Presentation on theme: "Assessing Strengths in TR/RT: Tools for Positive Change Part I"— Presentation transcript:
1 Assessing Strengths in TR/RT: Tools for Positive Change Part I Dr. Lynn Anderson, CTRS, SUNY CortlandDr. Linda Heyne, CTRS, Ithaca College2014 ATRA Webinar L1October 1, 2014
2 Session DescriptionAt the heart of therapeutic recreation practice is the art of building strengths in the individuals we serve.Therapeutic recreation is historically grounded in the medical model of practice.A sea change has occurred in health and human services which focuses on orienting services toward people’s individual strengths, assets, talents, and aspirations.In order to systematically build strengths, we must systematically assess them.These webinars (Part I and II) focus on some of the assessment tools and approaches that can be used to assess the internal and external strengths of our participants.The session will help orient TR/RT toward strengths-based practice by giving them practical tools for positive change.
3 Webinar Outlines Webinar L1: Part I (today) Webinar L2: Part II (October 8)Introduction and brief overview of the strengths approachA model and framework for assessment in strengths-based TR/RT practiceThe ecological approach to strengths-based assessmentTools for assessment of internal and external strengths: Leisure DomainTools for assessment of global outcomes of TR/RT services: Well-BeingQuestions, discussionBrief overview of the strengths approach and a framework for assessment from Part ITools for assessment of internal and external strengths: Psychological/Emotional DomainTools for assessment of internal and external strengths: Cognitive DomainTools for assessment of internal and external strengths: Social DomainTools for assessment of internal and external strengths: Physical DomainTools for assessment of internal and external strengths: Spiritual DomainQuestions, discussion
4 Session ObjectivesDefine the strengths approach in health, recreation, and human services and its impact on practiceCompare and contrast TR/RT assessment from a strengths versus a deficits approach and identify important differencesIdentify internal and external strengths and at least six assessment tools to measure and describe them, using an ecological approach
5 Principles of a Strengths-Based Approach Every individual, group, family, and community has strengthsDifficulties are also sources of opportunity and challengeWe do not know the upper limits of a participant’s capacity togrow and change – never assume we do!Collaboration (not expert domination) with participantsEvery environment is full of resourcesContext mattersHopefulness mattersStrengths can be nurtured (thus, must beassessed, planned, focused on, and evaluated)
6 Deficits versus Strengths Approach Deficits ApproachStrengths ApproachPerson is a “case” or a “diagnosis”Person is unique with talents and resourcesEmphasis is on what is wrong, missing, or abnormal; emphasis is on problemsEmphasis is on strengths, resources, capabilities, aspirations, and adaptive processesParticipant is viewed as a problem needing to be fixed; intervention is problem focusedParticipant is viewed as potential waiting to be developed; intervention is possibility focusedProfessional is the expert concerning the individual’s lifeIndividuals, families, and communities are viewed as the expertsExpert professional interprets the person’s story to arrive at a diagnosisThe professional knows the person through the person’s story and interpretation of events(Anderson & Heyne, 2012; Saleeby, 2006)
7 Deficits versus Strengths Approach Deficits Approach Strengths ApproachThe professional develops a treatment plan for the individualAspirations of the individual, family, and community are the focus of the work to be done—the plan is developed in collaborationA framework and vocabulary is developed to describe problemsA framework and vocabulary is developed to describe strengthsPlay, recreation, and leisure are viewed as superfluous experiences only tangentially related to improving a person’s healthPlay, recreation, and leisure are viewed as integral to well-being, and are essential to recovery and rehabilitationAbsence of illness or dysfunction is the goalWell-being, thriving, and high quality of life are the goalsMedical model is used Ecological model is used(Anderson & Heyne, 2012; Saleeby, 2006)
8 Strengths – The Heart of TR Practice A definition of strength:The quality or state of being strong; vigor; power of resistance; vigor of action; a strong or valuable attribute; a source of power or encouragement; sustenance.(Webster’s Dictionary)Internal strengthsExternal strengths and resources
9 Internal Strengths Aspirations and goals Interests and preferences PassionsTalentsSkills and competenciesKnowledgeCharacter strengths and virtues
10 External Strengths & Resources Family supportSocial support, friendsCommunity resourcesHome resourcesOpportunities for participation and contribution(inclusive communities)High expectations and positive attitudes
11 Internal and External Strengths Internal StrengthsInterests and preferencesAttitudes and beliefsTalents and abilitiesSkills and competenciesKnowledgeAspirations and goalsCharacter strengths/virtuesTHE PERSONExternal Strengths and ResourcesFamily support and involvementFriendships and social supportHome resourcesHigh expectations and positive attitudesCommunity and environmental resourcesOpportunities for participation and contribution (inclusive communities)Recreation as a strengthTHE ENVIRONMENTRecreation as a context to build strengths
12 Strengths-Based Assessment Focus is on internal and external strengthsParticipant is potential waiting to be developedA framework is used to assess and describe strengthsUnderstanding strengths leads to understanding how to planEcological approach
13 Assessment in a Deficits Approach Assessment in a Strengths ApproachDefines the diagnosis as the problem; questions are pursued related to problems, needs, deficits, and symptomsDefines a holistic portrait: what the participant wants, desires, aspires to, dreams of; participant’s talents, skills, and knowledgeSearches for the nature of the participant’s problems from the perspective of the professional; analyticalGathers information from the standpoint of the participant’s view of the situation; ethnographicIs interrogative in natureIs conversational in natureFocus is on diagnosis to determine level of functionFocus is on the here and now, leading to a discussion about the future and how the person has managed so farParticipant is viewed as lacking insight regarding the problem, illness, or diagnosisParticipant is viewed as a unique human being who will determine his or her own wants within the environment
14 Assessment in a Deficits Approach Assessment in a Strengths ApproachParticipant is a passive container for interventions as professionals direct decision-makingThe relationship with the participant is primary to the process, where joint decision-making is keyPlaces the participant in diagnostic or problem categories using generic, homogenous languageStrengths assessment is specific, unique and detailed, individualized to the participantEmphasizes compliance and management of problems and needs, with formal services seen as the solutionExplores the rejuvenation and creation of natural helping networks and social supportsControlled by the professionalParticipant ownershipThe professional dictates, “What I think you need to learn and work on”The professional asks, “What can I learn from you about your life?”
15 Examples of how assessment shifts in the strengths approach Assessment Focus- Deficits ApproachAssessment Focus - Strengths ApproachProblemsGoals, dreams, aspirations, and strengthsFunctional deficitsFunctional abilitiesProblems with leisure lifestyleLeisure interests, preferences, talents, skills, knowledge, and goalsLeisure barriersLeisure facilitatorsBehavior problemsSocial competenceDepression, anxiety, and other negative emotionsPositive emotionsStressorsRelaxers and soothers (calming inducers)Social isolation and lonelinessSocial resources, social networks, and community mappingFamily deficits and problemsFamily strengths, dreams, and goals; family traditions; shared family interests and activities
16 Rationale for Strengths-Based Assessment To get to know the individual – what makes this person tick? What is meaningful to this person?To begin to develop a positive relationship with the individual and her/his support systemTo establish baselineTo measure outcomesTo provide the “right” servicesTo focus on solutions, not on problems
17 How does new research on brain functioning inform TR assessment practice? Integration of psychology and neurology (fMRI, PET, QEEG…..)Focus is powerThe act of paying attention creates chemical and physical changes in the brain.Expectation shapes realityPeople’s preconceptions have a significant impact on what they perceive.Attention density shapes identityRepeated, purposeful, and focused attention can lead to long-lasting personal evolution.
18 Definition of Assessment Assessment is a treasure hunt!Therapeutic recreation assessment is the systematic process of learning about a person, his or her strengths, and his or her aspirations for recreation and well-being.Through assessment, collaborative planning about the person’s future goals and dreams in relation to leisure becomes possible.
19 Principles in Strength-Based Assessment is strengths-based and person-centeredis individualized, based on the participant’s world viewfocuses on well-being and quality of life through leisureis based on the aspirations and goals of the participantuses multiple methods and seeks to understand multiple variablesalways involves the participant and his or her circle of supportlooks at the whole person in her or his environment (authentic and ecological)Assessment is a treasure hunt!
20 Ecological Approach to Assessment Participants viewed as part of their larger environmentsSearch for internal strengths and external strengths and resources in social and physical environmentsSpend time getting to know not only the participant, but the participant’s home, school, work, community, and other contexts of his or her lifeUnderstand how participants interact with the context of their livesLearn what changes need to be made on the part of the participant or the environment to help him orher reach goals and achieve well-being20
22 Components of Strengths-Based Assessment What is the participant’s current situation?What are the participant’s internal and external strengths and resources? What will it take to reach the dream?What are the participant’s goals, dreams, and aspirations?Where does the participant want to be?Developmentof a Plan
23 What to Assess: Use Strengths-Based Models as an Assessment Framework
24 Other Models to Frame Assessment Leisure & Well-Being ModelICF
25 Domains for Assessment Outcome for ParticipantsLeisure Domain“I find enjoyment in my leisure experiences and they positively impact other areas of my life.”Psychological/Emotional Domain“I feel happy and perceive I am in control of my life.”Cognitive Domain“I think in a focused way and learn eagerly.”Social Domain“I relate well to others and belong to valued social groups.”
26 Domains for Assessment Outcome for ParticipantsPhysical Domain“I do and act in my daily life with vitality and no barriers.”Spiritual Domain“I live my life hopefully, in harmony with my values and beliefs.”Overall Outcome: Well-Being“I experience a state of successful, satisfying, and productive engagement with my life” (Hood & Carruthers, 2007).Overall Outcome:A Flourishing LifeEnhanced environmental resources and personal strengths that cultivate growth, adaptation, and inclusion
27 Domains for Assessment: Leisure Outcome for Participants“I find enjoyment in my leisure experiences and they positively impact other areas of my life.”
28 Leisure Diagnostic Battery Assesses an individual's "leisure functioning”Perceived freedom in leisurePerceived Leisure CompetencePerceived Leisure ControlLeisure NeedsDepth of Involvement in LeisurePlayfulness ScaleBarriers to Leisure InvolvementKnowledge of Leisure Opportunities TestLeisure Preference Inventory28
29 Discover Your Passions Interview Interview questions designed to ascertain what most interests and excites a participant in leisureFor example:What lights you up?When do you seem and feel most alive?What helps you feel a sense of purpose?When do you seem most focused and unaware of distractions?What inspires you to talk or get excited?When was a time you felt at peace with yourself?
30 Strength Discovery Assessment Process for uncovering and identifying young people’s strengths and resourcesInformal semi-structured interviews with participant, family member, and key support personnel – “strengths chats”
31 Strength Discovery Assessment Interests and preferencesValues and traditions in one’s lifeSkills, abilities, and competenciesPersonal attributes (e.g., sense of humor, resilient)Dreams/aspirationsStrategies in the past that have worked best at home, school, or in the communitySettings that are most comfortableFamily members, relatives, friends, and other informal key players valued by and/or in this young person’s lifeFormal key players involved in his/her lifePriority needs and goals across transition domains
32 PEAT Pittsburgh Enjoyable Activities Test A brief index that assesses the frequency of engagement in a spectrum of enjoyable activities that could be done alone or with others, in an array of locations, and are both active and inactiveBreathers and restorersWe are interested in how often in the last month you were able to spend time in activities that you enjoyed. Over the past month, how often have you been able to spend time doing the following?Never ……. to ……………Every dayPressman, S., et al. (2009). Association of enjoyable leisure activities with psychological and physical well-being. Psychosom Med., 71(7): 725–732
33 Recreation Inventory for Inclusive Participation Part I: Appropriateness of recreationactivity/settingPart II: Activity/discrepancy analysisPART III: Specific activity requirements(adaptations and teachingprocedures)
34 Recreation Inventory for Inclusive Participation Leisure Skill Inventory+/-Inventory for Participantwith DisabilitySTEPS (Activity Analysis)Teaching Procedure and Adaptations/Modifications18.104.22.168.5.etc.
35 Inclusivity Assessment Tool Measures the physical and social aspects of inclusion at a recreation agencyInclusion U Online training qualifies you as a “CIA” (Certified Inclusivity Assessor) to use the IAT
36 IAT Checklists, User Manual, and Tool Kit 60” circle
37 Leisure Resource Asset Mapping Creates a visual map of the recreation resources available to a participant
38 Domains for Assessment: Overall Well-Being Outcome for ParticipantsWell-Being“I experience a state of successful, satisfying, and productive engagement with my life” (Hood & Carruthers, 2007).A Flourishing LifeEnhanced environmental resources and personal strengths that cultivate growth, adaptation, and inclusion
39 Satisfaction with Life Scale Measure of general life satisfaction39
40 Subjective Happiness Scale A single composite score for global subjective happinessAvailable online and in pdf on Positive Psychology Lab website40
41 WHO Quality of Life Scale This questionnaire asks how you feel about your quality of life, health, or other areas of your life. Please keep in mind your standards, hopes, pleasures and concerns. We ask that you think about your life in the last two weeks.Physical healthPsychologicalSocial relationshipsEnvironment
42 The Well-Being Index (WBI) 18 statements based on the Flourishing through Leisure modelI relate well to othersI live my life hopefullyI have a sense of meaning and purposeI find enjoyment in my leisure experiences42
43 ResourcesAnderson, L., & Heyne, L. (2012). Therapeutic recreation practice: A strengths approach. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc.Anderson, L., & Heyne, L. (2013). A strengths approach to assessment in therapeutic recreation: Tools for positive change. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 46(2),University of Pennsylvania Authentic Happiness website:43
44 2014 ATRA Webinar Session L2 October 8, 2014 NEXT WEEK! Assessing Strengths in TR/RT: Tools for Positive Change Part II2014 ATRA Webinar Session L2October 8, 2014