICITY ROWING (2000m race – 6min) 75% 75% Type I, Aerobic 22% 22% Type IIa, Anaerobic Glycolysis 3% 3% Type IIb, ATP-CP SOCCER (midfield player) & ICE HOCKEY 50% 50% Type I, Aerobic 25% 25% Type IIa, Anaerobic Glycolysis 25% 25% Type IIb, ATP-CP VOLLEYBALL 40% 40% Type I, Aerobic 20% 20% Type IIa, Anaerobic Glycolysis 40% 40% Type IIb, ATP-CP FOOTBALL 30% 30% Type I, Aerobic 10% 10% Type IIa, Anaerobic Glycolysis 60% 60% Type IIb, ATP-CP

64 METABOLIC & BIOMECHANIC SPORTS SPECIFICITY Energy Systems Muscle Fibre Types Movement Patterns Muscle Groups Nutritional Needs - Energy expenditure - Energy pathways - Biochemical vs. Structural vs. Neural adaptations Contraction Types

65 RESISTANCE TRAINING TERMINOLOGY ISOKINETIC CONTRACTION: ISOKINETIC CONTRACTION: Muscle action through a constant speed causing the muscle to exert a continuous and maximum force throughout a given ROM. DYNAMIC CONSTANT CONTRACTION (ISOTONIC): DYNAMIC CONSTANT CONTRACTION (ISOTONIC): Muscle action against a constant resistance. DYNAMIC VARIABLE CONTRACTION: DYNAMIC VARIABLE CONTRACTION: Muscle action against a changing resistance. REPETITION: REPETITION: A single, complete action of any one given exercise beginning from starting position, progressing to its ending position, and returning to its starting position. SETS: SETS: A given number of complete and continuous repetitions performed consecutively without resting. LOAD: LOAD: The amount of resistance against which a muscular force is being applied. REP RANGE: REP RANGE: Includes both a lower limit (least # of reps to be completed) as well as an upper limit (most # of reps to be completed). REPETITION MAXIMUM: REPETITION MAXIMUM: Maximum load that can be lifted during an exercise in an all- out effort over a given number of reps.

66 RESISTANCE TRAINING TERMINOLOGY CIRCUIT TRAINING ROUTINE: CIRCUIT TRAINING ROUTINE: Several different exercises are completed, one immediately after another, within the resistance training session. REGULAR RESISTANCE TRAINING ROUTINE: REGULAR RESISTANCE TRAINING ROUTINE: Concentrating on one exercise at a time, multiple sets are completed for each exercise included within the resistance training session STANDARD RESISTANCE TRAINING ROUTINE: STANDARD RESISTANCE TRAINING ROUTINE: For any one given exercise included within a regular resistance training session, the resistance, reps, and rest between sets remains constant. VARIABLE RESISTANCE TRAINING ROUTINE: VARIABLE RESISTANCE TRAINING ROUTINE: For any one given exercise included within a regular resistance training session, the resistance, reps and/or rest between sets vary. SMALL GROUP EXERCISE: SMALL GROUP EXERCISE: Design a “Standard Resistance Training Routine” and a “Variable Resistance Training Routine” for a muscle group of your choice.

67 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING Progressive Resistance (The Double Progression System of Resistance Training) 1.Start with a conservative weight and reps consistent with the lower limit of the appropriate rep range. 2.With each successive resistance training session, increase reps by at least one at a time: Lower Limit +1, Lower Limit +2,…Upper Limit 3.When the upper limit of the rep range is completed with the initial weight, increase the intensity one level and drop the reps to the lower limit of the identified rep range 4.Complete the rep progression with the new weight. PARTNER EXERCISE: PARTNER EXERCISE: Demonstrate the application of Progressive Resistance by performing 3 sets (10-15 reps/set) of an exercise (i.e. push-ups, lateral raises, bicep curls, etc.) and record the reps for each set. What will be your goal for your next workout with this exercise?

68 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING Progressive Overload Specificity (S.A.I.D.) Individuality Reversibility Variability Periodization

69 O.F.I.T.T. General Guidelines for PRT (p.117) Objective?Objective? Frequency?Frequency? Intensity?Intensity? Time?Time? Type?Type? Strength, Endurance, Power, Mass, Tone How often should the same muscle groups be trained? Prescribed as %RM or the equivalent Rep Range. Dependent upon 5 factors: # of exercises, # of sets, # of reps, rest between sets, and rep speed Compound vs. Isolation Exercises,

70 OVERCOMPENSATION CYCLE Proper adaptation dependent upon training intensity, volume and recovery methods. Homeostasis (normal biological state) Overcompensation (Degree of improvement) Exercise Stimulus FatigueCompensation Regression

71 OVERCOMPENSATION CYCLE Overcompensation Cycle Comparing Different Training Frequencies

72 Improvement & Maintenance of Resistance Training Objectives 1. Your client has hit a plateau in their training program. Provide examples of 3 strategies you could apply to help stimulate new progress. 2. Your work schedule and family commitments are interfering with your personal fitness program. How can you adjust your training frequency, intensity, sets, reps and exercises to maintain your muscular fitness? PARTNER EXERCISE

73 Over-training Indicated by a plateau or drop in performance over a period of several days; caused by too little recovery time between sessions Risk of resistance over-training is associated with: Failure to schedule adequate rest between similar training sessions Failure to schedule “active rest” periods within micro-cycles Failure to schedule “active rest” periods within meso-cycles Failure to vary exercise intensities Increase in the number of sets per exercise beyond 4 Increase in the number of exercises for a given muscle group Failure to vary exercises for a given muscle group

74 ASSIGNMENT: The Great Debates 1.Which is better for burning fat, what burns more calories…Cardio or Weight Training? 2.How much Cardio and how much Weight Training should I be doing to lose weight? 3.I don’t want to build muscle, I just want to tone. What kind of exercise program should I be following? 4.I have a difficult time putting on muscle…How do I build bigger arms and a bigger chest? MUSCLE MYSTERIES

75 ANATOMY (Upper Body) & PROGRAM DESIGN FOR MUSCULAR FITNESS LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.To know the origin, insertion and line of action for the muscles of the upper body. 2.To apply knowledge of anatomy to effective exercises and be able to distinguish between the agonists, antagonists, synergists and stabilizers. 3.To apply an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of compound versus isolation exercises in the design of resistance training programs. 4.To understand the application of general strength training guidelines in the design of programs. 5.To apply an understanding of a variety of specific resistance training principles commonly used in the design of programs.

76 ORIGIN: ORIGIN: muscle attachment that moves least, generally more proximal (towards mid-line of body). INSERTION: INSERTION: muscle attachment that moves most, generally more distal (away from mid-line of body). LINE OF ACTION: LINE OF ACTION: An imaginary line that connects the origin to insertion and denotes the joint action(s) caused by the muscle. MUSCLE ORIGIN, INSERTION & ACTION

77 Muscular Classifications AGONIST (prime mover): AGONIST (prime mover): muscle most directly involved with the movement ANTAGONIST: ANTAGONIST: muscle opposite to the agonist that assists in joint stabilization and can slow down or stop the intended movement SYNERGIST: SYNERGIST: muscle that assists the prime mover in a movement STABILIZER: STABILIZER: muscle that stabilizes a joint; usually contracts isometrically as a joint is moved

78 CLAVICULAR HEAD ORIGIN Clavicle, medial half (Anterior) INSERTION Humerus (Proximal Anterior) Bicipital Groove (Outer Lip) STERNAL HEAD ORIGIN Sternum (Anterior) Ribs (2nd to 6th), Costal Cartilages INSERTION Humerus (Proximal Anterior) Bicipital Groove (Outer Lip) ACTION Shoulder: Flexion Horizontal Adduction Internal Rotation PECTORALIS MAJOR

79 ORIGIN Ribs (3rd to 5th), anterior surface INSERTION Scapula (Superior Anterior) - Coracoid Process ACTION Scapular: Protraction/Abduction Downward Rotation (During Abduction) Depression PECTORALIS MINOR

80 The serratus anterior holds the scapula against the thoracic wall. A winged scapula condition indicates a weakness of the serratus anterior. winged scapula condition ORIGIN Lateral surface of ribs 1-9 INSERTION Costal (anterior) surface of medial border of scapula ACTION Scapular: Protraction/Abduction Upward Rotation SERRATUS ANTERIOR

81 The anterior deltoid is involved in shoulder abduction when the shoulder is externally rotated. The anterior deltoid is weak in strict horizontal flexion but assists the pectoralis major during shoulder horizontal flexion / shoulder flexion (elbow slightly inferior to shoulders). ORIGIN Clavicle (Anterior Lateral Third) INSERTION Humerous (Lateral) - Deltoid Tuberosity ACTION Shoulder: Abduction Flexion Transverse Flexion Internal Rotation ANTERIOR DELTOID

82 The lateral deltoid is involved in shoulder abduction when the shoulder is internally rotated. It is involved in shoulder flexion when the shoulder is internally rotated. It is involved in shoulder transverse abduction (shoulder externally rotated). ORIGIN Scapula - Acromion process (Lateral) INSERTION Humerus (Lateral) Deltoid Tuberosity ACTIONS Shoulder: Abduction Flexion Transverse Abduction LATERAL DELTOID

83 The posterior deltoid is the primary shoulder hyperextensor, since the latissimus dorsi does not extend the shoulder beyond anatomical position (aka hyperextension) ORIGIN Scapular spine (Inferior edge) INSERTION Humerus (Lateral) - Deltoid Tuberosity ACTION Shoulder: Extension Horizontal Abduction External Rotation POSTERIOR DELTOID

84 ORIGIN Long Head [1]: lower edge of glenoid cavity of scapula Lateral Head [2]: lateral posterior surface of humerous Medial Head [3]: posterior surface of humerous INSERTION Ulna (Proximal Posterior) [1, 2, 3 ] - Olecranon Process TRICEPS BRACHII ACTIONS Elbow: Extension [1, 2, 3 ] Shoulder: Extension [1 ] Adduction [1 ]

85 ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLES

86 ORIGIN Scapula (Superior), Supraspinous fossa INSERTION Humerus, Greater Tubercle (Superior) ACTION Shoulder: Abduction (initiates) Stabilization SUPRASPINATUS Most often injured rotator cuff muscle. Inability to smoothly abduct the arm against resistance may indicate a rotator cuff injury. Avoiding full ROM (i.e. not initiating deltoid exercises from fully adducted position) may not allow Supraspinatus to be fully strengthened since it is more fully activated at these initial degrees of shoulder abduction/flexion. Once injured ROM is typically restricted on the shoulder press. Examples of affected exercises: Shoulder Press, Upright Row, Lateral RaiseShoulder PressUpright RowLateral Raise Example preventative / corrective exercises: Front Lateral Raise, Lying Lateral RaiseFront Lateral RaiseLying Lateral Raise

87 ORIGIN Scapula (Medial), Infraspinous fossa INSERTION Humerus, Greater Tuberosity (Posterior) ACTION Shoulder: External Rotation Transverse Abduction Posterior Stability INFRASPINATUS INFRASPINATUS WEAKNESS: Second most often injured rotator cuff muscle. Examples of affected exercises with suggestions for high risk individuals: Bench PressBench Press: Bring bar lower on chest, keeping elbows closer to sides. Chest PressChest Press: Elevate seat so elbows are closer to sides Range of motion may need to be limited so elbows do not go behind shoulders Example preventative / corrective exercises: Lying External Rotation, RowsLying External RotationRows

88 TERES MINOR ORIGIN Scapula (Lateral) Lateral Border Posterior on upper and middle part INSERTION Humerus Greater Tubercle (Posterior) Inferior Facet ACTION Shoulder: External Rotation Transverse Abduction Posterior Stability

89 ORIGIN Scapula (Anterior) - Subscapularis Fossa INSERTION Humerus (Proximal Anterior) - Lesser Tubercle ACTION Shoulder: Internal Rotation Anterior Stability Posterior Stability SUBSCAPULARIS

90 Exercise Classifications Primary/compound (multi-joint) Usually involves more co-ordination and recruitment of many muscle groups, using heavier weight loads – Ex. Bench Press Isolation (single-joint) Involves isolating single muscle groups, and using lower weight loads – Ex. Dumbbell Chest Fly

91 ISOLATION VS. COMPOUND EXERCISES COMPOUND EXERCISES + Sequential muscle action + Muscle balance + Coordination + Positive motivation + Saves time - Limited by weaker muscles ISOLATION EXERCISES + Suitable for correcting muscle imbalances + Specific injury rehabilitation + Options for working around injuries + Adds greater variety - Neglects stabilizers - Requires more time Does not promote: - Sequential muscle action - Muscle balance - Coordination - Positive motivation

92 Exercise Sequence Exercises spaced throughout program so as to rest one area while working another Compound exercises precede isolation exercises requiring the same muscle Exercises requiring larger muscles precede exercises requiring smaller muscles Exercises requiring muscles closer to the mid-line precede exercises requiring muscles further from the midline Exercises requiring less developed muscles precede exercises requiring more developed muscles

93 LOWER FIBRES ORIGIN Spine, Thoracic Vertebrae (T4-12) INSERTION Scapula, Spine (Inferior Medial) MIDDLE FIBRES ORIGIN Spine, Cervical Vertebrae (C7) Spine, Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-3) INSERTION Scapula: Acromion Process (Medial Border) Spine (Superior Border) ACTION Scapula: Upper Rotation Adduction Depression Spine (Thoracic), weak ext. TRAPEZIUS ACTION Scapula: Adduction Elevation Upward Rotation UPPER FIBRES ORIGIN Skull (Posterior Inferior) [1] INSERTION Clavicle, Lateral Third (Posterior) [ 1, 2] ACTION Scapular Elevation [1, 2] Cervical Extension [1] Neck Extension, Lateral Flexion, Rotation [1]

94 ORIGIN Cervical Vertebrae (Upper 3 or 4) INSERTION Scapula, Medial Border (Superior part) ACTION Scapular: Elevation Downward Rotation Abduction Spine (Cervical): Lateral flexion right [Right Levator Scapulae] Lateral flexion left [Left Levator Scapulae] Rotation right [Right Levator Scapulae] Rotation left [Left Levator Scapulae] LEVATOR SCAPULAE Stabilization: The Levator Scapulae holds the scapula against the trunk.

95 ORIGIN Spine: Cervical Vertebrae (C7) [1] Thoracic Vertebrae (T1 [1], T2-T5 [2]) INSERTION Scapula: Medial Border (Below spine) Superior [1] Inferior [2] ACTION Scapular: Adduction [1, 2] Downward Rotation [1, 2] RHOMBOIDS Heads 1. Rhomboids Minor 2. Rhomboids Major Stabilization: The Rhomboids holds the scapula against the thoracic wall.

96 ORIGIN Ilium, Posterior Crest Sacrum (Posterior) Vertebral Column Lumbar Vertebrae (L1-5) Thoracic Vertebrae (T7-12) Ribs (Posterior), Lower 3 or 4 ribs INSERTION Humerus (Proximal Anterior/Medial) ACTION Shoulder: Adduction, Extension, Internal Rotation, Transverse Extension Scapula (Assists): Depression, Downward, Rotation, Adduction LATISSIMUS DORSI The latissimus dorsi does not extend the shoulder beyond anatomical position (shoulder hyperextension). In strict transverse extension, the latissimus dorsi is weak. Incidentally, the posterior deltoid is strongly involved in both shoulder hyperextension and transverse extension.anatomical positiontransverse extensionposterior deltoid

97 ORIGIN Scapula (Posterior, Inferior) Inferior Angle (Posterior, Lateral) INSERTION Humerus (Proximal Anterior/Medial) Medial Lip of Intertubercular Groove ACTIONS Shoulder: Extension Internal Rotation Adduction TERES MAJOR

98 1. LONG HEAD (Outer) 2. SHORT HEAD (Inner) ORIGIN Scapula: Supraglenoid Tuberosity [1] Coracoid Process [2] INSERTION Radius tubercle [1, 2] Fascia of forearm Bicipital Aponeurosis [1, 2] ACTION Elbow flexion [1, 2] Forearm supination [1, 2] Shoulder: Flexion (Weak) [2] Transverse Flexion (Weak) [2] BICEPS BRACHII The biceps brachii is a stronger elbow flexor when the radioulnar joint (forearm) is supinated.supinated During elbow flexion, motor units in the lateral portion of the long head of the biceps are preferentially activated, whereas during forearm rotation, motor units in the medial portion are preferentially activated.

99 ORIGIN Humerus (Lateral Condyle) INSERTION Radius (Lateral Distal) on Styloid Process ACTIONS Elbow flexion BRACHIORADIALIS The brachioradialis is a stronger elbow flexor when the radioulnar joint (forearm) is in a midposition between supination and pronation. When the forearm is pronated, the brachioradialis is more active during elbow flexion since the biceps brachii is in a mechanical disadvantage.elbow flexorsupinationpronationbiceps brachii

100 BRACHIALIS ORIGIN Humerus (Anterior) INSERTION Ulna, Coronoid Process ACTIONS Elbow flexion The brachialis becomes more readily activated during isometric elbow flexion. During a dynamic elbow flexion, the biceps is more readily activated than the brachialis.isometricbiceps

101 FOREARM FLEXORS 3. FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS ORIGIN: Humerus, Medial Epicondyle INSERTION: 2 nd & 3 rd Metacarpals ACTION: Wrist Flexion & Abduction; Weak elbow flexion 5. PALMARIS LONGUS ORIGIN: Humerus, Medial Epicondyle INSERTION: 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th, 5th Metacarpals ACTION: Wrist Flexion; Weak elbow flexion 4. FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS ORIGIN: Humerus on Medial Epicondyle, Ulna (Proximal Posterior) INSERTION: 5th Metacarpals, Carpals (Medial) ACTION: Wrist Flexion & Adduction; Weak elbow flexion The Palmaris Longus is absent on one or both sides in about 21% of people.

102 FOREARM EXTENSORS 2. EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS ORIGIN: Humerus on Lateral Epicondyle INSERTION: Second Metacarpal ACTION: Wrist extension & abduction; Weak elbow extension 3. EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS BREVIS ORIGIN: Humerus on Lateral Epicondyle INSERTION: Third Metacarpal ACTION: Wrist extension & abduction; Weak elbow extension 4. EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS ORIGIN: Humerus on Lateral Epicondyle INSERTION: Fifth Metacarpal ACTION: Wrist extension & adduction; Weak elbow extension

103 General Guidelines for Proper Technique Perform proper warm-up Maintain a neutral spine Avoid using momentum; Use controlled movements Use full range of motion Breath rhythmically (positive/concentric = exhale, negative/eccentric = inhale) Do not use too much or too little resistance Train muscle groups proportionately in a balanced manner Train larger muscle groups before smaller

104 Specific Strength Training Principles & Systems Muscle Confusion Muscle Priority Isolation Flushing Holistic Split System Pyramiding Supersets CASE STUDY PARTNER ASSIGNMENT Design one PRT program for your case study client in Appendix A utilizing 2 different principles/systems. Please indicate which principles/systems you chose and why.

105 PROGRAM DESIGN FOR FLEXIBILITY LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.To differentiate between BALLISTIC, DYNAMIC, STATIC and PNF stretching and understand their different applications in program design. 2.To apply an understanding of flexibility training guidelines using the O.F.I.T.T. principle. 3.To understand the application of O.F.I.T.T. in the flexibility training continuum (improvement vs. maintenance vs. over-training vs. detraining) 4.To explore controversies in the application and benefits of stretching for flexibility and injury prevention.

106 TYPES OF STRETCHING BALLISTIC, DYNAMIC, STATIC, PNF

107 TYPES OF STRETCHING BALLISTIC, DYNAMIC, STATIC, PNF Golgi Tendon Organ (PNF Application) Muscle Spindle Monitors changes in muscle length. When spindle fibers are rapidly stretched, a stretch reflex is elicited, causing muscle to contract. Monitors changes in muscle tension. When tension in muscle becomes too great, further contraction is inhibited, and muscle relaxes.

108 O.F.I.T.T. General Guidelines for Stretching Objective?Objective? Frequency?Frequency? Intensity?Intensity? Time?Time? Type?Type? Dependent on client’s motivation for improving ROM…specific to a certain performance, fitness and/or health standard. No upper limits on number of flexibility training components per week. Dependent upon 1) degree of discomfort during stretch, and 2) holding time. “Comfortably uncomfortable” Dependent upon 4 factors: # of stretches, holding time, # of sets per stretch, rest between sets/stretches Only static or PNF; Stretches for each joint

109 ANATOMY (Lower Body) & PROGRAM DESIGN LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.To know the origin, insertion and line of action for the muscles of the lower body including the GLUTES, ABDUCTORS, ADDUCTORS, QUADRICEPS, HAMSTRINGS, and CALVES. 2.To apply knowledge of anatomy to effective exercises and be able to distinguish between the agonists, antagonists, synergists and stabilizers. 3.To learn proper exercise and spotting technique and practice exercise instruction using the Seven Step Process. 4.To apply the Principles of Training and specific program design methods in the instruction and performance of mini exercise routines for different muscle groups.

110 ORIGIN Ilium: Illiac Spine (Anterior Inferior) [1] Femur: Lateral Surface [2 ] Anterior Suface [3 ] Medial Suface [4 ] INSERTION Tibia: Tibial Tuberosity, Patellar Tendon [1, 2, 3, 4 ] ACTION Knee Extension [1, 2, 3, 4 ] Hip Flexion [1 ] QUADRICEPS Heads 1. Rectus Femoris 2. Vastus Lateralis (Externus) 3. Vastus Intermedius 4. Vastus Medialis (Internus)

111 ORIGIN Ischium: Ischial Tuberosity [1, 3, 4 ] Femur (posterior): [2 ] Linea Aspera, Lateral Condyloid Ridge INSERTION Tibia: Lateral Condyle [1, 2 ], Medial Condyle [3, 4 ] Fibula: Head [1, 2 ] ACTION Knee: Flexion [1, 2, 3, 4 ] External Rotation [1, 2 ] Internal Rotation [3, 4 ] Hip: Extension [1, 3, 4 ] HAMSTRINGS Heads 1. Biceps Femoris, Long Head 2. Biceps Femoris, Short Head 3. Semitendinosus 4. Semimembranosus

112 ORIGIN Ilium, Crest (Posterior) Sacrum (Posterior) Fascia of the Lumbar Area INSERTION Femur, Gluteal Line Tibia, Lateral Condyle & Iliotibial Tract ACTION Hip: Extension [1, 2] External Rotation [1, 2] Transverse Abduction [1, 2] Adduction [2] GLUTEUS MAXIMUS

113 ORIGIN Ilium, External Surface just below crest: (Anterior) [1] (Posterior) [2] INSERTION Femur, Greater Trochanter (Posterior and Lateral Surface) [1, 2] ACTION Hip: Abduction [1, 2] Transverse Abduction [1, 2] Internal Rotation [1] External Rotation (during Abduction) [2] Steadies pelvis so it does not sag when opposite side is not supported with leg. GLUTEUS MEDIUS Heads 1. Anterior Fibers 2. Posterior Fibers

114 ORIGIN Ilium: External Surface (Below the origin of the Gluteus Medius) INSERTION Femur: Greater Trochanter (Anterior Surface) ACTIONS Hip: Abduction Transverse Abduction Internal Rotation (during Abduction) GLUTEUS MINIMUS Assists the Gluteus Medius with pelvic stability so it does not sag when opposite side is not supported with leg.Gluteus Medius

115 ORIGIN Ilium [1]: Inner Surface Sacrum [1]: Base Vertebral Column (Lateral Surface) [2]: - Thoracic Vertebrae (T-12) - Lumbar Vertebrae (L1-5) - Intervertebral Discs INSERTION Femur: - Lesser Trochanter [2] - Shaft below Lesser Trochanter [1] Tendon of Psoas Major & Femur [1] ACTION Hip Flexion [1, 2] Spine (Thoracic & Lumbar) Rotation [2] ILIOPSOAS Heads 1. Iliacus 2. Psoas (Major & Minor)

116 ORIGIN Ilium: Iliac Spine (Anterior Superior) INSERTION Tibia: Medial Condyle (Anterior) ACTIONS Hip: Flexion Abduction External Rotation Knee: Flexion SARTORIUS

117 GRACILIS ORIGIN Pubis INSERTION Tibia (Superior), Medial surface ACTIONS Hip: Adduction Transverse Adduction Knee: Flexion

118 ADDUCTOR BREVIS, MAGNUS, LONGUS ORIGIN Pubis [1, 2, 3] Ischium [3] INSERTION Femur (medial): Lesser Trochaner [1 ] Linea Aspera [1, 2, 3 ] Medial Condyle Ridge [3 ] ACTION Hip: Adduction [1, 2, 3 ] Transverse Adduction [1, 2, 3 ] Flexion (initial) [1, 2 ] Extension [3] External Rotation (during adduction) [1, 3 ] Heads 1. Adductor Brevis 2. Adductor Longus 3. Adductor Magnus Anterior (adductor part) Posterior (hamstring part or ischial fibers) 1. Adductor Brevis R. Posterior ViewR. Anterior View

119 GASTROCNEMIUS ORIGIN Femur: Medial Condyle (Posterior) [1] Lateral Condyle (Posterior) [2] INSERTION Calcaneous, Achilles Tendon [1, 2 ] ACTION Ankle: Plantar Flexion [1, 2 ] Knee: Flexion [1, 2 ] Heads 1. Medial Head 2. Lateral Head In moderate force, soleus is preferentially activated in the concentric phase, whereas gastrocnemius is preferentially activated in the eccentric phase. Gastrocnemius becomes even more activated at higher lengthening velocities. During hopping, the gastrocnemius, with its greater proportion of FT motor units, is preferentially activated over soleus. During stationary cycling, gastrocnemius is also preferentially activated at higher pedaling speeds.soleusconcentriceccentric Although involvement of the lateral and medial heads would not seem to be altered by medial or lateral rotation of the hip, MRI research suggests "toes in" activates both heads and "toes out" activates medial head to a higher degree. mediallateral rotation of the hip

120 SOLEUS ORIGIN Tibia (Upper Posterior) Fibula (Upper Posterior) INSERTION Calcaneous, Achilles Tendon ACTION Ankle: Plantar Flexion In the seated calf raise (knees flexed to 90º), the gastrocs are virtually inactive while the load is borne almost entirely by the soleus.soleus In moderate force, the soleus is preferentially activated in the concentric phase, whereas the gastrocnemius is preferentially activated in the eccentric phase

121 TIBIALIS ANTERIOR ORIGIN Tibia (Lateral) INSERTION Tarsal: Cuneiform (Medial) Metatarsal (First) ACTION Ankle: Dorsal Flexion Inversion (Supination)

122 BIOMECHANICS & PRINCIPLES OF MOVEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.To understand the application of Newton’s laws of motion (i.e. inertia, acceleration, reaction) in exercise performance. 2.To understand force production relative to muscle length and position of muscle attachment. 3.To understand the factors which influence efficiency of movement. 4.To understand lever lengths relative to rotation and force production.

123 The Essentials of Biomechanical Concepts Motion AnalysisMotion Analysis (movement pattern/muscle sequence, forces, lever arms, acceleration) ForceForce (magnitude, direction, internal, external) TorqueTorque LeversLevers StabilityStability

124 Planes of Motion Movements occur in one of three planes of motion. PARTNER EXERCISE: PARTNER EXERCISE: Determine the plane of movement for each of the exercises in Chapter 5.

125 LEVERS A lever is a rigid bar that rotates about an axis. – Rotation is caused as force is applied to the lever. – Two types of force act upon human levers, they are: Muscular force Resistive force

126 The Lever Fulcrum is the pivot point of a lever (joint). Lever Arm is the segment of the body (arm or leg) which is being moved about the fulcrum. Moment Arm is the perpendicular distance from the applied force to the fulcrum. Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

127 LEVER SYSTEMS

128 Torque Is the degree to which a force tends to rotate a lever about a fulcrum. Torque = F (rotational) x D (moment arm or force arm) PARTNER EXERCISE: 1. Rank the following exercises in order according to which one produces the least amount of torque about the spine to the greatest. BB Squat BB Front Squat Good Mornings Stiff-Legged Deadlift 2. In what ways could proper technique reduce torque about the spine when squatting?

129 FORCE APPLICATIONS GROUP EXERCISE: GROUP EXERCISE: Provide an example for each of the following where the force either a) contributes to the intention of the exercise/movement, or b) works against the intention of the exercise/movement. 1. Static Friction 2. Kinetic Friction 3. Elastic Force 4. Air Resistance 5. Water Resistance

130 FORCE VECTORS PARTNER EXERCISE: PARTNER EXERCISE: Based upon the magnitude and direction of forces acting through the knee joint, rank the following versions of the lunge from the least stressful to the most stressful on the knees. Reverse Lunge Forward Lunge Stationary Lunge

131 INTERNAL FORCES BIOMECHANICAL FACTORS AFFECTING MUSCLE FORCE 1.Length of Muscle (Optimal = 1.2x resting length) 2.Velocity of Muscle Contraction - Concentrically: force decreases as velocity increases - Eccentrically: force increases as velocity increases 3. Tendon Insertion 4. Changing Joint Angle

132 INCREASING FORCE GENERATION PARTNER EXERCISE: PARTNER EXERCISE: Choosing one body part, provide a specific exercise example for manipulating each of the following factors in order to increase force generation in the muscle: a) Stabilizing body segments b) Increasing the range of motion of a particular exercise c) Varying the speed of muscular contraction d) Utilizing sequential movement e) Increasing distance force is applied in selection of an exercise f) Using strongest muscles available for a task g) Using all the muscles that can contribute to a task h) Pre-stretching a muscle just prior to contraction i) Pre-loading the muscle prior to the task

133 Laws Governing Motion Newton’s Three Laws

134 LAW OF INERTIA A body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an external, unbalanced force. GROUP EXERCISE Explain the application of this law in the: 1. Performance of a sport/activity 2. Proper execution of an exercise 3. Design of PRT programs for Power

135 LAW OF ACCELERATION Acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force acting on it, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. (a = F/m) GROUP EXERCISE GROUP EXERCISE - Explain the application of this law in the: 1.Use of medicine ball exercises 2.Design of PRT programs for Power (%RM, # of reps, rep speed)

136 LAW of ACTION-REACTION For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. GROUP EXERCISE GROUP EXERCISE - Explain the application of this law in the use of: 1.Exercise Tubing 2.Isokinetic Exercise Equipment (i.e. Hydraulics, Computerized Cybex) 3.Isometric Contractions

137 Stability Refers to the condition of balance where the weight of an object (centre of gravity) is aligned perpendicularly over it’s base of supports. Stability is essential for proper execution of all exercises.

138 Factors Affecting Stability 1. CENTRE OF GRAVITY a) Location (more stability when COG closer to centre of base of support) b) Height (more stability when COG is lowered) c) Force Application (more stability when force received close to COG) 2. BASE OF SUPPORT a) Size of BOS (wide vs. narrow) b) Contact Area c) Number of Supports d) Friction 3. MASS a) Magnitude b) Distribution GROUP EXERCISE: GROUP EXERCISE: Referring to exercises using the stability ball, give examples of how the Factors Affecting Stability affect performance of the exercise.

139 MOTION ANALYSIS PARTNER EXERCISE: PARTNER EXERCISE: Considering the amount of force exerted in relation to the amount of resistance present, and the direction of the applied force in relation to the direction of the resistance, determine the benefit-to-risk ratio (high vs. low) for the following examples: 1.DB Lateral Raise performed with arms straight vs. arms bent at 90 degrees 2.Loaded vs. Unloaded hip flexion while standing 3.Lying straight leg raises with a) no added resistance, b) added resistance, and c) actively applied acceleration


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