Presentation on theme: "CPTN Personal Training Certification"— Presentation transcript:
1 CPTN Personal Training Certification The Art & Science ofPersonal Training(First Weekend)Instructor: Jeff Boris, B.PHE, CPT-CPTN.M
2 ABOUT THE CPTNThe Certified Professional Trainers Network, formerly known as the Canadian Personal Trainers Network, was launched in The CPTN integrates current research and practical applications for education, communication, professional development and marketing opportunities for Personal Trainers to maintain a leading edge on professional training developments.Develops and certifies trainers through the course entitled “The Art and Science of Personal Training Level 1: The Essentials” and the "Fast Track Course on Personal Training.”Launched Canada's first personal trainers Conference.Launched Canada's first National personal trainer certification (1994)Featured in Macleans, YOU, Your Health, Canadian Living, Canadian Fitness, Fitness Management, Confidante, Chatelaine, CITY-TV, CBC Marketplace, The Athlete, and The Toronto Star.Contributed to NFLAC's Specialist Guidelines for Personal Trainers as a committee member.International Recognition through IDEA Health and Fitness Association. It has a worldwide distribution in over 80 countries with over 19,000 members.
3 CPTN CERTIFICATION BENEFITS Able to start own business as a personal trainerAccess to Sport Insurance from other bodiesNational recognition of commitment to the highest standards of excellenceInternational Recognition through IDEA fitnessListed on CPTN's web site as a Personal Trainer referralEarn CECs with professional Distance Education CoursesEligible to join CPTN's leadership team of Practical Assessors, Course Conductors and MentorsThe CPTN Report NewslettersMonthly E-news and client handout viaAccess to Personal Trainer Job ListingsAccess to Fitness Training Facilities ListingsDiscounts on Educational Books and Multi-mediaDiscounts on CTPN Conferences & WorkshopsDiscounts on Products & Services through Suppliers
4 CPTN CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Must be an adult age 18 or olderCurrent CPR (Basic Rescuer) and current Emergency First AidPassing grade on 120 multiple choice Theory Exam of 75% or higherPassing grade on the Practical Exam of 75% or higherDocumentation of a minimum of 20 personal training hours (Complete a Personal Trainer Log) OR a degree/diploma in the physical education/kinesiology field (copies of proof to be submitted to CPTN)Note: Requirements are to be completed within 6 months from exam writing date.Certification RenewalCPTN certification status is due for renewal each year or every two years. In addition to having current CPR and First Aid, you require 7 CECs to renew for 1 year or 14 CECs to renew for 2 years. One hour of continuing education equals 1 CPTN CEC.
5 OTHER CPTN CERTIFICATIONS & COURSES POST-REHABILITATION CONDITIONING SPECIALISTPILATES MAT & BALLWORK SPECIALISTYOGA SPECIALISTCPTN/TBI (Tudor Bompa Institute) SPECIALTY CERTIFICATIONS (On-Line)Ice Hockey Conditioning Specialist CertificationJunior Athletes Training Specialist CertificationPeriodization Planning Specialist CertificationStrength and Conditioning Expert CertificationWebsite:
6 WELCOME TO “THE ART & SCIENCE OF PERSONAL TRAINING” Evidence-based Information (From Current Knowledge to Emerging Theory)Experiential & Interactive Learning (Individual, Partner, Group)Your Mind is Open: “We do not know what we do not know.”Your Manual is a Reference: “Knowledge is in the manual, Wisdom is in the application.”Your Outcome is Your Input: “Contribution enhances everyone’s learning experience.”
7 WHY PERSONAL TRAINING? FIVE REASONS INTELLECTUAL DISTRIBUTIONTOP 10 PROFESSIONS, FASTEST GROWING SEGMENT OF FITNESS INDUSTRYWELLNESS REVOLUTIONHEALTH CRISIS, LIFESTYLE EPIDEMICBABY BOOMERS
8 PERSONAL TRAINER The “SELF-CARE SPECIALIST” Natural Self-Care is…An Attitude of self-responsibility, taking personal responsibility for your health and being accountable for your actions. This includes a willingness to learn, improve yourself and do whatever it takes.Corrective Action giving the body what only you can give it, addressing root causes with approaches that are intelligently aligned with your body’s real and natural needs, to create a healthy environment conducive to longevity, peak performance and a better quality of life.
9 CONSULTING & INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS LEARNING OBJECTIVESTo understand the role of consulting in personal trainingTo understand the significance of developing versatility in interpersonal communication skillsTo understand the theories, concepts, and strategies associated with consulting and interpersonal communication skillsTo develop greater self-awareness of one’s role in personal training and develop a mission statement
10 “WHAT DO YOU DO?” “HOW DO YOU DO IT?” “WHY DO YOU DO IT?” WHO ARE YOU?“WHAT DO YOU DO?” “HOW DO YOU DO IT?” “WHY DO YOU DO IT?”Defining and marketing your role as a personal trainer.
11 “WHAT DO YOU DO?” “HOW DO YOU DO IT?” “WHY DO YOU DO IT?” WHO ARE YOU?“WHAT DO YOU DO?” “HOW DO YOU DO IT?” “WHY DO YOU DO IT?”JEFF BORIS, B.PHE, CPTN.CPT.MHolistic Fitness Trainer, Nutrition & Health Research Educator“There is an immense disconnect and unacceptable delay between scientific data and public awareness and prevention.” – Dr. Larry Silver, Clinical Professor at Georgetown Medical Centre, past president of Learning Disabilities Association of America
12 Health & Performance = Nutrition + Exercise - Toxins - Stress MY PHILOSOPHY & SERVICESHealth & Performance = Nutrition + Exercise - Toxins - StressMINDSETSports GoalsMakeover/Physique Transformation GoalsQuality of Life GoalsNUTRITIONRECOVERYEVOLUTIONAESTHETICBoris Model of Self-CareHEALTHFUNCTIONALENVIRONMENT℞EXE CISEDNA
13 My Background B.PHE My First Personal Training Studio General Manager Senior Fitness SpecialistPersonal Training Program ManagerR.A.C.My First Personal Training StudioGeneral ManagerPersonal Training CoordinatorEducation CoordinatorMy BackgroundNatural Health Products Specialist & Research EducatorProfessional Development ChairCourse Conductor, Practical Assessor“Professor of Personal Training”Holistic Fitness & Nutrition Health Research EducationProfessional Services Innovative Products Profitable Partnerships
15 for achieving health, happiness and success! MY MISSION STATEMENTEducate, motivate, empower and inspire people from all walks of life to discover and realize their unlimited human potentialfor achieving health, happiness and success!
16 Who are YOU? Why are YOU here?? 1. DEVELOPING YOUR PERSONAL MISSION STATEMENTWhy personal training?How does PTR serve your purpose/goals/mission/career?How is PTR in alignment with what’s important to you?Why should I hire you as my Personal Trainer?What’s great about you? (List of 10)2. YOUR PERSONAL MISSION STATEMENT (2-3 sentences)3. CREATING THE “PERFECT” PERSONAL TRAINING BUSINESSWho are your clients?What kind of environment do you work out of?What are your area(s) of specialization?What hours will you work?Will you complement your PTR services with something? What?How much will you earn? What are you worth?
17 PERSONAL TRAINER = LEADER ROLE-MODELLINGWhat are YOUR personal health & fitness goals?What is YOUR minimal commitment to a healthy lifestyle?What motivates YOU?ASSIGNMENT:Answer questions above.List your S.M.A.R.T. Goals
18 S.M.A.R.T. GOALSSpecific, Measurable, Action-oriented, Realistic, Trackable1. COLLECT BACKGROUND INFORMATION2. What will affect PROGRAM ADHERENCE?3. Develop a CONTINGENCY PLAN.4. Develop a SELF-CONTRACT.
19 STAGE OF THE CLIENT TRAINER RELATIONSHIP Rapport BuildingInvestigativePlanningAction
20 Consulting & Interpersonal Communication Skills “Trainers and clients work with each other over time in a consultative fashion which invites equitable input from both trainer and client.”Encouragement from the trainer should be promoting client self sufficiency.
21 Effective Feedback A) It is specific B) It is contingent on performanceC) It provides corrective information for the learnerStyles Include:Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile
22 HUMAN RELATIONS MODELS ABRAHAM MASLOW: Hierarchy of NeedsDescribe how understanding the relationship between upper level and lower level needs might enhance empathy for clients’ apparent disinterest or lack of focus/compliance.2. CHRIS ARGYRIS: Interpretation & ChoiceAnalyze a “typical” client-trainer or learner-expert encounter. How are issues of dominance and control played out in a training environment?3. JACK GIBB: Open Communication vs. Defensive CommunicationDiscuss how the content and manner of delivery can manifest defensive communication4. MANAGERIAL vs. HUMAN RELATIONS and the IMPERSONAL-INTERPERSONAL CONTINUUMProvide examples of each characteristic on the Impersonal-Interpersonal Continuum
23 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY & PROGRAM DESIGN FOR CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS LEARNING OBJECTIVESTo understand the relationship between acute and chronic responses to CV exercise and central versus peripheral adaptationsTo understand the formula for oxygen consumption and its relationship to central versus peripheral adaptationsTo understand the relationship between various methods of monitoring intensity and their applicationsTo apply an understanding of the various energy systems in the design of CV exercise programsTo apply the fundamental principles of training to the O.F.I.T.T. prescription method of program designTo understand the application of O.F.I.T.T. in the CV training continuum (improvement vs. maintenance vs. over-training)To explore controversies in CV program design
24 TWO MAJOR GOALS OF AEROBIC CONDITIONING (Essentials of Exercise Physiology. McArdle, Katch & Katch. 1994)CENTRAL VS. PERIPHERAL ADAPTATIONS
25 ACUTE RESPONSES VS. CHRONIC ADAPTATIONS Increase in heart rateIncrease in stroke volumeIncrease in cardiac outputDilation of vesselsShunting of blood from visceral tissuesIncreased rate & depth of breathingIncreased systolic pressureIncreased interior dimensions of heartVentricular hypertrophyExercise heart rate drops with maintained work intensityDepressed resting heart rateIncreased cardiac outputIncreased capillarization and blood flow to musclesIncreased # and density of mitochondriaEnhanced O2 extractionIncreased VO2 maxIncreased anaerobic thresholdIncreased use of fat as a fuel sourceGlycogen sparingIncreased glycogen storesIncreased sensitivity of cells to insulinCentral vs. PeripheralAerobic vs. Anaerobic Adaptations
26 VO2 MAX The Acute Pathway to Chronic Adaptations CENTRAL FACTORS (O2 Delivery)Oxygen Loading: Rate & Depth of Breathing (lungs), Hemoglobin (blood)Oxygen Delivery: Heart Rate & Stroke Volume (heart), Ejection Fraction, Cardiac Output (Q = HR x SV)PERIPHERAL FACTORS (O2 Extraction)Oxygen Extraction (arterio-venous O2 diff.): Muscular Capillarization & MyoglobinOxygen Utilization: Mitochondrial Density, Oxidative Enzymes, % Slow Twitch, Conversion of Fast Twitch Glycolytic (IIb) to Fast Twitch Oxidative (IIa)Absolute VO2 MAX = Q x O2 Extraction (a-v O2 diff.) = (HR x SV) x O2 ExtractionRelative VO2 MAX = (HR x SV) x O2 Extraction / bodyweight
27 VO2 MAX Practice Questions Absolute VO2 MAX = Q x O2 Extraction (a-v O2 diff.) = (HR x SV) x O2 ExtractionRelative VO2 MAX = (HR x SV) x O2 Extraction / bodyweight1. Your client weighs 70kg, has a resting HR of 60bpm, stroke volume is 70ml/beat, and O2 extraction is 6ml O2/100ml of blood. What is their resting VO2?2. During maximal exercise the same client has a heart rate of 180bpm, a stroke volume of 115 ml/beat and an O2 extraction of 15ml O2/100ml of blood. What is their VO2 max?3. Another client has a max HR of 177bpm and a cardiac output of 16, 992 ml/min. What is this client’s stroke volume?
28 METS Practice Questions 1 MET = 3.5ml O2/kg/minYour client has a maximal HR of 178bpm, a stroke volume of 103 ml/beat, an O2 extraction of 14ml O2/100ml of blood and weighs 64kg. What is their relative VO2 max? What is the VO2 equivalent in METS? Describe an activity that would fulfill this value.2. What is the VO2 equivalent to 4 METS? Describe an activity that would fulfill this value.
29 MONITORING EXERCISE INTENSITY Target Heart RateTalk TestRPE (Rating of Perceived Exertion, Borg Scale)PARTNER EXERCISE: Calculate the Target Heart Rate for your Case Study Client.Calculate THR using standard MHR FormulaTHR = (220 – age) x Exercise Intensity %b) Calculate THR using the Karvonen FormulaHRR = [(220 – age) – RHR] x Exercise Intensity % + RHR
30 ENERGY SYSTEMS ATP-CP / PHOSPHAGEN SYSTEM (Anaerobic Alactic) ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS (Anaerobic Lactic)AEROBIC GLYCOLYSISFATTY ACID OXIDATION / OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATIONCells require energy for active transport, synthesis, impulse conduction (nerve cells), contraction (muscle cells), and so on. Cells must be able to 'capture' and store energy & release that energy in appropriate amounts when needed. An important source of energy for cells is glucose (C6 H12O6):C6H12O6 + O > CO2 + H2O + ENERGYHowever, this reaction releases huge amounts of energy (for a cell). So, cells gradually break down glucose in a whole series of reactions & use the smaller amounts of energy released in these reactions to produce ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) from ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate).
31 ATP-CP SYSTEM ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS ATP, adenosine triphosphate (there are three phosphates in ATP), is not stored to a great degree in cells. Once muscle contraction starts the regeneration of ATP must occur rapidly. There are three primary sources of ATP which, in order of their utilization, are creatine phosphate (CP), anaerobic glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation.Energy from ATP derives from cleaving of the terminal phosphate of the ATP molecule. The resulting molecule is called ADP, adenosine diphosphate. Creatine phosphate converts ADP back to ATP by donating its phosphate in the presence of an enzyme which is called either creatine kinase (CK) or creatine phosphokinase (CPK). The reaction of CP with ADP to form ATP is very rapid but short lived, since the cell does not store high amounts of CP. However during short, high intensity contractions, CP serves as the major source of energy. This form of energy generation is often called alactic anaerobic because it neither produces lactate nor requires oxygen. It is of paramount importance in sports requiring bursts of speed or power such as sprints of 10 seconds or less in duration.As soon as muscle contraction starts, the process of anaerobic glycolysis also begins. Anaerobic glycolysis does not contribute as large an amount of energy as CP in the short term, but its contribution is likely to last from 30 to 60 seconds. During glycolysis, locally stored muscle glycogen and possibly some blood born glucose, supply the substrate for energy generation. No oxygen is required so the process is called anaerobic. Lactic acid (lactate is the salt) is formed as the end product of pure anaerobic glycolysis. Sufficient lactic acid formation can lower the pH of the cell to the extent that metabolism is turned off in the cell. The major substrate for anaerobic glycolysis is glycogen, so prior hard exercise without adequate repletion of glycogen is going to limit further high intensity, short term work by muscles.
32 ANAEROBIC VS. AEEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS In glycolysis, the six-carbon sugar glucose is oxidized and split in two halves, to create two molecules of pyruvate (3 carbons each) from each molecule of glucose. Along the way, the cell extracts a relatively small amount of energy from glucose in the form of ATP, 2 ATP molecules collected for each glucose molecule that starts down the glycolytic path. The pyruvate produced has one of three metabolic fates, to either become acetyl-CoA, ethanol, or lactate. When oxygen is available, the pyruvate can be converted to acetyl-CoA and enter the Krebs Cycle, where the acetyl-CoA will be completely oxidized and generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation.There are ten enzymes that catalyze the steps in glycolysis that convert glucose into pyruvate, and the entire pathway is located in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The activity of the pathway is regulated at key steps to ensure that glucose consumption and energy production match the needs of the cell.
33 FATTY ACID OXIDATIONThe final, and virtually limitless supply of energy, comes from the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Maximum energy production rates from oxidative phosphorylation are not as high as from glycolysis. Aerobic events like the marathon are run at a considerably slower pace than a 440 because of this fact. The substrates for oxidative metabolism are primarily glucose and fat (free fatty acids, not cholesterol), although protein can also act as an energy source through intermediate conversions to glucose, glucose precursors or free fatty acids. Because fat can be metabolized aerobically, most well nourished humans have a near limitless supply of energy for low intensity exercise. Limitation of low intensity exercise is rarely due to substrate depletion, although depletion of muscle glycogen may also result in fatigue during aerobic events. The reasons for this are beyond the scope of this description.
35 ENERGY OUTPUT vs. TIME/DURATION (5-10sec)(1-3min)(20min+)Based on world record times, humans can maintain maximum sprinting speed for approximately 200 m. The average speeds for the 100 m and 200 m world records are similar (21.6 mph and 22.4 mph, respectively). However, with increasing distances, average speeds decline. The average speed for the marathon world record is 12.1 mph, which is 55% of the world record sprinting speed. This is remarkable since the marathon is more than 200 times the length of a 200 m race. Although natural selection plays a crucial role in elite sprinting and marathon performance, the energy systems also must be highly trained and exercise-specific to be successful. For example, the energy needed to maintain an average sprinting speed of 22 mph for 200 m or less and an average running speed of 12.1 mph for the marathon are acquired by two very different systems (the predominant energy systems required for running at different speeds are shown in the first figure). The primary energy source for sprinting distances up to 400 m is PCr. From 400 m to 1,500 m, anaerobic glycolysis is the primary energy source. For distances longer than 1,500 m, athletes rely primarily on aerobic metabolism.The rate of glycogen and fat utilization will vary according to the relative running speed. Although the rate of glycogen utilization is low while running a marathon, the duration of the event increases the possibility of depleting glycogen stores. In contrast, the rate of glycogen utilization is substantially higher during a 5,000 m run, but glycogen depletion is not a concern because of the short duration of the event.Maximum maintainable speed drops by approximately 7 mph as running distance increases from 200 m to 1500 m (about 1 mile). However, as the distance increases from 1 mile to 26 miles, maximum maintainable speed only drops an additional 3.5 mph. On average, a healthy, fit, non-elite, male athlete can be expected to sprint at an average speed of mph for m and approximately 6-8 mph for a marathon.
36 CLASSIFICATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES BASED ON ENERGY SYSTEMS (Essentials of Exercise Physiology. McArdle, Katch & Katch. 1994)
38 O.F.I.T.T. Objective: Based on S.M.A.R.T. Goals Frequency: Affected by Intensity & DurationIntensity: Dictates specific physiologic & metabolic changesTime: Duration which intensity level is maintained; Duration & Intensity inversely related (“You can train hard or you can train long, but you can’t do both”)Type: Exercise/Equipment selection
39 O.F.I.T.T. General Guidelines for CV Training Objective?Frequency?Intensity?Time?Type?Improve or maintain the level of efficiency to deliver O2 and remove CO2; aerobic and/or anaerobic trainingAt least 3x/week with 24-48hrs rest between sessionsDependent upon energy system to be trained for client’s goalsDependent upon intensity level prescribed; lower intensity conducted over longer time period (i.e. 30min +) can be accumulated intermittently or continuouslyContinuous vs. Discontinuous Training (i.e. Intervals); Both Aerobic & Anaerobic Systems must be trained
40 Improvement & Maintenance PARTNER EXERCISE: Using the case study assigned to you from the back of the manual determine 1) your client’s S.M.A.R.T. Goals, and 2) apply the O.F.I.T.T. principle to design their CV program. Be prepared to share with the rest of the class.Improvement & Maintenance1. What is the minimum FREQUENCY, INTENSITY and DURATION/TIME required to maintain aerobic fitness (the central factors)?2. What is the minimum FREQUENCY, INTENSITY, DURATION/TIME and EFFORT INTERVALS required to maintain anaerobic fitness (the peripheral factors)?
41 Specific Guidelines for ATP-CP System Objective: Enhance muscle’s ATP-CP energy capacity5-10 second max output bursts followed by sec active recovery; Alternate between 2+ work intervals and 2+ recovery intervalsAdaptation occurs within 2-4 weeks. Detraining will take effect within 2 weeks.Note: high risk training; potential injuries associated with this type of training.Especially important to warm up and cool down.Benefits = sprinters/events lasting less than 20 sec.
42 Specific Guidelines for Glycolytic System Objective: Elevate Lactate Threshold LevelsSub max levels of intensity will not stimulate adaptation. Need to train at level that will elicit lactic acid production.Train 2-3x/week (ample time for recovery); 2-3 min effort intervals followed by 2-3 min recovery intervals; repeat 2-12x2-3 min recovery is not enough time to deplete lactic acid from blood, therefore lactate threshold must elevate to accommodate the training stimulus.Note: complete LT training at least 2 weeks before competitionBenefits: Everyone, but the highest injury rate.
43 Specific Guidelines for Oxidative System Objective: Improve body’s ability to deliver O2 and remove CO2 through central factorsSub-maximal training; 60-80% MHR, 20min +Not necessarily “sport specific”Most benefits are central adaptations involving the heart circulatory and respiratory systems.Note: the most appropriate introductory cardiovascular program to start with to build a good fitness base.
44 SMALL GROUP EXERCISE: Sample Interval Training Programs ATP-CP INTERVAL TRAINING: 5-10 second max output bursts (95-100% HRR; RPE = 9-10) followed by sec active recovery; Alternate between 2+ work intervals and 2+ recovery intervalsGLYCOLYTIC INTERVAL TRAINING: 2-3 min effort intervals (85-95% HRR; RPE = 7-8) followed by 2-3 min recovery intervals; repeat 2-12xIndicate the training objective for each sample program:Example 1: 30sec (max intensity) / 30sec (active rest), repeat 4-12xExample 2: 90sec (90% HRR) / 90sec (recovery), repeat 10xExample 3: 60sec (85% HRR) / 120sec (70% HRR), repeat 7xExample 4: 120sec (85% HRR) / 60sec (70% HRR), repeat 7xExample 5: 3min (75-85% HRR) / 1min (60% HRR), repeat 11x
45 Over-training TRACK RESTING HEART RATE TRACK TRAINING HEART RATE Indicated by a plateau or drop in performance over a period of several days; caused by too little recovery time between sessionsTRACK RESTING HEART RATETRACK TRAINING HEART RATE>10% over previous values = over-training
46 Improvement, Maintenance, Over-training, Detraining Compared to the peripheral factors, the CENTRAL FACTORS of the CV System are (More or Less):Compared to the central factors, the PERIPHERAL FACTORS of the CV System are (More or Less):MoreLesseasily improvedeasily maintainedeasily over-trainedeasily detrainedLessMoreeasily improvedeasily maintainedeasily over-trainedeasily detrained
47 ASSIGNMENT: The Great Debates CARDIO CONFUSION1. Which is better for fat loss…Longer Duration, Lower Intensity OR Shorter Duration, Higher Intensity?2. Which is a better workout order…Cardio before or after Weights?
48 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY & PROGRAM DESIGN FOR MUSCULAR FITNESS LEARNING OBJECTIVESTo understand the neuromuscular responses and adaptations to resistance trainingTo understand muscle microstructure, and the role of actin and myosin in muscle actionsTo apply an understanding of the relationship between different muscle fibre types and muscle fibre recruitment to the design of resistance training programsTo understand the relationship between the various energy systems and muscle fibre typesTo understand the application of the fundamental principles of training to the design of resistance training programsTo understand the relationship between the different training objectives of Strength, Power, Endurance and Mass and the application of O.F.I.T.T. in the design of resistance training programs that meet these objectivesTo understand the application of O.F.I.T.T. in the resistance training continuum (improvement vs. maintenance vs. over-training vs. detraining)To explore controversies in the design of resistance training programs
49 MAJOR GOALS OF STRENGTH CONDITIONING ENDURANCEPOWERSTRENGTHMUSCLE MASS & TONE
50 NEUROMUSCULAR RESPONSES & ADAPTATIONS Connective tissues become thicker & strongerMitochondrial density decreases due to the dilution effect of enlarged/added myofibrilsMuscle glycogen stores increaseConcentrations of ATP and Creatine Phosphate increaseRecruitment of motor units increases, allowing for a greater force outputMotor unit firing rate increases, allowing for a greater force outputIncreased threshold protection of Golgi Tendon OrgansRegulation of blood pressure and HDL cholesterolImproved metabolic rateIncreased bone mineral densityIncreased glucose tolerance & insulin sensitivityDOMS (Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness)24-48hrsChemicals released from micro-tearing of connective tissue and/or muscle fibresDelayed due to: musclefatskin(pain receptors)Is DOMS a prerequisite for better progress?HYPERTROPHY: due to increase in both size & number of myofibrils (actin & myosin)NOTE: Strength gains in first 4 weeks due to increased neurological efficiency & recruitment, NOT hypertrophyCentral vs. PeripheralAerobic vs. Anaerobic Adaptations
51 MUSCLE MACRO & MICRO STRUCTURES Muscles have both electrical and chemical activity. There is an electrical gradient across the muscle cell membrane: the outside is more positive than the inside. Stimulus causes an instantaneous reversal of this polarity, causing the muscle to contract (the mechanical characteristic) producing a twitch or movement.Muscle fibers are multinucleated, with the nuclei located just under the plasma membrane. Most of the cell is occupied by striated, thread-like myofibrils. Within each myofibril there are dense Z lines. A sarcomere (or muscle functional unit) extends from Z line to Z line. Each sarcomere has thick and thin filaments. The thick filaments are made of myosin and occupy the center of each sarcomere. Thin filaments are made of actin and anchor to the Z line.
52 MUSCLE CONTRACTIONMyosin heads attach to binding sites on the actin filaments. The myosin heads swivel toward the center of the sarcomere, detach and then reattach to the nearest active site of the actin filament. Each cycle of attachment, swiveling, and detachment shortens the sarcomere 1%. Hundreds of such cycles occur each second during muscle contraction.ATP binds to the cross bridges between myosin heads and actin filaments. The release of energy powers the swiveling of the myosin head.
53 MUSCLE CONTRACTION The Sliding Filament Theory Action Potential Myosin Binding to ActinThe Power Stroke
54 TYPES OF MUSCLE ACTIONS ISOMETRIC: Muscle contracts with no change in its length during force production.CONCENTRIC: Positive muscle action whereby the muscle is shortened under its own force.ECCENTRIC: Negative muscle action whereby the muscle resists while it is forced to lengthen.During which type of contractions can you lift a) the most weight, and b) the least amount of weight?
55 MOTOR UNITS 1. All-or-None Principle 2. Force of muscle contraction is dependent upon:a) Rate of motor neuron firingb) Number & Size of muscle fibres innervated
56 PERIODIZATION OF REPS AND EXERCISES MOTOR UNITSPERIODIZATION OF REPS AND EXERCISES
57 SENSORY MECHANISMS Muscle Spindle Golgi Tendon Organ Monitors changes in muscle length. When spindle fibers are rapidly stretched, a stretch reflex is elicited, causing muscle to contract.Golgi Tendon OrganMonitors changes in muscle tension. When tension developed in muscle becomes too great, further contraction is inhibited, and muscle relaxes.
59 CHARACTERISTICS & TRAINING PARAMETERS OF MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES Fibre Type Type I fibres Type II A fibres Type II B fibresOther Designations Slow Oxidative Fast Oxidative Glycolytic Fast GlycolyticContraction time Slow Fast Very FastSize of motor neuron Small Large Very LargeResistance to fatigue High Intermediate LowActivity Used for Aerobic Long term anaerobic Short term anaerobicEnergy System FA Oxidation An/Aerobic Glycolysis ATP-CPForce production Low High Very HighMitochondrial density High High LowCapillary density High Intermediate LowOxidative capacity High High LowGlycolytic capacity Low High HighMajor storage fuel Triglycerides CP, Glycogen CP, GlycogenTraining Objective Endurance Mass, Strength Strength, PowerType of Adaptation Biochemical Structural NeuralIntensity (%RM) <70% % %RepetitionsSets B=3-5, A=5-8Rest Between Sets sec sec minRep Speed slow/med/fast slow to med slow/med/fast
60 RECRUITMENT OF MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES Active Muscle Fibre (%)Exercise Intensity (% of VO2max or %RM)
61 REP SPEED RELATIVE TO ENERGY SYSTEMS & TRAINING OBJECTIVES (5-10sec)(1-3min)(20min+)>105%RM (eccentric) , slow = MAX STRENGTH80-100%RM (1-8 reps), slow to med. = MAX STRENGTH60-80%RM (8-15 reps), slow to med. = HYPERTROPHY50-80%RM (8-20 reps), fast = POWER<70%RM (>15reps), slow to med. = ENDURANCEFast = +1, -1Med. = +2/+3, -2/-3Slow = +4/-4 (or higher)Based on world record times, humans can maintain maximum sprinting speed for approximately 200 m. The average speeds for the 100 m and 200 m world records are similar (21.6 mph and 22.4 mph, respectively). However, with increasing distances, average speeds decline. The average speed for the marathon world record is 12.1 mph, which is 55% of the world record sprinting speed. This is remarkable since the marathon is more than 200 times the length of a 200 m race. Although natural selection plays a crucial role in elite sprinting and marathon performance, the energy systems also must be highly trained and exercise-specific to be successful. For example, the energy needed to maintain an average sprinting speed of 22 mph for 200 m or less and an average running speed of 12.1 mph for the marathon are acquired by two very different systems (the predominant energy systems required for running at different speeds are shown in the first figure). The primary energy source for sprinting distances up to 400 m is PCr. From 400 m to 1,500 m, anaerobic glycolysis is the primary energy source. For distances longer than 1,500 m, athletes rely primarily on aerobic metabolism.The rate of glycogen and fat utilization will vary according to the relative running speed. Although the rate of glycogen utilization is low while running a marathon, the duration of the event increases the possibility of depleting glycogen stores. In contrast, the rate of glycogen utilization is substantially higher during a 5,000 m run, but glycogen depletion is not a concern because of the short duration of the event.Maximum maintainable speed drops by approximately 7 mph as running distance increases from 200 m to 1500 m (about 1 mile). However, as the distance increases from 1 mile to 26 miles, maximum maintainable speed only drops an additional 3.5 mph. On average, a healthy, fit, non-elite, male athlete can be expected to sprint at an average speed of mph for m and approximately 6-8 mph for a marathon.6 reps (+2, 1, -2, 0 ) = 30sec VS. 6 reps (+1, 0, -2, 0) = 18sec10 reps (+1, 0, -2, 0) = 30sec VS. 10 reps (+3, 1, -3, 0) = 70sec
63 MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES, ENERGY DELIVERY SYSTEMS & SPORTS SPECIFICITY ROWING (2000m race – 6min)75% Type I, Aerobic22% Type IIa, Anaerobic Glycolysis3% Type IIb, ATP-CPSOCCER (midfield player) & ICE HOCKEY50% Type I, Aerobic25% Type IIa, Anaerobic Glycolysis25% Type IIb, ATP-CPVOLLEYBALL40% Type I, Aerobic20% Type IIa, Anaerobic Glycolysis40% Type IIb, ATP-CPFOOTBALL30% Type I, Aerobic10% Type IIa, Anaerobic Glycolysis60% Type IIb, ATP-CP
64 METABOLIC & BIOMECHANIC SPORTS SPECIFICITY Energy SystemsMuscle Fibre TypesContraction TypesMuscle GroupsMovement PatternsNutritional NeedsEnergy expenditureEnergy pathwaysBiochemical vs. Structural vs. Neural adaptations
65 RESISTANCE TRAINING TERMINOLOGY ISOKINETIC CONTRACTION: Muscle action through a constant speed causing the muscle to exert a continuous and maximum force throughout a given ROM.DYNAMIC CONSTANT CONTRACTION (ISOTONIC): Muscle action against a constant resistance.DYNAMIC VARIABLE CONTRACTION: Muscle action against a changing resistance.REPETITION: A single, complete action of any one given exercise beginning from starting position, progressing to its ending position, and returning to its starting position.SETS: A given number of complete and continuous repetitions performed consecutively without resting.REP RANGE: Includes both a lower limit (least # of reps to be completed) as well as an upper limit (most # of reps to be completed).LOAD: The amount of resistance against which a muscular force is being applied.REPETITION MAXIMUM: Maximum load that can be lifted during an exercise in an all-out effort over a given number of reps.
66 RESISTANCE TRAINING TERMINOLOGY CIRCUIT TRAINING ROUTINE: Several different exercises are completed, one immediately after another, within the resistance training session.REGULAR RESISTANCE TRAINING ROUTINE: Concentrating on one exercise at a time, multiple sets are completed for each exercise included within the resistance training sessionSTANDARD RESISTANCE TRAINING ROUTINE: For any one given exercise included within a regular resistance training session, the resistance, reps, and rest between sets remains constant.VARIABLE RESISTANCE TRAINING ROUTINE: For any one given exercise included within a regular resistance training session, the resistance, reps and/or rest between sets vary.SMALL GROUP EXERCISE: Design a “Standard Resistance Training Routine” and a “Variable Resistance Training Routine” for a muscle group of your choice.
67 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING Progressive Resistance(The Double Progression System of Resistance Training)Start with a conservative weight and reps consistent with the lower limit of the appropriate rep range.With each successive resistance training session, increase reps by at least one at a time: Lower Limit +1, Lower Limit +2,…Upper LimitWhen the upper limit of the rep range is completed with the initial weight, increase the intensity one level and drop the reps to the lower limit of the identified rep rangeComplete the rep progression with the new weight.PARTNER EXERCISE: Demonstrate the application of Progressive Resistance by performing 3 sets (10-15 reps/set) of an exercise (i.e. push-ups, lateral raises, bicep curls, etc.) and record the reps for each set. What will be your goal for your next workout with this exercise?
68 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING Progressive OverloadSpecificity (S.A.I.D.)IndividualityReversibilityVariabilityPeriodization
69 O.F.I.T.T. General Guidelines for PRT (p.117) Objective?Frequency?Intensity?Time?Type?Strength, Endurance, Power, Mass, ToneHow often should the same muscle groups be trained?Prescribed as %RM or the equivalent Rep Range.Dependent upon 5 factors: # of exercises, # of sets, # of reps, rest between sets, and rep speedCompound vs. Isolation Exercises,
70 OVERCOMPENSATION CYCLE Proper adaptation dependent upon training intensity, volume and recovery methods.Exercise StimulusHomeostasis (normal biological state)Overcompensation(Degree of improvement)RegressionFatigueCompensation
71 OVERCOMPENSATION CYCLE Overcompensation Cycle Comparing Different Training Frequencies
72 Improvement & Maintenance of Resistance Training Objectives PARTNER EXERCISE1. Your client has hit a plateau in their training program. Provide examples of 3 strategies you could apply to help stimulate new progress.2. Your work schedule and family commitments are interfering with your personal fitness program. How can you adjust your training frequency, intensity, sets, reps and exercises to maintain your muscular fitness?
73 Over-training Risk of resistance over-training is associated with: Indicated by a plateau or drop in performance over a period of several days; caused by too little recovery time between sessionsRisk of resistance over-training is associated with:Failure to schedule adequate rest between similar training sessionsFailure to schedule “active rest” periods within micro-cyclesFailure to schedule “active rest” periods within meso-cyclesFailure to vary exercise intensitiesIncrease in the number of sets per exercise beyond 4Increase in the number of exercises for a given muscle groupFailure to vary exercises for a given muscle group
74 ASSIGNMENT: The Great Debates MUSCLE MYSTERIESWhich is better for burning fat, what burns more calories…Cardio or Weight Training?How much Cardio and how much Weight Training should I be doing to lose weight?I don’t want to build muscle, I just want to tone. What kind of exercise program should I be following?I have a difficult time putting on muscle…How do I build bigger arms and a bigger chest?
75 ANATOMY (Upper Body) & PROGRAM DESIGN FOR MUSCULAR FITNESS LEARNING OBJECTIVESTo know the origin, insertion and line of action for the muscles of the upper body.To apply knowledge of anatomy to effective exercises and be able to distinguish between the agonists, antagonists, synergists and stabilizers.To apply an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of compound versus isolation exercises in the design of resistance training programs.To understand the application of general strength training guidelines in the design of programs.To apply an understanding of a variety of specific resistance training principles commonly used in the design of programs.
76 MUSCLE ORIGIN, INSERTION & ACTION ORIGIN: muscle attachment that moves least, generally more proximal (towards mid-line of body).INSERTION: muscle attachment that moves most, generally more distal (away from mid-line of body).LINE OF ACTION: An imaginary line that connects the origin to insertion and denotes the joint action(s) caused by the muscle.
77 Muscular Classifications AGONIST (prime mover): muscle most directly involved with the movementANTAGONIST: muscle opposite to the agonist that assists in joint stabilization and can slow down or stop the intended movementSYNERGIST: muscle that assists the prime mover in a movementSTABILIZER: muscle that stabilizes a joint; usually contracts isometrically as a joint is moved
78 PECTORALIS MAJOR CLAVICULAR HEAD ORIGIN Clavicle, medial half (Anterior)INSERTIONHumerus (Proximal Anterior)Bicipital Groove (Outer Lip)STERNAL HEADORIGINSternum (Anterior)Ribs (2nd to 6th), Costal CartilagesINSERTIONHumerus (Proximal Anterior)Bicipital Groove (Outer Lip)ACTIONShoulder:FlexionHorizontal AdductionInternal Rotation
79 PECTORALIS MINOR ORIGIN Ribs (3rd to 5th), anterior surface INSERTION Scapula (Superior Anterior)- Coracoid ProcessACTIONScapular:Protraction/AbductionDownward Rotation (During Abduction)Depression
80 SERRATUS ANTERIOR ORIGIN Lateral surface of ribs 1-9 INSERTION Costal (anterior) surface of medial border of scapulaACTIONScapular:Protraction/AbductionUpward RotationThe serratus anterior holds the scapula against the thoracic wall. A winged scapula condition indicates a weakness of the serratus anterior.
81 ANTERIOR DELTOID ORIGIN Clavicle (Anterior Lateral Third) INSERTION Humerous (Lateral)- Deltoid TuberosityACTIONShoulder:AbductionFlexionTransverse FlexionInternal RotationThe anterior deltoid is involved in shoulder abduction when the shoulder is externally rotated. The anterior deltoid is weak in strict horizontal flexion but assists the pectoralis major during shoulder horizontal flexion / shoulder flexion (elbow slightly inferior to shoulders).
82 LATERAL DELTOID ORIGIN Scapula - Acromion process (Lateral) INSERTION Humerus (Lateral)Deltoid TuberosityACTIONSShoulder:AbductionFlexionTransverse AbductionThe lateral deltoid is involved in shoulder abduction when the shoulder is internally rotated. It is involved in shoulder flexion when the shoulder is internally rotated. It is involved in shoulder transverse abduction (shoulder externally rotated).
83 POSTERIOR DELTOID ORIGIN Scapular spine (Inferior edge) INSERTION Humerus (Lateral)- Deltoid TuberosityACTIONShoulder:ExtensionHorizontal AbductionExternal RotationThe posterior deltoid is the primary shoulder hyperextensor, since the latissimus dorsi does not extend the shoulder beyond anatomical position (aka hyperextension)
84 TRICEPS BRACHII ORIGIN Long Head : lower edge of glenoid cavity of scapulaLateral Head : lateral posterior surface of humerousMedial Head : posterior surface of humerousINSERTIONUlna (Proximal Posterior) [1, 2 , 3 ]- Olecranon ProcessACTIONSElbow:Extension [1, 2 , 3 ]Shoulder:Extension [1 ]Adduction [1 ]
86 SUPRASPINATUS ORIGIN Scapula (Superior), Supraspinous fossa INSERTION Humerus, Greater Tubercle (Superior)ACTIONShoulder:Abduction (initiates)StabilizationMost often injured rotator cuff muscle. Inability to smoothly abduct the arm against resistance may indicate a rotator cuff injury. Avoiding full ROM (i.e. not initiating deltoid exercises from fully adducted position) may not allow Supraspinatus to be fully strengthened since it is more fully activated at these initial degrees of shoulder abduction/flexion. Once injured ROM is typically restricted on the shoulder press.Examples of affected exercises: Shoulder Press, Upright Row, Lateral RaiseExample preventative / corrective exercises: Front Lateral Raise, Lying Lateral Raise
87 INFRASPINATUS ORIGIN Scapula (Medial), Infraspinous fossa INSERTION Humerus, Greater Tuberosity (Posterior)ACTIONShoulder:External RotationTransverse AbductionPosterior StabilityINFRASPINATUS WEAKNESS: Second most often injured rotator cuff muscle.Examples of affected exercises with suggestions for high risk individuals:Bench Press: Bring bar lower on chest, keeping elbows closer to sides.Chest Press: Elevate seat so elbows are closer to sidesRange of motion may need to be limited so elbows do not go behind shouldersExample preventative / corrective exercises: Lying External Rotation, Rows
88 TERES MINOR ORIGIN Scapula (Lateral) Lateral Border Posterior on upper and middle partINSERTIONHumerusGreater Tubercle (Posterior)Inferior FacetACTIONShoulder:External RotationTransverse AbductionPosterior Stability
90 Exercise Classifications Primary/compound (multi-joint)Usually involves more co-ordination and recruitment of many muscle groups, using heavier weight loadsEx. Bench PressIsolation (single-joint)Involves isolating single muscle groups, and using lower weight loadsEx. Dumbbell Chest Fly
91 ISOLATION VS. COMPOUND EXERCISES ISOLATION EXERCISES+ Suitable for correcting muscle imbalances+ Specific injury rehabilitation+ Options for working around injuries+ Adds greater variety- Neglects stabilizers- Requires more timeDoes not promote:- Sequential muscle action- Muscle balance- Coordination- Positive motivationCOMPOUND EXERCISES+ Sequential muscle action+ Muscle balance+ Coordination+ Positive motivation+ Saves time- Limited by weaker muscles
92 Exercise SequenceExercises spaced throughout program so as to rest one area while working anotherCompound exercises precede isolation exercises requiring the same muscleExercises requiring larger muscles precede exercises requiring smaller musclesExercises requiring muscles closer to the mid-line precede exercises requiring muscles further from the midlineExercises requiring less developed muscles precede exercises requiring more developed muscles
94 LEVATOR SCAPULAE ORIGIN Cervical Vertebrae (Upper 3 or 4) INSERTION Scapula, Medial Border (Superior part)ACTIONScapular:ElevationDownward RotationAbductionSpine (Cervical):Lateral flexion right [Right Levator Scapulae]Lateral flexion left [Left Levator Scapulae]Rotation right [Right Levator Scapulae]Rotation left [Left Levator Scapulae]Stabilization: The Levator Scapulae holds the scapula against the trunk.
95 RHOMBOIDS Heads 1. Rhomboids Minor 2. Rhomboids Major ORIGIN Spine: Cervical Vertebrae (C7) Thoracic Vertebrae (T1 , T2-T5 )INSERTIONScapula: Medial Border (Below spine)Superior Inferior ACTIONScapular:Adduction [1, 2]Downward Rotation [1, 2]Stabilization: The Rhomboids holds the scapula against the thoracic wall.
96 LATISSIMUS DORSI ORIGIN Ilium, Posterior Crest Sacrum (Posterior) Vertebral ColumnLumbar Vertebrae (L1-5)Thoracic Vertebrae (T7-12)Ribs (Posterior), Lower 3 or 4 ribsINSERTIONHumerus (Proximal Anterior/Medial)ACTIONShoulder: Adduction, Extension, Internal Rotation, Transverse ExtensionScapula (Assists): Depression, Downward, Rotation, AdductionThe latissimus dorsi does not extend the shoulder beyond anatomical position (shoulder hyperextension). In strict transverse extension, the latissimus dorsi is weak. Incidentally, the posterior deltoid is strongly involved in both shoulder hyperextension and transverse extension.
97 TERES MAJOR ORIGIN Scapula (Posterior, Inferior) Inferior Angle (Posterior, Lateral)INSERTIONHumerus (Proximal Anterior/Medial)Medial Lip of Intertubercular GrooveACTIONSShoulder:ExtensionInternal RotationAdduction
98 BICEPS BRACHII 1. LONG HEAD (Outer) 2. SHORT HEAD (Inner) ORIGIN Scapula:Supraglenoid Tuberosity Coracoid Process INSERTIONRadiustubercle [1, 2]Fascia of forearmBicipital Aponeurosis [1, 2]ACTIONElbow flexion [1, 2]Forearm supination [1, 2]Shoulder:Flexion (Weak) Transverse Flexion (Weak) The biceps brachii is a stronger elbow flexor when the radioulnar joint (forearm) is supinated.During elbow flexion, motor units in the lateral portion of the long head of the biceps are preferentially activated, whereas during forearm rotation, motor units in the medial portion are preferentially activated.
99 BRACHIORADIALIS ORIGIN Humerus (Lateral Condyle) INSERTION Radius (Lateral Distal) on Styloid ProcessACTIONSElbow flexionThe brachioradialis is a stronger elbow flexor when the radioulnar joint (forearm) is in a midposition between supination and pronation. When the forearm is pronated, the brachioradialis is more active during elbow flexion since the biceps brachii is in a mechanical disadvantage.
100 BRACHIALIS ORIGIN Humerus (Anterior) INSERTION Ulna, Coronoid Process ACTIONSElbow flexionThe brachialis becomes more readily activated during isometric elbow flexion. During a dynamic elbow flexion, the biceps is more readily activated than the brachialis.
101 FOREARM FLEXORS 4. FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS 3. FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS ORIGIN: Humerus on Medial Epicondyle, Ulna (Proximal Posterior)INSERTION: 5th Metacarpals, Carpals (Medial)ACTION: Wrist Flexion & Adduction; Weak elbow flexion3. FLEXOR CARPI RADIALISORIGIN: Humerus, Medial EpicondyleINSERTION: 2nd & 3rd MetacarpalsACTION: Wrist Flexion & Abduction; Weak elbow flexion5. PALMARIS LONGUSORIGIN: Humerus, Medial EpicondyleINSERTION: 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th MetacarpalsACTION: Wrist Flexion; Weak elbow flexionThe Palmaris Longus is absent on one or both sides in about 21% of people.
102 FOREARM EXTENSORS ORIGIN: Humerus on Lateral Epicondyle 2. EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUSORIGIN: Humerus on Lateral EpicondyleINSERTION: Second MetacarpalACTION: Wrist extension & abduction; Weak elbow extension3. EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS BREVISORIGIN: Humerus on Lateral EpicondyleINSERTION: Third MetacarpalACTION: Wrist extension & abduction;Weak elbow extension4. EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARISORIGIN: Humerus on Lateral EpicondyleINSERTION: Fifth MetacarpalACTION: Wrist extension & adduction; Weak elbow extension
103 General Guidelines for Proper Technique Perform proper warm-upMaintain a neutral spineAvoid using momentum; Use controlled movementsUse full range of motionBreath rhythmically (positive/concentric = exhale, negative/eccentric = inhale)Do not use too much or too little resistanceTrain muscle groups proportionately in a balanced mannerTrain larger muscle groups before smaller
104 Specific Strength Training Principles & Systems Muscle ConfusionMuscle PriorityIsolationFlushingHolisticSplit SystemPyramidingSupersetsCASE STUDY PARTNER ASSIGNMENTDesign one PRT program for your case study client in Appendix A utilizing 2 different principles/systems. Please indicate which principles/systems you chose and why.
105 PROGRAM DESIGN FOR FLEXIBILITY LEARNING OBJECTIVESTo differentiate between BALLISTIC, DYNAMIC, STATIC and PNF stretching and understand their different applications in program design.To apply an understanding of flexibility training guidelines using the O.F.I.T.T. principle.To understand the application of O.F.I.T.T. in the flexibility training continuum (improvement vs. maintenance vs. over-training vs. detraining)To explore controversies in the application and benefits of stretching for flexibility and injury prevention.
107 BALLISTIC, DYNAMIC, STATIC, PNF Golgi Tendon Organ (PNF Application) TYPES OF STRETCHINGBALLISTIC, DYNAMIC, STATIC, PNFMuscle SpindleMonitors changes in muscle length. When spindle fibers are rapidly stretched, a stretch reflex is elicited, causing muscle to contract.Golgi Tendon Organ (PNF Application)Monitors changes in muscle tension. When tension in muscle becomes too great, further contraction is inhibited, and muscle relaxes.
108 O.F.I.T.T. General Guidelines for Stretching Dependent on client’s motivation for improving ROM…specific to a certain performance, fitness and/or health standard.Objective?Frequency?Intensity?Time?Type?No upper limits on number of flexibility training components per week.Dependent upon 1) degree of discomfort during stretch, and 2) holding time. “Comfortably uncomfortable”Dependent upon 4 factors: # of stretches, holding time, # of sets per stretch, rest between sets/stretchesOnly static or PNF; Stretches for each joint
109 ANATOMY (Lower Body) & PROGRAM DESIGN LEARNING OBJECTIVESTo know the origin, insertion and line of action for the muscles of the lower body including the GLUTES, ABDUCTORS, ADDUCTORS, QUADRICEPS, HAMSTRINGS, and CALVES.To apply knowledge of anatomy to effective exercises and be able to distinguish between the agonists, antagonists, synergists and stabilizers.To learn proper exercise and spotting technique and practice exercise instruction using the Seven Step Process.To apply the Principles of Training and specific program design methods in the instruction and performance of mini exercise routines for different muscle groups.
112 GLUTEUS MAXIMUS ORIGIN Ilium, Crest (Posterior) Sacrum (Posterior) Fascia of the Lumbar AreaINSERTIONFemur, Gluteal LineTibia, Lateral Condyle & Iliotibial TractACTIONHip:Extension [1, 2]External Rotation [1, 2]Transverse Abduction [1, 2]Adduction 
113 GLUTEUS MEDIUS ORIGIN Ilium, External Surface just below crest: (Anterior) (Posterior) INSERTIONFemur, Greater Trochanter(Posterior and Lateral Surface) [1, 2]ACTIONHip:Abduction [1, 2]Transverse Abduction [1, 2]Internal Rotation External Rotation (during Abduction) Heads1. Anterior Fibers2. Posterior FibersSteadies pelvis so it does not sag when opposite side is not supported with leg.
114 GLUTEUS MINIMUS ORIGIN Ilium: External Surface (Below the origin of the Gluteus Medius)INSERTIONFemur: Greater Trochanter (Anterior Surface)ACTIONSHip:AbductionTransverse AbductionInternal Rotation (during Abduction)Assists the Gluteus Medius with pelvic stability so it does not sag when opposite side is not supported with leg.
119 GASTROCNEMIUS Heads Femur: 1. Medial Head ORIGINFemur:Medial Condyle (Posterior) Lateral Condyle (Posterior) INSERTIONCalcaneous, Achilles Tendon [1, 2 ]ACTIONAnkle: Plantar Flexion [1, 2 ]Knee: Flexion [1, 2 ]Heads1. Medial Head2. Lateral HeadIn moderate force, soleus is preferentially activated in the concentric phase, whereas gastrocnemius is preferentially activated in the eccentric phase. Gastrocnemius becomes even more activated at higher lengthening velocities. During hopping, the gastrocnemius, with its greater proportion of FT motor units, is preferentially activated over soleus. During stationary cycling, gastrocnemius is also preferentially activated at higher pedaling speeds.Although involvement of the lateral and medial heads would not seem to be altered by medial or lateral rotation of the hip, MRI research suggests "toes in" activates both heads and "toes out" activates medial head to a higher degree.
120 SOLEUS Tibia (Upper Posterior) Fibula (Upper Posterior) ORIGINTibia (Upper Posterior)Fibula (Upper Posterior)INSERTIONCalcaneous, Achilles TendonACTIONAnkle: Plantar FlexionIn the seated calf raise (knees flexed to 90º), the gastrocs are virtually inactive while the load is borne almost entirely by the soleus.In moderate force, the soleus is preferentially activated in the concentric phase, whereas the gastrocnemius is preferentially activated in the eccentric phase
122 BIOMECHANICS & PRINCIPLES OF MOVEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVESTo understand the application of Newton’s laws of motion (i.e. inertia, acceleration, reaction) in exercise performance.To understand force production relative to muscle length and position of muscle attachment.To understand the factors which influence efficiency of movement.To understand lever lengths relative to rotation and force production.
123 The Essentials of Biomechanical Concepts Motion Analysis(movement pattern/muscle sequence, forces, lever arms, acceleration)Force (magnitude, direction, internal, external)TorqueLeversStability
124 Movements occur in one of three planes of motion. PARTNER EXERCISE: Determine the plane of movement for each of the exercises in Chapter 5.
125 A lever is a rigid bar that rotates about an axis. LEVERSA lever is a rigid bar that rotates about an axis.Rotation is caused as force is applied to the lever.Two types of force act upon human levers, they are:Muscular forceResistive force
126 The Lever Fulcrum is the pivot point of a lever (joint). Lever Arm is the segment of the body (arm or leg) which is being moved about the fulcrum.Moment Arm is the perpendicular distance from the applied force to the fulcrum.Class Class Class 3
128 Torque = F (rotational) x D (moment arm or force arm) Is the degree to which a force tends to rotate a lever about a fulcrum.Torque = F (rotational) x D (moment arm or force arm)PARTNER EXERCISE:1. Rank the following exercises in order according to which one produces the least amount of torque about the spine to the greatest.BB SquatBB Front SquatGood MorningsStiff-Legged Deadlift2. In what ways could proper technique reduce torque about the spine when squatting?
129 FORCE APPLICATIONSGROUP EXERCISE: Provide an example for each of the following where the force either a) contributes to the intention of the exercise/movement, or b) works against the intention of the exercise/movement.Static FrictionKinetic FrictionElastic ForceAir ResistanceWater Resistance
130 FORCE VECTORSPARTNER EXERCISE: Based upon the magnitude and direction of forces acting through the knee joint, rank the following versions of the lunge from the least stressful to the most stressful on the knees.Reverse LungeForward LungeStationary Lunge
131 INTERNAL FORCES BIOMECHANICAL FACTORS AFFECTING MUSCLE FORCE Length of Muscle (Optimal = 1.2x resting length)Velocity of Muscle Contraction- Concentrically: force decreases as velocity increases- Eccentrically: force increases as velocity increases3. Tendon Insertion4. Changing Joint Angle
132 INCREASING FORCE GENERATION PARTNER EXERCISE: Choosing one body part, provide a specific exercise example for manipulating each of the following factors in order to increase force generation in the muscle:Stabilizing body segmentsIncreasing the range of motion of a particular exerciseVarying the speed of muscular contractionUtilizing sequential movementIncreasing distance force is applied in selection of an exerciseUsing strongest muscles available for a taskUsing all the muscles that can contribute to a taskPre-stretching a muscle just prior to contractionPre-loading the muscle prior to the task
134 LAW OF INERTIAA body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an external, unbalanced force.GROUP EXERCISEExplain the application of this law in the:Performance of a sport/activityProper execution of an exerciseDesign of PRT programs for Power
135 LAW OF ACCELERATIONAcceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force acting on it, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. (a = F/m)GROUP EXERCISE - Explain the application of this law in the:Use of medicine ball exercisesDesign of PRT programs for Power (%RM, # of reps, rep speed)
136 LAW of ACTION-REACTION For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction."For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction."The statement means that in every interaction, there is a pair of forces acting on the two interacting objects. The size of the forces on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object. The direction of the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the second object. Forces always come in pairs - equal and opposite action-reaction force pairs.In the top picture (below), a physics student is pulling upon a rope which is attached to a wall. In the bottom picture, the physics student is pulling upon a rope which is attatched to an elephant. In each case, the force scale reads 500 Newtons. The physics student is pulling with 500 N of force in each case. The rope transmits the force from the physics student to the wall (or to the elephant) and vice versa. Since the force of the student pulling on the wall and the wall pulling on the student are action-reaction force pairs, they must have equal magnitudes. Inanimate objects such as walls can push and pull.The baseball forces the bat to the leftt (an action); the bat forces the ball to the right (the reaction). Note that the nouns in the sentence describing the action force switch places when describing the reaction force.IDENTIFY THE ACTION/REACTION FORCES IN THE BOTTOM PHOTO:The elephant's feet push backward on the ground; the ground pushes forward on its feet. The right end of the right rope pulls leftward on the elephant's body; its body pulls rightward on the right end of the right rope. The left end of the right rope pulls rightward on the man; the man pulls leftward on the left end of the right rope. The right end of the left rope pulls leftward on the man; the man pulls rightward on the right end of the left rope. The tractor pulls leftward on the right end of the left rope; the left end of the left rope pulls rightward on the tractor. etc., etc.GROUP EXERCISE - Explain the application of this law in the use of:Exercise TubingIsokinetic Exercise Equipment (i.e. Hydraulics, Computerized Cybex)Isometric Contractions
137 StabilityRefers to the condition of balance where the weight of an object (centre of gravity) is aligned perpendicularly over it’s base of supports.Stability is essential for proper execution of all exercises.
138 Factors Affecting Stability 1. CENTRE OF GRAVITYa) Location (more stability when COG closer to centre of base of support)b) Height (more stability when COG is lowered)c) Force Application (more stability when force received close to COG)2. BASE OF SUPPORTa) Size of BOS (wide vs. narrow)b) Contact Areac) Number of Supportsd) FrictionGROUP EXERCISE: Referring to exercises using the stability ball, give examples of how the Factors Affecting Stability affect performance of the exercise.3. MASSa) Magnitudeb) Distribution
139 MOTION ANALYSISPARTNER EXERCISE: Considering the amount of force exerted in relation to the amount of resistance present, and the direction of the applied force in relation to the direction of the resistance, determine the benefit-to-risk ratio (high vs. low) for the following examples:DB Lateral Raise performed with arms straight vs. arms bent at 90 degreesLoaded vs. Unloaded hip flexion while standingLying straight leg raises with a) no added resistance, b) added resistance, and c) actively applied acceleration