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Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Learn the basic language of glycobiologyLearn.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Learn the basic language of glycobiologyLearn."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Learn the basic language of glycobiologyLearn the basic language of glycobiology Monosaccharides (vertebrate) Glycans (oligosaccharide & glycoconjugate basic concepts) Learn basic glycan functionsLearn basic glycan functions Glycans in glycoprotein activity, folding, trafficking O-GlcNAc-mediated regulation Glycolipids in membrane recognition & regulation Proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix Glycan binding proteins Learn the basic concepts of glycan biosynthesisLearn the basic concepts of glycan biosynthesis Learn the basic tools of glycomics (analysis)Learn the basic tools of glycomics (analysis) Learn the basic language of glycobiologyLearn the basic language of glycobiology Monosaccharides (vertebrate) Glycans (oligosaccharide & glycoconjugate basic concepts) Learn basic glycan functionsLearn basic glycan functions Glycans in glycoprotein activity, folding, trafficking O-GlcNAc-mediated regulation Glycolipids in membrane recognition & regulation Proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix Glycan binding proteins Learn the basic concepts of glycan biosynthesisLearn the basic concepts of glycan biosynthesis Learn the basic tools of glycomics (analysis)Learn the basic tools of glycomics (analysis) Course Objectives Course Objectives Course Objectives Course Objectives

2 Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology DateDayLectureFaculty ONLINE Saccharides & The Glyco WorldDr. R. Schnaar Mar 19 WedGlycoproteins IDr. N. Zachara Mar 21 FriGlycoproteins IIDr. N. Zachara Mar 25 TueGlycolipids and GPI anchorsDr. R. Schnaar Mar 27 ThuCarbohydrate EngineeringDr. K. Yarema Mar 31 MonO-GlcNAcDr. G. Hart Apr 2 WedGlycomics (Analytical Glycobiology)Dr. G. Hart Apr 4 FriGlycans and DiseaseDr. G. Hart Apr 8 TueHyaluronan and ProteoglycansDr. N. Zachara Apr 10 ThuProtein-Glycan Recognition (Lectins)Dr. R. Schnaar Apr 14 MonGlycan Binding Protein FunctionsDr. R. Schnaar

3 Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Course co-directors: Ronald Schnaar Ronald Schnaar Natasha Zachara Natasha Zachara Gerald Hart Kevin Yarema

4 Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Introduction to glycobiology Oxford University Press, New York Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY. Content freely available at:

5 What are: What are: Glycobiology? Glycosciences? Glycomics? What are: What are: Glycobiology? Glycosciences? Glycomics?

6 Glycobiology The study of the biological functions, structures, recognition and biosynthesis of glycans (sugar chains, saccharides) in the context of the biological scaffolds to which they are attached (e.g. glycolipids & glycoproteins). The study of the biological functions, structures, recognition and biosynthesis of glycans (sugar chains, saccharides) in the context of the biological scaffolds to which they are attached (e.g. glycolipids & glycoproteins). Glycobiology The study of the biological functions, structures, recognition and biosynthesis of glycans (sugar chains, saccharides) in the context of the biological scaffolds to which they are attached (e.g. glycolipids & glycoproteins). The study of the biological functions, structures, recognition and biosynthesis of glycans (sugar chains, saccharides) in the context of the biological scaffolds to which they are attached (e.g. glycolipids & glycoproteins).

7 Glycosciences Glycobiology & Glycochemistry, including… Glycobiology & Glycochemistry, including… -Chemical synthesis -Chemoenzymatic synthesis -Metabolic engineering -Glycomimetics -Glycan conformation and structure -Material Sciences -Plant and bacterial polysaccharides -Chemical synthesis -Chemoenzymatic synthesis -Metabolic engineering -Glycomimetics -Glycan conformation and structure -Material Sciences -Plant and bacterial polysaccharides Glycosciences Glycobiology & Glycochemistry, including… Glycobiology & Glycochemistry, including… -Chemical synthesis -Chemoenzymatic synthesis -Metabolic engineering -Glycomimetics -Glycan conformation and structure -Material Sciences -Plant and bacterial polysaccharides -Chemical synthesis -Chemoenzymatic synthesis -Metabolic engineering -Glycomimetics -Glycan conformation and structure -Material Sciences -Plant and bacterial polysaccharides

8 Glycomics - Analytical glycosciences -Glycan bioinformatics - Analytical glycosciences -Glycan bioinformatics “Glycome” – The total complement of glycans in a cell or organism “Glycome” – The total complement of glycans in a cell or organism Glycomics - Analytical glycosciences -Glycan bioinformatics - Analytical glycosciences -Glycan bioinformatics “Glycome” – The total complement of glycans in a cell or organism “Glycome” – The total complement of glycans in a cell or organism

9 Glycobiology is … Glycobiology is … NOT Carbohydrates as food NOT Carbohydrates as food Glycobiology is … Glycobiology is … NOT Carbohydrates as food NOT Carbohydrates as food Berg, Tymoczko & Stryer (2006) Biochemistry, Sixth Edition, W.H. Freeman, New York Carbohydrates in food are important sources of energy. Starch found in plant-derived food such as pasta....

10 Glycobiology is NOT “a” post-translational modification... it is thousands Glycobiology is NOT “a” post-translational modification... it is thousands Glycobiology is NOT “a” post-translational modification... it is thousands Glycobiology is NOT “a” post-translational modification... it is thousands Modified from faculty/hougland.html Combinatorial linkage position, orientation and branching provide the potential for millions* of different glycan structures – functional diversityCombinatorial linkage position, orientation and branching provide the potential for millions* of different glycan structures – functional diversity Glycans may be larger and are more diverse than their (protein) carriersGlycans may be larger and are more diverse than their (protein) carriers A glycan’s function can supersede that of its (protein) carrierA glycan’s function can supersede that of its (protein) carrier 1-2% of the human genome is devoted to glycosylation1-2% of the human genome is devoted to glycosylation Cummings RD (2009) Molecular BioSystems 5, 1087 *Glycoproteins and glycolipids may contain ~3000 glycan determinants with an additional ~4000 theoretical pentasaccharide sequences in glycosaminoglycans

11 Glycobiology is … NOT a “decoration” Glycobiology is … NOT a “decoration” Glycobiology is … NOT a “decoration” Glycobiology is … NOT a “decoration” “Structure” of HIV gp120 Zolla-Pazner (2004) Nature Reviews Immunology 4, 199 N-linked carbohydrate can form both an immunologically silent face—with carbohydrate masquerading as "self"— and also can protect neighboring epitopes through an "evolving glycan shield" structuralbiologylaboratory/Pages/kwong.aspx

12 CD59, a complement defense glycoprotein 20 kDa protein 3 kDa N-linked glycan 1 kDa O-linked glycan 1.5 kDa GPI anchor Proteins typically fold inward, whereas glycans spread out in space “naked” CD59, Huang et al (2007) Acta Crystallographica 63, 714 Rudd et al (1997) J Biol Chem 272, 7229

13 Scanning electron microscopy of C. neoformans yeast cells. Van Duin et al. (2004) Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 48:2014 Light microscopy micrograph of Cryptococcus neoformans Steenbergen et al. (2003) Microbes and Infection 5:667 What if a MAJOR cell component was invisible by standard microscopy? Light microscopy micrograph of Cryptococcus neoformans capsule delineated by India ink. The inner circle represents the fungal cell, with the wide outer circle being the capsule. Steenbergen et al. (2003) Microbes and Infection 5:667

14 Electron microscopic thin section of Escherichia coli K1 Amako et al. (1988) J Bacteriol 170:4960 Unique to yeast – NO! Electron microscopic thin section of Klebsiella pneumoniae Amako et al. (1988) J Bacteriol 170:4960

15 The Eukaryotic Cell Surface Tiny sugar “decorations”.. added as an afterthought Lodish, et al. (1995) Molecular Cell Biology 3rd ed. ?

16 The “glycocalyx” surrounding a fibroblast. Cell surface carbohydrates are stained black. lipid bilayer fibroblast extracellular intracellular Martinez-Palomo, A., et al. Cancer Res. 29, , 1969 The Cell Surface -- The Real Picture

17 Tropical Forest Canopy Cohen & Varki (2010) OMICS 4:455 “Evolution has failed to generate a living cell devoid of surface glycosylation” - A. Varki

18 lipid bilayer fibroblastintracellular Martinez-Palomo, A., et al. Cancer Res. 29, , 1969 The Cell Surface Real image textbook image Among their diverse functions, glycans …Among their diverse functions, glycans … –encode intermolecular and cell-cell recognition –regulate the activities of proteins (enzymes, ion channels, receptors) –Define biophysical space (large, hydrated)

19 Cohen & Varki (2010) OMICS 4:455 Glycobiology = Language (semiotics)

20 Saccharides Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes

21 Saccharides Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes

22 Carbohydrates – the building blocks of Glycobiology (CH 2 O) n = “carbo” “hydrate” Generalized Ketose Generalized Aldose

23 glucose fructose

24 Enantiomers: mirror images of each other that are not superimposable. Diastereomers: stereoisomers that are not enantiomers. Generalized Aldose Monosaccharide structural identity is all about stereochemistry

25 Fischer projection D-glyceraldehyde

26 L-glyceraldehydeD-glyceraldehyde Enantiomers * * * Highest numbered asymmetric carbon = reference carbon

27 L-glyceraldehydeD-glyceraldehydeEnantiomers * * * Highest numbered asymmetric carbon = reference carbon

28 Diasteriomers * * *

29 Enantiomers & Diasteriomers * Highest numbered asymmetric carbon = reference carbon * * * * carbons asymmetric carbons diaster- iomers diasteriomers & enantiomers

30 Essentials of Glycobiology Second Edition ** * * * epimers: differ in only stereogenic center

31 Monosaccharides equilibrate between open chain and ring forms. Two ring forms (anomeric configurations) are possible, α and β Taylor & Drickamer (2011) Introduction to Glycobiology, 3 rd edition D-glucose α-D-glucose β-D-glucose

32 Lee & Lee (1999) J Chinese Chem Soc 46: Determining anomeric configuration [PDB]

33 Monosaccharide conformation – Chair configurations Taylor & Drickamer (2006) Introduction to Glycobiology, 2 nd edition

34 Nearly all vertebrate glycans are built from only 9 sugars: 3 hexoses* GlucoseGlucose MannoseMannose GalactoseGalactose 2 N-acetylhexosamines N-acetylglucosamineN-acetylglucosamine N-acetylgalactosamineN-acetylgalactosamine xylosexylose glucuronic acidglucuronic acid sialic acidsialic acid L-fucoseL-fucose *all D configuration except fucose

35 Seven eukaryotic sugars and their relationship to glucose Taylor & Drickamer (2011) Introduction to Glycobiology, 3 rd edition

36 Two important terminal eukaryotic sugars Taylor & Drickamer (2011) Introduction to Glycobiology, 3 rd edition

37 Glycan properties for molecular recognition and binding energy Glycan properties for molecular recognition and binding energy Glycan properties for molecular recognition and binding energy Glycan properties for molecular recognition and binding energy Glucose Galactose Sialic Acid Mannose

38 Saccharides Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes

39 Saccharides Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes

40 When a glycosidic bond is formed the anomeric configuration is “locked” Glycosidic bonds link sugars together Taylor & Drickamer (2011) Introduction to Glycobiology, 3 rd edition (lactose) CCRC

41 Nomenclature: -Name the non-reducing (left-most) sugar (Gal) -Name the anomeric configuration (β) -Name the anomeric carbon number (1) -Name the substituted carbon number (4) -Name the substituted sugar (Glc) -Name the non-reducing (left-most) sugar (Gal) -Name the anomeric configuration (β) -Name the anomeric carbon number (1) -Name the substituted carbon number (4) -Name the substituted sugar (Glc) RESULT: Gal β1-4 Glc Taylor & Drickamer (2011) Introduction to Glycobiology, 3 rd edition

42 NeuAc α2-3 Gal β1-4 (Fuc α1-3) GlcNAc Nomenclature: Branches are placed in parentheses

43 Varki et al. (2009) Proteomics. 9:5398

44 Oligosaccharides: Molecular diversity of glycans PolypeptidesGlycans Building blocks amino acids monosaccharides Number of different monomers 20 common 9 common Linkage sites per monomer 13-4 Possible linkage configurations 12 Possible homodimer structures 16-8 Linkage modes linear linear or branched

45 Three different amino acids (Ala, Ser, Tyr) – 6 structures Ala-Ser-TyrAla-Tyr-SerSer-Ala-TyrSer-Tyr-AlaTyr-Ala-SerTyr-Ser-Ala Three different sugars (Glc, Gal, Man) – 1,056 structures …

46 Gal a1-2 Glc a1-2 Man a1- Gal a1-3 Glc a1-2 Man a1- Gal a1-4 Glc a1-2 Man a1- Gal a1-6 Glc a1-2 Man a1- Gal b1-2 Glc a1-2 Man a1- Gal b1-3 Glc a1-2 Man a1- Gal b1-4 Glc a1-2 Man a1- Gal b1-6 Glc a1-2 Man a1- Gal a1-2 Glc a1-3 Man a1- Gal a1-3 Glc a1-3 Man a1- Gal a1-4 Glc a1-3 Man a1- Gal a1-6 Glc a1-3 Man a1- Gal b1-2 Glc a1-3 Man a1- Gal b1-3 Glc a1-3 Man a1- Gal b1-4 Glc a1-3 Man a1- Gal b1-6 Glc a1-3 Man a1- Gal a1-2 Glc a1-4 Man a1- Gal a1-3 Glc a1-4 Man a1- Gal a1-4 Glc a1-4 Man a1- Gal a1-6 Glc a1-4 Man a1- Gal b1-2 Glc a1-4 Man a1- Gal b1-3 Glc a1-4 Man a1- Gal b1-4 Glc a1-4 Man a1- Gal b1-6 Glc a1-4 Man a1- Gal a1-2 Glc a1-6 Man a1- Gal a1-3 Glc a1-6 Man a1- Gal a1-4 Glc a1-6 Man a1- Gal a1-6 Glc a1-6 Man a1- Gal b1-2 Glc a1-6 Man a1- Gal b1-3 Glc a1-6 Man a1- Gal b1-4 Glc a1-6 Man a1- Gal b1-6 Glc a1-6 Man a1- Gal a1-2 Glc b1-2 Man a1- Gal a1-3 Glc b1-2 Man a1- Gal a1-4 Glc b1-2 Man a1- Gal a1-6 Glc b1-2 Man a1- Gal b1-2 Glc b1-2 Man a1- Gal b1-3 Glc b1-2 Man a1- Gal b1-4 Glc b1-2 Man a1- Gal b1-6 Glc b1-2 Man a1- Gal a1-2 Glc b1-3 Man a1- Gal a1-3 Glc b1-3 Man a1- Gal a1-4 Glc b1-3 Man a1- Gal a1-6 Glc b1-3 Man a1- Gal b1-2 Glc b1-3 Man a1- Gal b1-3 Glc b1-3 Man a1- Gal b1-4 Glc b1-3 Man a1- Gal b1-6 Glc b1-3 Man a1- Gal a1-2 Glc b1-4 Man a1- Gal a1-3 Glc b1-4 Man a1- Gal a1-4 Glc b1-4 Man a1- Gal a1-6 Glc b1-4 Man a1- Gal b1-2 Glc b1-4 Man a1- Gal b1-3 Glc b1-4 Man a1- Gal b1-4 Glc b1-4 Man a1- Gal b1-6 Glc b1-4 Man a1- Gal a1-2 Glc b1-6 Man a1- Gal a1-3 Glc b1-6 Man a1- Gal a1-4 Glc b1-6 Man a1- Gal a1-6 Glc b1-6 Man a1- Gal b1-2 Glc b1-6 Man a1- Gal b1-3 Glc b1-6 Man a1- Gal b1-4 Glc b1-6 Man a1- Gal b1-6 Glc b1-6 Man a1- Gal a1-2 Glc a1-2 Man b1- Gal a1-3 Glc a1-2 Man b1- Gal a1-4 Glc a1-2 Man b1- Gal a1-6 Glc a1-2 Man b1- Gal b1-2 Glc a1-2 Man b1- Gal b1-3 Glc a1-2 Man b1- Gal b1-4 Glc a1-2 Man b1- Gal b1-6 Glc a1-2 Man b1- Gal a1-2 Glc a1-3 Man b1- Gal a1-3 Glc a1-3 Man b1- Gal a1-4 Glc a1-3 Man b1- Gal a1-6 Glc a1-3 Man b1- Gal b1-2 Glc a1-3 Man b1- Gal b1-3 Glc a1-3 Man b1- Gal b1-4 Glc a1-3 Man b1- Gal b1-6 Glc a1-3 Man b1- Gal a1-2 Glc a1-4 Man b1- Gal a1-3 Glc a1-4 Man b1- Gal a1-4 Glc a1-4 Man b1- Gal a1-6 Glc a1-4 Man b1- Gal b1-2 Glc a1-4 Man b1- Gal b1-3 Glc a1-4 Man b1- Gal b1-4 Glc a1-4 Man b1- Gal b1-6 Glc a1-4 Man b1- Gal a1-2 Glc a1-6 Man b1- Gal a1-3 Glc a1-6 Man b1- Gal a1-4 Glc a1-6 Man b1- Gal a1-6 Glc a1-6 Man b1- Gal b1-2 Glc a1-6 Man b1- Gal b1-3 Glc a1-6 Man b1- Gal b1-4 Glc a1-6 Man b1- Gal b1-6 Glc a1-6 Man b1- Gal a1-2 Glc b1-2 Man b1- Gal a1-3 Glc b1-2 Man b1- Gal a1-4 Glc b1-2 Man b1- Gal a1-6 Glc b1-2 Man b1- Gal b1-2 Glc b1-2 Man b1- Gal b1-3 Glc b1-2 Man b1- Gal b1-4 Glc b1-2 Man b1- Gal b1-6 Glc b1-2 Man b1- Gal a1-2 Glc b1-3 Man b1- Gal a1-3 Glc b1-3 Man b1- Gal a1-4 Glc b1-3 Man b1- Gal a1-6 Glc b1-3 Man b1- Gal b1-2 Glc b1-3 Man b1- Gal b1-3 Glc b1-3 Man b1- Gal b1-4 Glc b1-3 Man b1- Gal b1-6 Glc b1-3 Man b1- Gal a1-2 Glc b1-4 Man b1- Gal a1-3 Glc b1-4 Man b1- Gal a1-4 Glc b1-4 Man b1- Gal a1-6 Glc b1-4 Man b1- Gal b1-2 Glc b1-4 Man b1- Gal b1-3 Glc b1-4 Man b1- Gal b1-4 Glc b1-4 Man b1- Gal b1-6 Glc b1-4 Man b1- Gal a1-2 Glc b1-6 Man b1- Gal a1-3 Glc b1-6 Man b1- Gal a1-4 Glc b1-6 Man b1- Gal a1-6 Glc b1-6 Man b1- Gal b1-2 Glc b1-6 Man b1- Gal b1-3 Glc b1-6 Man b1- Gal b1-4 Glc b1-6 Man b1- Gal b1-6 Glc b1-6 Man b1- Gal a1-2 Man a1-2 Glc a1- Gal a1-3 Man a1-2 Glc a1- Gal a1-4 Man a1-2 Glc a1- Gal a1-6 Man a1-2 Glc a1- Gal b1-2 Man a1-2 Glc a1- Gal b1-3 Man a1-2 Glc a1- Gal b1-4 Man a1-2 Glc a1- Gal b1-6 Man a1-2 Glc a1- Gal a1-2 Man a1-3 Glc a1- Gal a1-3 Man a1-3 Glc a1- Gal a1-4 Man a1-3 Glc a1- Gal a1-6 Man a1-3 Glc a1- Gal b1-2 Man a1-3 Glc a1- Gal b1-3 Man a1-3 Glc a1- Gal b1-4 Man a1-3 Glc a1- Gal b1-6 Man a1-3 Glc a1- Gal a1-2 Man a1-4 Glc a1- Gal a1-3 Man a1-4 Glc a1- Gal a1-4 Man a1-4 Glc a1- Gal a1-6 Man a1-4 Glc a1- Gal b1-2 Man a1-4 Glc a1- Gal b1-3 Man a1-4 Glc a1- Gal b1-4 Man a1-4 Glc a1- Gal b1-6 Man a1-4 Glc a1- Gal a1-2 Man a1-6 Glc a1- Gal a1-3 Man a1-6 Glc a1- Gal a1-4 Man a1-6 Glc a1- Gal a1-6 Man a1-6 Glc a1- Gal b1-2 Man a1-6 Glc a1- Gal b1-3 Man a1-6 Glc a1- Gal b1-4 Man a1-6 Glc a1- Gal b1-6 Man a1-6 Glc a1- Gal a1-2 Man b1-2 Glc a1- Gal a1-3 Man b1-2 Glc a1- Gal a1-4 Man b1-2 Glc a1- Gal a1-6 Man b1-2 Glc a1- Gal b1-2 Man b1-2 Glc a1- Gal b1-3 Man b1-2 Glc a1- Gal b1-4 Man b1-2 Glc a1- Gal b1-6 Man b1-2 Glc a1- Gal a1-2 Man b1-3 Glc a1- Gal a1-3 Man b1-3 Glc a1- Gal a1-4 Man b1-3 Glc a1- Gal a1-6 Man b1-3 Glc a1- Gal b1-2 Man b1-3 Glc a1- Gal b1-3 Man b1-3 Glc a1- Gal b1-4 Man b1-3 Glc a1- Gal b1-6 Man b1-3 Glc a1- Gal a1-2 Man b1-4 Glc a1- Gal a1-3 Man b1-4 Glc a1- Gal a1-4 Man b1-4 Glc a1- Gal a1-6 Man b1-4 Glc a1- Gal b1-2 Man b1-4 Glc a1- Gal b1-3 Man b1-4 Glc a1- Gal b1-4 Man b1-4 Glc a1- Gal b1-6 Man b1-4 Glc a1- Gal a1-2 Man b1-6 Glc a1- Gal a1-3 Man b1-6 Glc a1- Gal a1-4 Man b1-6 Glc a1- Gal a1-6 Man b1-6 Glc a1- Gal b1-2 Man b1-6 Glc a1- Gal b1-3 Man b1-6 Glc a1- Gal b1-4 Man b1-6 Glc a1- Gal b1-6 Man b1-6 Glc a1- Gal a1-2 Man a1-2 Glc b1- Gal a1-3 Man a1-2 Glc b1- Gal a1-4 Man a1-2 Glc b1- Gal a1-6 Man a1-2 Glc b1- Gal b1-2 Man a1-2 Glc b1- Gal b1-3 Man a1-2 Glc b1- Gal b1-4 Man a1-2 Glc b1- Gal b1-6 Man a1-2 Glc b1- Gal a1-2 Man a1-3 Glc b1- Gal a1-3 Man a1-3 Glc b1- Gal a1-4 Man a1-3 Glc b1- Gal a1-6 Man a1-3 Glc b1- Gal b1-2 Man a1-3 Glc b1- Gal b1-3 Man a1-3 Glc b1- Gal b1-4 Man a1-3 Glc b1- Gal b1-6 Man a1-3 Glc b1- Gal a1-2 Man a1-4 Glc b1- Gal a1-3 Man a1-4 Glc b1- Gal a1-4 Man a1-4 Glc b1- Gal a1-6 Man a1-4 Glc b1- Gal b1-2 Man a1-4 Glc b1- Gal b1-3 Man a1-4 Glc b1- Gal b1-4 Man a1-4 Glc b1- Gal b1-6 Man a1-4 Glc b1- Gal a1-2 Man a1-6 Glc b1- Gal a1-3 Man a1-6 Glc b1- Gal a1-4 Man a1-6 Glc b1- Gal a1-6 Man a1-6 Glc b1- Gal b1-2 Man a1-6 Glc b1- Gal b1-3 Man a1-6 Glc b1- Gal b1-4 Man a1-6 Glc b1- Gal b1-6 Man a1-6 Glc b1- Gal a1-2 Man b1-2 Glc b1- Gal a1-3 Man b1-2 Glc b1- Gal a1-4 Man b1-2 Glc b1- Gal a1-6 Man b1-2 Glc b1- Gal b1-2 Man b1-2 Glc b1- Gal b1-3 Man b1-2 Glc b1- Gal b1-4 Man b1-2 Glc b1- Gal b1-6 Man b1-2 Glc b1- Gal a1-2 Man b1-3 Glc b1- Gal a1-3 Man b1-3 Glc b1- Gal a1-4 Man b1-3 Glc b1- Gal a1-6 Man b1-3 Glc b1- Gal b1-2 Man b1-3 Glc b1- Gal b1-3 Man b1-3 Glc b1- Gal b1-4 Man b1-3 Glc b1- Gal b1-6 Man b1-3 Glc b1- Gal a1-2 Man b1-4 Glc b1- Gal a1-3 Man b1-4 Glc b1- Gal a1-4 Man b1-4 Glc b1- Gal a1-6 Man b1-4 Glc b1- Gal b1-2 Man b1-4 Glc b1- Gal b1-3 Man b1-4 Glc b1- Gal b1-4 Man b1-4 Glc b1- Gal b1-6 Man b1-4 Glc b1- Gal a1-2 Man b1-6 Glc b1- Gal a1-3 Man b1-6 Glc b1- Gal a1-4 Man b1-6 Glc b1- Gal a1-6 Man b1-6 Glc b1- Gal b1-2 Man b1-6 Glc b1- Gal b1-3 Man b1-6 Glc b1- Gal b1-4 Man b1-6 Glc b1- Gal b1-6 Man b1-6 Glc b1- Man a1-2 Glc a1-2 Gal a1- Man a1-3 Glc a1-2 Gal a1- Man a1-4 Glc a1-2 Gal a1- Man a1-6 Glc a1-2 Gal a1- Man b1-2 Glc a1-2 Gal a1- Man b1-3 Glc a1-2 Gal a1- Man b1-4 Glc a1-2 Gal a1- Man b1-6 Glc a1-2 Gal a1- Man a1-2 Glc a1-3 Gal a1- Man a1-3 Glc a1-3 Gal a1- Man a1-4 Glc a1-3 Gal a1- Man a1-6 Glc a1-3 Gal a1- Man b1-2 Glc a1-3 Gal a1- Man b1-3 Glc a1-3 Gal a1- Man b1-4 Glc a1-3 Gal a1- Man b1-6 Glc a1-3 Gal a1- Man a1-2 Glc a1-4 Gal a1- Man a1-3 Glc a1-4 Gal a1- Man a1-4 Glc a1-4 Gal a1- Man a1-6 Glc a1-4 Gal a1- Man b1-2 Glc a1-4 Gal a1- Man b1-3 Glc a1-4 Gal a1- Man b1-4 Glc a1-4 Gal a1- Man b1-6 Glc a1-4 Gal a1- Man a1-2 Glc a1-6 Gal a1- Man a1-3 Glc a1-6 Gal a1- Man a1-4 Glc a1-6 Gal a1- Man a1-6 Glc a1-6 Gal a1- Man b1-2 Glc a1-6 Gal a1- Man b1-3 Glc a1-6 Gal a1- Man b1-4 Glc a1-6 Gal a1- Man b1-6 Glc a1-6 Gal a1- Man a1-2 Glc b1-2 Gal a1- Man a1-3 Glc b1-2 Gal a1- Man a1-4 Glc b1-2 Gal a1- Man a1-6 Glc b1-2 Gal a1- Man b1-2 Glc b1-2 Gal a1- Man b1-3 Glc b1-2 Gal a1- Man b1-4 Glc b1-2 Gal a1- Man b1-6 Glc b1-2 Gal a1- Man a1-2 Glc b1-3 Gal a1- Man a1-3 Glc b1-3 Gal a1- Man a1-4 Glc b1-3 Gal a1- Man a1-6 Glc b1-3 Gal a1- Man b1-2 Glc b1-3 Gal a1- Man b1-3 Glc b1-3 Gal a1- Man b1-4 Glc b1-3 Gal a1- Man b1-6 Glc b1-3 Gal a1- Man a1-2 Glc b1-4 Gal a1- Man a1-3 Glc b1-4 Gal a1- Man a1-4 Glc b1-4 Gal a1- Man a1-6 Glc b1-4 Gal a1- Man b1-2 Glc b1-4 Gal a1- Man b1-3 Glc b1-4 Gal a1- Man b1-4 Glc b1-4 Gal a1- Man b1-6 Glc b1-4 Gal a1- Man a1-2 Glc b1-6 Gal a1- Man a1-3 Glc b1-6 Gal a1- Man a1-4 Glc b1-6 Gal a1- Man a1-6 Glc b1-6 Gal a1- Man b1-2 Glc b1-6 Gal a1- Man b1-3 Glc b1-6 Gal a1- Man b1-4 Glc b1-6 Gal a1- Man b1-6 Glc b1-6 Gal a1- Man a1-2 Glc a1-2 Gal b1- Man a1-3 Glc a1-2 Gal b1- Man a1-4 Glc a1-2 Gal b1- Man a1-6 Glc a1-2 Gal b1- Man b1-2 Glc a1-2 Gal b1- Man b1-3 Glc a1-2 Gal b1- Man b1-4 Glc a1-2 Gal b1- Man b1-6 Glc a1-2 Gal b1- Man a1-2 Glc a1-3 Gal b1- Man a1-3 Glc a1-3 Gal b1- Man a1-4 Glc a1-3 Gal b1- Man a1-6 Glc a1-3 Gal b1- Man b1-2 Glc a1-3 Gal b1- Man b1-3 Glc a1-3 Gal b1- Man b1-4 Glc a1-3 Gal b1- Man b1-6 Glc a1-3 Gal b1- Man a1-2 Glc a1-4 Gal b1- Man a1-3 Glc a1-4 Gal b1- Man a1-4 Glc a1-4 Gal b1- Man a1-6 Glc a1-4 Gal b1- Man b1-2 Glc a1-4 Gal b1- Man b1-3 Glc a1-4 Gal b1- Man b1-4 Glc a1-4 Gal b1- Man b1-6 Glc a1-4 Gal b1- Man a1-2 Glc a1-6 Gal b1- Man a1-3 Glc a1-6 Gal b1- Man a1-4 Glc a1-6 Gal b1- Man a1-6 Glc a1-6 Gal b1- Man b1-2 Glc a1-6 Gal b1- Man b1-3 Glc a1-6 Gal b1- Man b1-4 Glc a1-6 Gal b1- Man b1-6 Glc a1-6 Gal b1- Man a1-2 Glc b1-2 Gal b1- Man a1-3 Glc b1-2 Gal b1- Man a1-4 Glc b1-2 Gal b1- Man a1-6 Glc b1-2 Gal b1- Man b1-2 Glc b1-2 Gal b1- Man b1-3 Glc b1-2 Gal b1- Man b1-4 Glc b1-2 Gal b1- Man b1-6 Glc b1-2 Gal b1- Man a1-2 Glc b1-3 Gal b1- Man a1-3 Glc b1-3 Gal b1- Man a1-4 Glc b1-3 Gal b1- Man a1-6 Glc b1-3 Gal b1- Man b1-2 Glc b1-3 Gal b1- Man b1-3 Glc b1-3 Gal b1- Man b1-4 Glc b1-3 Gal b1- Man b1-6 Glc b1-3 Gal b1- Man a1-2 Glc b1-4 Gal b1- Man a1-3 Glc b1-4 Gal b1- Man a1-4 Glc b1-4 Gal b1- Man a1-6 Glc b1-4 Gal b1- Man b1-2 Glc b1-4 Gal b1- Man b1-3 Glc b1-4 Gal b1- Man b1-4 Glc b1-4 Gal b1- Man b1-6 Glc b1-4 Gal b1- Man a1-2 Glc b1-6 Gal b1- Man a1-3 Glc b1-6 Gal b1- Man a1-4 Glc b1-6 Gal b1- Man a1-6 Glc b1-6 Gal b1- Man b1-2 Glc b1-6 Gal b1- Man b1-3 Glc b1-6 Gal b1- Man b1-4 Glc b1-6 Gal b1- Man b1-6 Glc b1-6 Gal b1- Man a1-2 Gal a1-2 Glc a1- Man a1-3 Gal a1-2 Glc a1- Man a1-4 Gal a1-2 Glc a1- Man a1-6 Gal a1-2 Glc a1- Man b1-2 Gal a1-2 Glc a1- Man b1-3 Gal a1-2 Glc a1- Man b1-4 Gal a1-2 Glc a1- Man b1-6 Gal a1-2 Glc a1- Man a1-2 Gal a1-3 Glc a1- Man a1-3 Gal a1-3 Glc a1- Man a1-4 Gal a1-3 Glc a1- Man a1-6 Gal a1-3 Glc a1- Man b1-2 Gal a1-3 Glc a1- Man b1-3 Gal a1-3 Glc a1- Man b1-4 Gal a1-3 Glc a1- Man b1-6 Gal a1-3 Glc a1- Man a1-2 Gal a1-4 Glc a1- Man a1-3 Gal a1-4 Glc a1- Man a1-4 Gal a1-4 Glc a1- Man a1-6 Gal a1-4 Glc a1- Man b1-2 Gal a1-4 Glc a1- Man b1-3 Gal a1-4 Glc a1- Man b1-4 Gal a1-4 Glc a1- Man b1-6 Gal a1-4 Glc a1- Man a1-2 Gal a1-6 Glc a1- Man a1-3 Gal a1-6 Glc a1- Man a1-4 Gal a1-6 Glc a1- Man a1-6 Gal a1-6 Glc a1- Man b1-2 Gal a1-6 Glc a1- Man b1-3 Gal a1-6 Glc a1- Man b1-4 Gal a1-6 Glc a1- Man b1-6 Gal a1-6 Glc a1- Man a1-2 Gal b1-2 Glc a1- Man a1-3 Gal b1-2 Glc a1- Man a1-4 Gal b1-2 Glc a1- Man a1-6 Gal b1-2 Glc a1- Man b1-2 Gal b1-2 Glc a1- Man b1-3 Gal b1-2 Glc a1- Man b1-4 Gal b1-2 Glc a1- Man b1-6 Gal b1-2 Glc a1- Man a1-2 Gal b1-3 Glc a1- Man a1-3 Gal b1-3 Glc a1- Man a1-4 Gal b1-3 Glc a1- Man a1-6 Gal b1-3 Glc a1- Man b1-2 Gal b1-3 Glc a1- Man b1-3 Gal b1-3 Glc a1- Man b1-4 Gal b1-3 Glc a1- Man b1-6 Gal b1-3 Glc a1- Man a1-2 Gal b1-4 Glc a1- Man a1-3 Gal b1-4 Glc a1- Man a1-4 Gal b1-4 Glc a1- Man a1-6 Gal b1-4 Glc a1- Man b1-2 Gal b1-4 Glc a1- Man b1-3 Gal b1-4 Glc a1- Man b1-4 Gal b1-4 Glc a1- Man b1-6 Gal b1-4 Glc a1- Man a1-2 Gal b1-6 Glc a1- Man a1-3 Gal b1-6 Glc a1- Man a1-4 Gal b1-6 Glc a1- Man a1-6 Gal b1-6 Glc a1- Man b1-2 Gal b1-6 Glc a1- Man b1-3 Gal b1-6 Glc a1- Man b1-4 Gal b1-6 Glc a1- Man b1-6 Gal b1-6 Glc a1- Man a1-2 Gal a1-2 Glc b1 Man a1-3 Gal a1-2 Glc b1 Man a1-4 Gal a1-2 Glc b1 Man a1-6 Gal a1-2 Glc b1 Man b1-2 Gal a1-2 Glc b1 Man b1-3 Gal a1-2 Glc b1 Man b1-4 Gal a1-2 Glc b1 Man b1-6 Gal a1-2 Glc b1 Man a1-2 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man a1-3 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man a1-4 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man a1-6 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-2 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-3 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-4 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-6 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man a1-2 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-3 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-4 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-6 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-2 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-3 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-4 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-6 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-2 Gal a1-6 Glc b1 Man a1-3 Gal a1-6 Glc b1 Man a1-4 Gal a1-6 Glc b1 Man a1-6 Gal a1-6 Glc b1 Man b1-2 Gal a1-6 Glc b1 Man b1-3 Gal a1-6 Glc b1 Man b1-4 Gal a1-6 Glc b1 Man b1-6 Gal a1-6 Glc b1 Man a1-2 Gal b1-2 Glc b1 Man a1-3 Gal b1-2 Glc b1 Man a1-4 Gal b1-2 Glc b1 Man a1-6 Gal b1-2 Glc b1 Man b1-2 Gal b1-2 Glc b1 Man b1-3 Gal b1-2 Glc b1 Man b1-4 Gal b1-2 Glc b1 Man b1-6 Gal b1-2 Glc b1 Man a1-2 Gal b1-3 Glc b1 Man a1-3 Gal b1-3 Glc b1 Man a1-4 Gal b1-3 Glc b1 Man a1-6 Gal b1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-2 Gal b1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-3 Gal b1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-4 Gal b1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-6 Gal b1-3 Glc b1 Man a1-2 Gal b1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-3 Gal b1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-4 Gal b1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-6 Gal b1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-2 Gal b1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-3 Gal b1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-4 Gal b1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-6 Gal b1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-2 Gal b1-6 Glc b1 Man a1-3 Gal b1-6 Glc b1 Man a1-4 Gal b1-6 Glc b1 Man a1-6 Gal b1-6 Glc b1 Man b1-2 Gal b1-6 Glc b1 Man b1-3 Gal b1-6 Glc b1 Man b1-4 Gal b1-6 Glc b1 Man b1-6 Gal b1-6 Glc b1 Glc a1-2 Man a1-2 Gal a1- Glc a1-3 Man a1-2 Gal a1- Glc a1-4 Man a1-2 Gal a1- Glc a1-6 Man a1-2 Gal a1- Glc b1-2 Man a1-2 Gal a1- Glc b1-3 Man a1-2 Gal a1- Glc b1-4 Man a1-2 Gal a1- Glc b1-6 Man a1-2 Gal a1- Glc a1-2 Man a1-3 Gal a1- Glc a1-3 Man a1-3 Gal a1- Glc a1-4 Man a1-3 Gal a1- Glc a1-6 Man a1-3 Gal a1- Glc b1-2 Man a1-3 Gal a1- Glc b1-3 Man a1-3 Gal a1- Glc b1-4 Man a1-3 Gal a1- Glc b1-6 Man a1-3 Gal a1- Glc a1-2 Man a1-4 Gal a1- Glc a1-3 Man a1-4 Gal a1- Glc a1-4 Man a1-4 Gal a1- Glc a1-6 Man a1-4 Gal a1- Glc b1-2 Man a1-4 Gal a1- Glc b1-3 Man a1-4 Gal a1- Glc b1-4 Man a1-4 Gal a1- Glc b1-6 Man a1-4 Gal a1- Glc a1-2 Man a1-6 Gal a1- Glc a1-3 Man a1-6 Gal a1- Glc a1-4 Man a1-6 Gal a1- Glc a1-6 Man a1-6 Gal a1- Glc b1-2 Man a1-6 Gal a1- Glc b1-3 Man a1-6 Gal a1- Glc b1-4 Man a1-6 Gal a1- Glc b1-6 Man a1-6 Gal a1- Glc a1-2 Man b1-2 Gal a1- Glc a1-3 Man b1-2 Gal a1- Glc a1-4 Man b1-2 Gal a1- Glc a1-6 Man b1-2 Gal a1- Glc b1-2 Man b1-2 Gal a1- Glc b1-3 Man b1-2 Gal a1- Glc b1-4 Man b1-2 Gal a1- Glc b1-6 Man b1-2 Gal a1- Glc a1-2 Man b1-3 Gal a1- Glc a1-3 Man b1-3 Gal a1- Glc a1-4 Man b1-3 Gal a1- Glc a1-6 Man b1-3 Gal a1- Glc b1-2 Man b1-3 Gal a1- Glc b1-3 Man b1-3 Gal a1- Glc b1-4 Man b1-3 Gal a1- Glc b1-6 Man b1-3 Gal a1- Glc a1-2 Man b1-4 Gal a1- Glc a1-3 Man b1-4 Gal a1- Glc a1-4 Man b1-4 Gal a1- Glc a1-6 Man b1-4 Gal a1- Glc b1-2 Man b1-4 Gal a1- Glc b1-3 Man b1-4 Gal a1- Glc b1-4 Man b1-4 Gal a1- Glc b1-6 Man b1-4 Gal a1- Glc a1-2 Man b1-6 Gal a1- Glc a1-3 Man b1-6 Gal a1- Glc a1-4 Man b1-6 Gal a1- Glc a1-6 Man b1-6 Gal a1- Glc b1-2 Man b1-6 Gal a1- Glc b1-3 Man b1-6 Gal a1- Glc b1-4 Man b1-6 Gal a1- Glc b1-6 Man b1-6 Gal a1- Glc a1-2 Man a1-2 Gal b1- Glc a1-3 Man a1-2 Gal b1- Glc a1-4 Man a1-2 Gal b1- Glc a1-6 Man a1-2 Gal b1- Glc b1-2 Man a1-2 Gal b1- Glc b1-3 Man a1-2 Gal b1- Glc b1-4 Man a1-2 Gal b1- Glc b1-6 Man a1-2 Gal b1- Glc a1-2 Man a1-3 Gal b1- Glc a1-3 Man a1-3 Gal b1- Glc a1-4 Man a1-3 Gal b1- Glc a1-6 Man a1-3 Gal b1- Glc b1-2 Man a1-3 Gal b1- Glc b1-3 Man a1-3 Gal b1- Glc b1-4 Man a1-3 Gal b1- Glc b1-6 Man a1-3 Gal b1- Glc a1-2 Man a1-4 Gal b1- Glc a1-3 Man a1-4 Gal b1- Glc a1-4 Man a1-4 Gal b1- Glc a1-6 Man a1-4 Gal b1- Glc b1-2 Man a1-4 Gal b1- Glc b1-3 Man a1-4 Gal b1- Glc b1-4 Man a1-4 Gal b1- Glc b1-6 Man a1-4 Gal b1- Glc a1-2 Man a1-6 Gal b1- Glc a1-3 Man a1-6 Gal b1- Glc a1-4 Man a1-6 Gal b1- Glc a1-6 Man a1-6 Gal b1- Glc b1-2 Man a1-6 Gal b1- Glc b1-3 Man a1-6 Gal b1- Glc b1-4 Man a1-6 Gal b1- Glc b1-6 Man a1-6 Gal b1- Glc a1-2 Man b1-2 Gal b1- Glc a1-3 Man b1-2 Gal b1- Glc a1-4 Man b1-2 Gal b1- Glc a1-6 Man b1-2 Gal b1- Glc b1-2 Man b1-2 Gal b1- Glc b1-3 Man b1-2 Gal b1- Glc b1-4 Man b1-2 Gal b1- Glc b1-6 Man b1-2 Gal b1- Glc a1-2 Man b1-3 Gal b1- Glc a1-3 Man b1-3 Gal b1- Glc a1-4 Man b1-3 Gal b1- Glc a1-6 Man b1-3 Gal b1- Glc b1-2 Man b1-3 Gal b1- Glc b1-3 Man b1-3 Gal b1- Glc b1-4 Man b1-3 Gal b1- Glc b1-6 Man b1-3 Gal b1- Glc a1-2 Man b1-4 Gal b1- Glc a1-3 Man b1-4 Gal b1- Glc a1-4 Man b1-4 Gal b1- Glc a1-6 Man b1-4 Gal b1- Glc b1-2 Man b1-4 Gal b1- Glc b1-3 Man b1-4 Gal b1- Glc b1-4 Man b1-4 Gal b1- Glc b1-6 Man b1-4 Gal b1- Glc a1-2 Man b1-6 Gal b1- Glc a1-3 Man b1-6 Gal b1- Glc a1-4 Man b1-6 Gal b1- Glc a1-6 Man b1-6 Gal b1- Glc b1-2 Man b1-6 Gal b1- Glc b1-3 Man b1-6 Gal b1- Glc b1-4 Man b1-6 Gal b1- Glc b1-6 Man b1-6 Gal b1- Glc a1-2 Gal a1-2 Man a1- Glc a1-3 Gal a1-2 Man a1- Glc a1-4 Gal a1-2 Man a1- Glc a1-6 Gal a1-2 Man a1- Glc b1-2 Gal a1-2 Man a1- Glc b1-3 Gal a1-2 Man a1- Glc b1-4 Gal a1-2 Man a1- Glc b1-6 Gal a1-2 Man a1- Glc a1-2 Gal a1-3 Man a1- Glc a1-3 Gal a1-3 Man a1- Glc a1-4 Gal a1-3 Man a1- Glc a1-6 Gal a1-3 Man a1- Glc b1-2 Gal a1-3 Man a1- Glc b1-3 Gal a1-3 Man a1- Glc b1-4 Gal a1-3 Man a1- Glc b1-6 Gal a1-3 Man a1- Glc a1-2 Gal a1-4 Man a1- Glc a1-3 Gal a1-4 Man a1- Glc a1-4 Gal a1-4 Man a1- Glc a1-6 Gal a1-4 Man a1- Glc b1-2 Gal a1-4 Man a1- Glc b1-3 Gal a1-4 Man a1- Glc b1-4 Gal a1-4 Man a1- Glc b1-6 Gal a1-4 Man a1- Glc a1-2 Gal a1-6 Man a1- Glc a1-3 Gal a1-6 Man a1- Glc a1-4 Gal a1-6 Man a1- Glc a1-6 Gal a1-6 Man a1- Glc b1-2 Gal a1-6 Man a1- Glc b1-3 Gal a1-6 Man a1- Glc b1-4 Gal a1-6 Man a1- Glc b1-6 Gal a1-6 Man a1- Glc a1-2 Gal b1-2 Man a1- Glc a1-3 Gal b1-2 Man a1- Glc a1-4 Gal b1-2 Man a1- Glc a1-6 Gal b1-2 Man a1- Glc b1-2 Gal b1-2 Man a1- Glc b1-3 Gal b1-2 Man a1- Glc b1-4 Gal b1-2 Man a1- Glc b1-6 Gal b1-2 Man a1- Glc a1-2 Gal b1-3 Man a1- Glc a1-3 Gal b1-3 Man a1- Glc a1-4 Gal b1-3 Man a1- Glc a1-6 Gal b1-3 Man a1- Glc b1-2 Gal b1-3 Man a1- Glc b1-3 Gal b1-3 Man a1- Glc b1-4 Gal b1-3 Man a1- Glc b1-6 Gal b1-3 Man a1- Glc a1-2 Gal b1-4 Man a1- Glc a1-3 Gal b1-4 Man a1- Glc a1-4 Gal b1-4 Man a1- Glc a1-6 Gal b1-4 Man a1- Glc b1-2 Gal b1-4 Man a1- Glc b1-3 Gal b1-4 Man a1- Glc b1-4 Gal b1-4 Man a1- Glc b1-6 Gal b1-4 Man a1- Glc a1-2 Gal b1-6 Man a1- Glc a1-3 Gal b1-6 Man a1- Glc a1-4 Gal b1-6 Man a1- Glc a1-6 Gal b1-6 Man a1- Glc b1-2 Gal b1-6 Man a1- Glc b1-3 Gal b1-6 Man a1- Glc b1-4 Gal b1-6 Man a1- Glc b1-6 Gal b1-6 Man a1- Glc a1-2 Gal a1-2 Man b1- Glc a1-3 Gal a1-2 Man b1- Glc a1-4 Gal a1-2 Man b1- Glc a1-6 Gal a1-2 Man b1- Glc b1-2 Gal a1-2 Man b1- Glc b1-3 Gal a1-2 Man b1- Glc b1-4 Gal a1-2 Man b1- Glc b1-6 Gal a1-2 Man b1- Glc a1-2 Gal a1-3 Man b1- Glc a1-3 Gal a1-3 Man b1- Glc a1-4 Gal a1-3 Man b1- Glc a1-6 Gal a1-3 Man b1- Glc b1-2 Gal a1-3 Man b1- Glc b1-3 Gal a1-3 Man b1- Glc b1-4 Gal a1-3 Man b1- Glc b1-6 Gal a1-3 Man b1- Glc a1-2 Gal a1-4 Man b1- Glc a1-3 Gal a1-4 Man b1- Glc a1-4 Gal a1-4 Man b1- Glc a1-6 Gal a1-4 Man b1- Glc b1-2 Gal a1-4 Man b1- Glc b1-3 Gal a1-4 Man b1- Glc b1-4 Gal a1-4 Man b1- Glc b1-6 Gal a1-4 Man b1- Glc a1-2 Gal a1-6 Man b1- Glc a1-3 Gal a1-6 Man b1- Glc a1-4 Gal a1-6 Man b1- Glc a1-6 Gal a1-6 Man b1- Glc b1-2 Gal a1-6 Man b1- Glc b1-3 Gal a1-6 Man b1- Glc b1-4 Gal a1-6 Man b1- Glc b1-6 Gal a1-6 Man b1- Glc a1-2 Gal b1-2 Man b1- Glc a1-3 Gal b1-2 Man b1- Glc a1-4 Gal b1-2 Man b1- Glc a1-6 Gal b1-2 Man b1- Glc b1-2 Gal b1-2 Man b1- Glc b1-3 Gal b1-2 Man b1- Glc b1-4 Gal b1-2 Man b1- Glc b1-6 Gal b1-2 Man b1- Glc a1-2 Gal b1-3 Man b1- Glc a1-3 Gal b1-3 Man b1- Glc a1-4 Gal b1-3 Man b1- Glc a1-6 Gal b1-3 Man b1- Glc b1-2 Gal b1-3 Man b1- Glc b1-3 Gal b1-3 Man b1- Glc b1-4 Gal b1-3 Man b1- Glc b1-6 Gal b1-3 Man b1- Glc a1-2 Gal b1-4 Man b1- Glc a1-3 Gal b1-4 Man b1- Glc a1-4 Gal b1-4 Man b1- Glc a1-6 Gal b1-4 Man b1- Glc b1-2 Gal b1-4 Man b1- Glc b1-3 Gal b1-4 Man b1- Glc b1-4 Gal b1-4 Man b1- Glc b1-6 Gal b1-4 Man b1- Glc a1-2 Gal b1-6 Man b1- Glc a1-3 Gal b1-6 Man b1- Glc a1-4 Gal b1-6 Man b1- Glc a1-6 Gal b1-6 Man b1- Glc b1-2 Gal b1-6 Man b1- Glc b1-3 Gal b1-6 Man b1- Glc b1-4 Gal b1-6 Man b1- Glc b1-6 Gal b1-6 Man b1- Gal a1-2 (Glc a1-3) Man a1- Gal a1-2 (Glc a1-4) Man a1- Gal a1-2 (Glc a1-6) Man a1- Gal a1-3 (Glc a1-2) Man a1- Gal a1-3 (Glc a1-4) Man a1- Gal a1-3 (Glc a1-6) Man a1- Gal a1-4 (Glc a1-2) Man a1- Gal a1-4 (Glc a1-3) Man a1- Gal a1-4 (Glc a1-6) Man a1- Gal a1-6 (Glc a1-2) Man a1- Gal a1-6 (Glc a1-3) Man a1- Gal a1-6 (Glc a1-4) Man a1- Gal b1-2 (Glc a1-3) Man a1- Gal b1-2 (Glc a1-4) Man a1- Gal b1-2 (Glc a1-6) Man a1- Gal b1-3 (Glc a1-2) Man a1- Gal b1-3 (Glc a1-4) Man a1- Gal b1-3 (Glc a1-6) Man a1- Gal b1-4 (Glc a1-2) Man a1- Gal b1-4 (Glc a1-3) Man a1- Gal b1-4 (Glc a1-6) Man a1- Gal b1-6 (Glc a1-2) Man a1- Gal b1-6 (Glc a1-3) Man a1- Gal b1-6 (Glc a1-4) Man a1- Gal a1-2 (Glc b1-3) Man a1- Gal a1-2 (Glc b1-4) Man a1- Gal a1-2 (Glc b1-6) Man a1- Gal a1-3 (Glc b1-2) Man a1- Gal a1-3 (Glc b1-4) Man a1- Gal a1-3 (Glc b1-6) Man a1- Gal a1-4 (Glc b1-2) Man a1- Gal a1-4 (Glc b1-3) Man a1- Gal a1-4 (Glc b1-6) Man a1- Gal a1-6 (Glc b1-2) Man a1- Gal a1-6 (Glc b1-3) Man a1- Gal a1-6 (Glc b1-4) Man a1- Gal b1-2 (Glc b1-3) Man a1- Gal b1-2 (Glc b1-4) Man a1- Gal b1-2 (Glc b1-6) Man a1- Gal b1-3 (Glc b1-2) Man a1- Gal b1-3 (Glc b1-4) Man a1- Gal b1-3 (Glc b1-6) Man a1- Gal b1-4 (Glc b1-2) Man a1- Gal b1-4 (Glc b1-3) Man a1- Gal b1-4 (Glc b1-6) Man a1- Gal b1-6 (Glc b1-2) Man a1- Gal b1-6 (Glc b1-3) Man a1- Gal b1-6 (Glc b1-4) Man a1- Gal a1-2 (Glc a1-3) Man b1- Gal a1-2 (Glc a1-4) Man b1- Gal a1-2 (Glc a1-6) Man b1- Gal a1-3 (Glc a1-2) Man b1- Gal a1-3 (Glc a1-4) Man b1- Gal a1-3 (Glc a1-6) Man b1- Gal a1-4 (Glc a1-2) Man b1- Gal a1-4 (Glc a1-3) Man b1- Gal a1-4 (Glc a1-6) Man b1- Gal a1-6 (Glc a1-2) Man b1- Gal a1-6 (Glc a1-3) Man b1- Gal a1-6 (Glc a1-4) Man b1- Gal b1-2 (Glc a1-3) Man b1- Gal b1-2 (Glc a1-4) Man b1- Gal b1-2 (Glc a1-6) Man b1- Gal b1-3 (Glc a1-2) Man b1- Gal b1-3 (Glc a1-4) Man b1- Gal b1-3 (Glc a1-6) Man b1- Gal b1-4 (Glc a1-2) Man b1- Gal b1-4 (Glc a1-3) Man b1- Gal b1-4 (Glc a1-6) Man b1- Gal b1-6 (Glc a1-2) Man b1- Gal b1-6 (Glc a1-3) Man b1- Gal b1-6 (Glc a1-4) Man b1- Gal a1-2 (Glc b1-3) Man b1- Gal a1-2 (Glc b1-4) Man b1- Gal a1-2 (Glc b1-6) Man b1- Gal a1-3 (Glc b1-2) Man b1- Gal a1-3 (Glc b1-4) Man b1- Gal a1-3 (Glc b1-6) Man b1- Gal a1-4 (Glc b1-2) Man b1- Gal a1-4 (Glc b1-3) Man b1- Gal a1-4 (Glc b1-6) Man b1- Gal a1-6 (Glc b1-2) Man b1- Gal a1-6 (Glc b1-3) Man b1- Gal a1-6 (Glc b1-4) Man b1- Gal b1-2 (Glc b1-3) Man b1- Gal b1-2 (Glc b1-4) Man b1- Gal b1-2 (Glc b1-6) Man b1- Gal b1-3 (Glc b1-2) Man b1- Gal b1-3 (Glc b1-4) Man b1- Gal b1-3 (Glc b1-6) Man b1- Gal b1-4 (Glc b1-2) Man b1- Gal b1-4 (Glc b1-3) Man b1- Gal b1-4 (Glc b1-6) Man b1- Gal b1-6 (Glc b1-2) Man b1- Gal b1-6 (Glc b1-3) Man b1- Gal b1-6 (Glc b1-4) Man b1- Gal a1-2 (Man a1-3) Glc a1- Gal a1-2 (Man a1-4) Glc a1- Gal a1-2 (Man a1-6) Glc a1- Gal a1-3 (Man a1-2) Glc a1- Gal a1-3 (Man a1-4) Glc a1- Gal a1-3 (Man a1-6) Glc a1- Gal a1-4 (Man a1-2) Glc a1- Gal a1-4 (Man a1-3) Glc a1- Gal a1-4 (Man a1-6) Glc a1- Gal a1-6 (Man a1-2) Glc a1- Gal a1-6 (Man a1-3) Glc a1- Gal a1-6 (Man a1-4) Glc a1- Gal b1-2 (Man a1-3) Glc a1- Gal b1-2 (Man a1-4) Glc a1- Gal b1-2 (Man a1-6) Glc a1- Gal b1-3 (Man a1-2) Glc a1- Gal b1-3 (Man a1-4) Glc a1- Gal b1-3 (Man a1-6) Glc a1- Gal b1-4 (Man a1-2) Glc a1- Gal b1-4 (Man a1-3) Glc a1- Gal b1-4 (Man a1-6) Glc a1- Gal b1-6 (Man a1-2) Glc a1- Gal b1-6 (Man a1-3) Glc a1- Gal b1-6 (Man a1-4) Glc a1- Gal a1-2 (Man b1-3) Glc a1- Gal a1-2 (Man b1-4) Glc a1- Gal a1-2 (Man b1-6) Glc a1- Gal a1-3 (Man b1-2) Glc a1- Gal a1-3 (Man b1-4) Glc a1- Gal a1-3 (Man b1-6) Glc a1- Gal a1-4 (Man b1-2) Glc a1- Gal a1-4 (Man b1-3) Glc a1- Gal a1-4 (Man b1-6) Glc a1- Gal a1-6 (Man b1-2) Glc a1- Gal a1-6 (Man b1-3) Glc a1- Gal a1-6 (Man b1-4) Glc a1- Gal b1-2 (Man b1-3) Glc a1- Gal b1-2 (Man b1-4) Glc a1- Gal b1-2 (Man b1-6) Glc a1- Gal b1-3 (Man b1-2) Glc a1- Gal b1-3 (Man b1-4) Glc a1- Gal b1-3 (Man b1-6) Glc a1- Gal b1-4 (Man b1-2) Glc a1- Gal b1-4 (Man b1-3) Glc a1- Gal b1-4 (Man b1-6) Glc a1- Gal b1-6 (Man b1-2) Glc a1- Gal b1-6 (Man b1-3) Glc a1- Gal b1-6 (Man b1-4) Glc a1- Gal a1-2 (Man a1-3) Glc b1- Gal a1-2 (Man a1-4) Glc b1- Gal a1-2 (Man a1-6) Glc b1- Gal a1-3 (Man a1-2) Glc b1- Gal a1-3 (Man a1-4) Glc b1- Gal a1-3 (Man a1-6) Glc b1- Gal a1-4 (Man a1-2) Glc b1- Gal a1-4 (Man a1-3) Glc b1- Gal a1-4 (Man a1-6) Glc b1- Gal a1-6 (Man a1-2) Glc b1- Gal a1-6 (Man a1-3) Glc b1- Gal a1-6 (Man a1-4) Glc b1- Gal b1-2 (Man a1-3) Glc b1- Gal b1-2 (Man a1-4) Glc b1- Gal b1-2 (Man a1-6) Glc b1- Gal b1-3 (Man a1-2) Glc b1- Gal b1-3 (Man a1-4) Glc b1- Gal b1-3 (Man a1-6) Glc b1- Gal b1-4 (Man a1-2) Glc b1- Gal b1-4 (Man a1-3) Glc b1- Gal b1-4 (Man a1-6) Glc b1- Gal b1-6 (Man a1-2) Glc b1- Gal b1-6 (Man a1-3) Glc b1- Gal b1-6 (Man a1-4) Glc b1- Gal a1-2 (Man b1-3) Glc b1- Gal a1-2 (Man b1-4) Glc b1- Gal a1-2 (Man b1-6) Glc b1- Gal a1-3 (Man b1-2) Glc b1- Gal a1-3 (Man b1-4) Glc b1- Gal a1-3 (Man b1-6) Glc b1- Gal a1-4 (Man b1-2) Glc b1- Gal a1-4 (Man b1-3) Glc b1- Gal a1-4 (Man b1-6) Glc b1- Gal a1-6 (Man b1-2) Glc b1- Gal a1-6 (Man b1-3) Glc b1- Gal a1-6 (Man b1-4) Glc b1- Gal b1-2 (Man b1-3) Glc b1- Gal b1-2 (Man b1-4) Glc b1- Gal b1-2 (Man b1-6) Glc b1- Gal b1-3 (Man b1-2) Glc b1- Gal b1-3 (Man b1-4) Glc b1- Gal b1-3 (Man b1-6) Glc b1- Gal b1-4 (Man b1-2) Glc b1- Gal b1-4 (Man b1-3) Glc b1- Gal b1-4 (Man b1-6) Glc b1- Gal b1-6 (Man b1-2) Glc b1- Gal b1-6 (Man b1-3) Glc b1- Gal b1-6 (Man b1-4) Glc b1- Glc a1-2 (Man a1-3) Gal a1- Glc a1-2 (Man a1-4) Gal a1- Glc a1-2 (Man a1-6) Gal a1- Glc a1-3 (Man a1-2) Gal a1- Glc a1-3 (Man a1-4) Gal a1- Glc a1-3 (Man a1-6) Gal a1- Glc a1-4 (Man a1-2) Gal a1- Glc a1-4 (Man a1-3) Gal a1- Glc a1-4 (Man a1-6) Gal a1- Glc a1-6 (Man a1-2) Gal a1- Glc a1-6 (Man a1-3) Gal a1- Glc a1-6 (Man a1-4) Gal a1- Glc b1-2 (Man a1-3) Gal a1- Glc b1-2 (Man a1-4) Gal a1- Glc b1-2 (Man a1-6) Gal a1- Glc b1-3 (Man a1-2) Gal a1- Glc b1-3 (Man a1-4) Gal a1- Glc b1-3 (Man a1-6) Gal a1- Glc b1-4 (Man a1-2) Gal a1- Glc b1-4 (Man a1-3) Gal a1- Glc b1-4 (Man a1-6) Gal a1- Glc b1-6 (Man a1-2) Gal a1- Glc b1-6 (Man a1-3) Gal a1- Glc b1-6 (Man a1-4) Gal a1- Glc a1-2 (Man b1-3) Gal a1- Glc a1-2 (Man b1-4) Gal a1- Glc a1-2 (Man b1-6) Gal a1- Glc a1-3 (Man b1-2) Gal a1- Glc a1-3 (Man b1-4) Gal a1- Glc a1-3 (Man b1-6) Gal a1- Glc a1-4 (Man b1-2) Gal a1- Glc a1-4 (Man b1-3) Gal a1- Glc a1-4 (Man b1-6) Gal a1- Glc a1-6 (Man b1-2) Gal a1- Glc a1-6 (Man b1-3) Gal a1- Glc a1-6 (Man b1-4) Gal a1- Glc b1-2 (Man b1-3) Gal a1- Glc b1-2 (Man b1-4) Gal a1- Glc b1-2 (Man b1-6) Gal a1- Glc b1-3 (Man b1-2) Gal a1- Glc b1-3 (Man b1-4) Gal a1- Glc b1-3 (Man b1-6) Gal a1- Glc b1-4 (Man b1-2) Gal a1- Glc b1-4 (Man b1-3) Gal a1- Glc b1-4 (Man b1-6) Gal a1- Glc b1-6 (Man b1-2) Gal a1- Glc b1-6 (Man b1-3) Gal a1- Glc b1-6 (Man b1-4) Gal a1- Glc a1-2 (Man a1-3) Gal b1- Glc a1-2 (Man a1-4) Gal b1- Glc a1-2 (Man a1-6) Gal b1- Glc a1-3 (Man a1-2) Gal b1- Glc a1-3 (Man a1-4) Gal b1- Glc a1-3 (Man a1-6) Gal b1- Glc a1-4 (Man a1-2) Gal b1- Glc a1-4 (Man a1-3) Gal b1- Glc a1-4 (Man a1-6) Gal b1- Glc a1-6 (Man a1-2) Gal b1- Glc a1-6 (Man a1-3) Gal b1- Glc a1-6 (Man a1-4) Gal b1- Glc b1-2 (Man a1-3) Gal b1- Glc b1-2 (Man a1-4) Gal b1- Glc b1-2 (Man a1-6) Gal b1- Glc b1-3 (Man a1-2) Gal b1- Glc b1-3 (Man a1-4) Gal b1- Glc b1-3 (Man a1-6) Gal b1- Glc b1-4 (Man a1-2) Gal b1- Glc b1-4 (Man a1-3) Gal b1- Glc b1-4 (Man a1-6) Gal b1- Glc b1-6 (Man a1-2) Gal b1- Glc b1-6 (Man a1-3) Gal b1- Glc b1-6 (Man a1-4) Gal b1- Glc a1-2 (Man b1-3) Gal b1- Glc a1-2 (Man b1-4) Gal b1- Glc a1-2 (Man b1-6) Gal b1- Glc a1-3 (Man b1-2) Gal b1- Glc a1-3 (Man b1-4) Gal b1- Glc a1-3 (Man b1-6) Gal b1- Glc a1-4 (Man b1-2) Gal b1- Glc a1-4 (Man b1-3) Gal b1- Glc a1-4 (Man b1-6) Gal b1- Glc a1-6 (Man b1-2) Gal b1- Glc a1-6 (Man b1-3) Gal b1- Glc a1-6 (Man b1-4) Gal b1- Glc b1-2 (Man b1-3) Gal b1- Glc b1-2 (Man b1-4) Gal b1- Glc b1-2 (Man b1-6) Gal b1- Glc b1-3 (Man b1-2) Gal b1- Glc b1-3 (Man b1-4) Gal b1- Glc b1-3 (Man b1-6) Gal b1- Glc b1-4 (Man b1-2) Gal b1- Glc b1-4 (Man b1-3) Gal b1- Glc b1-4 (Man b1-6) Gal b1- Glc b1-6 (Man b1-2) Gal b1- Glc b1-6 (Man b1-3) Gal b1- Glc b1-6 (Man b1-4) Gal b1- Man a1-4 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man a1-6 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-2 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-3 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-4 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man b1-6 Gal a1-3 Glc b1 Man a1-2 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-3 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-4 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-6 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-2 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-3 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-4 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man b1-6 Gal a1-4 Glc b1 Man a1-2 Gal a1-6 Glc b1 Man a1-3 Gal a1-6 Glc b1 Cummings RD (2009) Molecular BioSystems 5, 1087 *Glycoproteins and glycolipids may contain ~3000 glycan determinants with an additional ~4000 theoretical pentasaccharide sequences in glycosaminoglycans

47 Saccharides Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes

48 Saccharides Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes Carbohydrates: The language of glycobiologyCarbohydrates: The language of glycobiology The glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclatureThe glycosidic bond and glycan nomenclature Major vertebrate glycan classesMajor vertebrate glycan classes

49 Major Glycans of Eukaryotes GlycoproteinsGlycoproteins GlycolipidsGlycolipids ProteoglycansProteoglycans

50 Major Glycans of Eukaryotes GlycoproteinsGlycoproteins GlycolipidsGlycolipids ProteoglycansProteoglycans

51 Glycoproteins N-LinkedN-Linked O-LinkedO-Linked GPI AnchorGPI Anchor O-GlcNAcO-GlcNAc *A non-inclusive list!

52 Glycoproteins N-LinkedN-Linked O-LinkedO-Linked GPI AnchorGPI Anchor O-GlcNAcO-GlcNAc *A non-inclusive list!

53 “N-linked” glycan linkage to protein asparagine residues

54 Families of N-linked glycan structures

55 Examples of structures found as termini on the branches of complex N-linked glycoprotein glycans…. Terminal Saccharide Diversity --- A key to recognition NeuAc  2-6 Gal  1-4 GlcNAc--- NeuAc  2-3 Gal  1-4 GlcNAc--- Gal  1-3 Gal  1-4 GlcNAc--- 4-SO 3 -GalNAc  1-4 GlcNAc--- (-Gal  1-4 GlcNAc  1-3-) n = polylactosamine repeats (n may be >6) (-NeuAc  2-8-) n = polysialic acid (n may be >50) Fuc residues (e.g. Fuc  1-2Gal; Fuc  1-3 GlcNAc; Fuc  1-4 GlcNAc Fuc residues (e.g. Fuc  1-2 Gal; Fuc  1-3 GlcNAc; Fuc  1-4 GlcNAc

56 Glycoproteins N-LinkedN-Linked O-LinkedO-Linked GPI AnchorGPI Anchor O-GlcNAcO-GlcNAc *A non-inclusive list!

57 Glycoproteins N-LinkedN-Linked O-LinkedO-Linked GPI AnchorGPI Anchor O-GlcNAcO-GlcNAc *A non-inclusive list!

58 “O-linked” glycan linkage to protein serine residues

59 Examples of variations of O-linked glycans

60 Glycoproteins N-LinkedN-Linked O-LinkedO-Linked GPI AnchorGPI Anchor O-GlcNAcO-GlcNAc *A non-inclusive list!

61 Glycoproteins N-LinkedN-Linked O-LinkedO-Linked GPI AnchorGPI Anchor O-GlcNAcO-GlcNAc *A non-inclusive list!

62 GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchored protein

63 20 kDa protein 3 kDa N-linked glycan 1 kDa O-linked glycan 1.5 kDa GPI anchor plasma membrane CD59, a complement defense glycoprotein

64 Glycoproteins N-LinkedN-Linked O-LinkedO-Linked GPI AnchorGPI Anchor O-GlcNAcO-GlcNAc *A non-inclusive list!

65 Glycoproteins N-LinkedN-Linked O-LinkedO-Linked GPI AnchorGPI Anchor O-GlcNAcO-GlcNAc *A non-inclusive list!

66 O-GlcNAc Note: No further sugar substitutions have been confirmed Highly dynamic post-translational modification!

67 Major Glycans of Eukaryotes GlycoproteinsGlycoproteins GlycolipidsGlycolipids ProteoglycansProteoglycans

68 Major Glycans of Eukaryotes GlycoproteinsGlycoproteins GlycolipidsGlycolipids ProteoglycansProteoglycans

69 A Glycosphingolipid Galactosylceramide (GalCer)

70 A Ganglioside “GD1a”

71 Major Glycans of Eukaryotes GlycoproteinsGlycoproteins GlycolipidsGlycolipids ProteoglycansProteoglycans

72 Major Glycans of Eukaryotes GlycoproteinsGlycoproteins GlycolipidsGlycolipids ProteoglycansProteoglycans

73 Glycosaminoglycans (GAG’s) and Proteoglycans GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS (GAG’s)GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS (GAG’s) –long linear glycans made of repeating disaccharides –Hyaluronic acid is the only “stand-alone” GAG, other GAG’s are constituents of … PROTEOGLYCANSPROTEOGLYCANS –GAG’s on proteins –Defined by their repeating disaccharide units –GAG’s on proteoglycans are sulfated

74 Hyaluronic acid -- a “simple” space filling molecule (GlcU β4 GlcNAc) n

75 Post-polymerization variations in glycosaminoglycans

76 Cartilage proteoglycan

77

78 Glycan Biosynthesis Glycosyltransferase reaction (UDP-Gal:glucose β4 galactosyltransferase) UDP-GlcUDP-GalGDP-ManUDP-GlcNAcUDP-GalNAcUDP-GlcAUDP-XylGDP-FucCMP-NeuAc Activated Sugars:

79 Glycoprotein biosynthesis N-Linked – en-bloc preconstructed core, trimming, terminal elaborationN-Linked – en-bloc preconstructed core, trimming, terminal elaboration O-Linked – stepwise sugar by sugar additionO-Linked – stepwise sugar by sugar addition O-GlcNAc - dynamic transferase/glycosidaseO-GlcNAc - dynamic transferase/glycosidase GPI Anchor – en-bloc preconstructed core, elaborationGPI Anchor – en-bloc preconstructed core, elaboration Glycolipid biosynthesis Stepwise sugar-by-sugar additionStepwise sugar-by-sugar addition Proteoglycan biosynthesis Stepwise sugar-by-sugar addition (core and repeating disaccharide)Stepwise sugar-by-sugar addition (core and repeating disaccharide) Post-polymerization modificationsPost-polymerization modifications


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